Blatta orientalis - it is a black cockroach, an arthropod insect that lives near human housing. It differs from other insects of this class in rather large sizes. It has significant invulnerability due to its mobility and ability to develop immunity to substances intended for their destruction.
Features and habitat of a black cockroach
The black cockroach has a different appearance from other insects of this class. The color of its chitinous cover is intensely black or brownish with a metallic tint, it looks very durable. The length of the individual is about 3 cm, but under favorable conditions, cockroaches up to 5 cm in length are found.
The upper lip of the oral apparatus in the form of a tongue and two pairs of upper and lower jaws frame the pharyngeal opening. On the lower jaw there are tentacles representing another sensory organ. The powerful device of the oral apparatus of a black cockroach allows it to process food of any kind - liquid and very solid.
Big black cockroach
Food moistened with saliva enters the intestines, where it is processed by enzymes and crushed in the chewing ventricle, before further processing with special bacteria. Such a complex digestive scheme makes it possible to use any objects as food.
Black beetle represents a species of synanthropic insects, that is, their existence is associated with humans, more precisely, with their housing. Residential buildings with access to water and heat. The main foci of distribution of a black cockroach. Ship cabins, warehouses also serve as habitats for black cockroaches.
The nature and lifestyle of a black cockroach
Black cockroaches are characterized by a nocturnal lifestyle. Insects go out of their nests after midnight. They are looking for food that no more than two weeks can do without. Their lifestyle is quite hidden from man.
In human housing, they populate the most secret places. It can be cracks, cracks, litter boxes, bathrooms, pantries with food supplies. Often there are black cockroaches in the cabins of ships, in the premises of warehouses.
These insects can be found in natural conditions. Black cockroaches arrange their nests among the stones. It is not uncommon to encounter a black cockroach in an ordinary forest, especially where a person has created unsanitary conditions.
Black cockroaches are characterized by constant movement in the active night period. Cockroaches can travel many kilometers in search of food. They are considered the most amazing insects in their ability to move at a speed fast enough for insects.
Looking into all corners of the room in search of food, constantly changing the direction of movement, insects move at a speed of 4-5 km per hour. Since black arthropod insects represent a synanthropic order, it is likely that they will appear black cockroaches in the apartment.
Finding such a parasite, as a rule, does not cause joy among homeowners. People try to get rid of their unpleasant neighborhood. If the owner of the house caught my eye big black cockroachurgent measures must be taken.
These insects never exist in the singular. Sharp vision, developed sense of smell, body structure, help them easily penetrate into a person’s housing, occupy the most inaccessible corners of the room, cracks.
They can settle in household and sanitary equipment. Their presence can be found in the most unexpected places, for example, in a power outlet or a washing machine. The population of large black insects in the house negatively affects the health of homeowners, especially their children. The secretions left by the cockroaches cause the development of allergic diseases, in addition, the cockroach secretes infectious bacteria from the intestines.
Eggs of all kinds of parasites can be carried by cockroaches on their legs. It turns out to be very dangerous for a person black cockroach how to get rid from this neighborhood, there are many options. The fastest and most effective method is to call special services. This insect is difficult to confuse with other representatives of arthropods.
Black cockroach in the photo, as in life, looks disgusting. Known for the fact that he and his relatives quickly develop immunity to insecticides, which are used to destroy them. Re-use the tool to combat them is pointless.
To avoid the hassle associated with the destruction of insects in the form of black cockroaches, you should pay attention to why cockroaches start. The main reason is unsanitary conditions. Only cleanliness, good plumbing guarantee that they will not appear black cockroaches in the house.
Since black cockroaches have been known since antiquity, quite complete information is collected about them. On its basis, many options for the destruction of arthropod pests have been developed. Frequently used effective remedy for black cockroaches, boric acid. This substance accumulates in the blood of an insect, leading to its paralysis and death.
However, only specialists can use this drug correctly. Otherwise, the expected effect will not be achieved, cockroaches will be able to develop resistance to the effects of the drug. Must remember where fromblack cockroaches may appear in an apartment or house. Malfunction of the sewage system, water and nooks with free access to food.
Black cockroach feeding
The nutrition of a black cockroach is based on the features of the device of its gnawing oral apparatus. Durable elements of the chewing system can grind food of any hardness. Two pairs of palps located on the lower lip help to check the edibility of the trapped object.
With the help of the lips protruding forward, the product caught in the hollow between them is grinded by sawtooth upper jaws. Simultaneously with the grinding of the product, it is wetted with saliva, which contains a lot of digestive juices.
The process of laying off the larva
This combination of food processing allows the cockroach to use absolutely everything that its antennae will catch as a nutrient substrate.
So it turns out that cockroaches, taking advantage of the proximity to a person, consume all the foods stored by the person and all the dishes prepared by him. When food is inaccessible, insects eat everything that they find in people's housing. This can be paper, cardboard, book covers and bindings, leather goods, fabric, clothes.
Particular preference is given to foods rich in proteins, carbohydrates, sugars. Despite the relationship, close living conditions in one room black and red cockroaches do not meet together. If black cockroaches settled down in the house, then the appearance of red brethren threatens them with eviction.
Most often, in the struggle for habitat, victory remains for red, more mobile insects. Both types of cockroaches are able to go around without food for a long time. However, black cockroaches can do without food for a longer time in comparison with red brethren. The duration of a cockroach hunger strike is:
- for the black look - 75 days,
- red fellow can do without food for about 45 days.
Cockroaches harm a person not only by destroying his food. The main danger is the introduction of dangerous bacteria, parasite eggs into human food, spoiling it with excrement.
Reproduction and longevity
The offspring of cockroaches is produced as a result of mating of a male and a female, which forms edema, in which there are up to 60 eggs. Within 24 hours, the female hatches a swelling representing an airtight capsule. then leaves it either burying it in the ground or leaving it on the surface of the earth.
Little black cockroaches appeared in the house, this is a new generation of black cockroach. Hatched larvae repeat the appearance of their parents. They grow slowly, increasing in size.
The unusual survivability of cockroaches often raises the question of the real duration of their life. Black cockroaches are insects able to live from two to fifteen years. It creates a big problem black beetle, similar to a cockroach.
This insect is a skin-eating bug, which can spoil not only products. Fabrics, clothing, leather and leather products are items that the beetle bug will damage. Despite the presence of wings in nature, never met black flying cockroach.
Huge black cockroachthat caught my eye in a house or apartment indicates that somewhere there is a favorable environment for him. In perfect purity, a black cockroach will live a little more than sixty days. Without access to water, his death occurs within a week. Such conditions are considered the most effective method of extermination of black cockroaches.
Eastern cockroaches tend to travel somewhat slower than other species. They are often called “Waterbugs,” as they prefer dark, humid places. They can often be found around decaying organic matter, and in sewers, gutters, wet basements, porches and other wet places. They can be found on the street in the bushes, under a sheet of ground cover, under the mulch, and around other damp places in the open. They are major household pests in the Northwest, Midwest, and southern United States.
In order to thrive, cockroaches need a place to hide. They prefer warm places and relatively high humidity, they also need a source of food / liquid. The optimal temperature for eastern cockroaches is from 20 to 29 ° C (68 and 84 ° F). Female eastern cockroaches have rudimentary elytra (smaller fore wings) and males have longer elytra. Cockroaches are mostly nocturnal. Eastern cockroaches can be elusive in that after a brief inspection of the infected home during the day they cannot show any signs of roach activity. Oriental cockroaches can be found in damp places, usually such as sewers, sink drains, as well as in any other form of damp room in households.
Signs of cockroaches are their oothecae, which are "cases of eggs." Blackish-brown oothecae from Tarakan 10-12 mm (0.39-0.47) in length, with fuzzy egg compartments of the housing stock of 16-18 eggs. These oothecae form the day after mating, and are usually stored a day or two after formation, although they can be precipitated up to 7 days later, usually in a sheltered place or attached to the substrate by oral secretion. They are initially yellow white, turning reddish then blackish brown. They lose viability at temperatures below 0 ° C (32 ° F). They hatch by themselves for approximately 42 days at 29.5 ° C (85.1 ° F) and 81 days at 21 ° C (70 ° F).
This species of large insects originally arose in the southern regions of Eurasia: Crimea, the Caspian lowland, in the Black Sea region. The cockroach is rather slow and cannot fly. Such qualities restrained its distribution throughout the continent. But sufficiently developed cultural ties and wars that swept through these places contributed to the conquest of the entire continent by the cockroach.
The pest entered Kazakhstan, thanks to the Great Silk Road and the Mongol-Tatar invasion. In Europe, he found himself after the Greek and ancient Roman conquests of the habitats of these insects. He came to North America with comfort: on ships.
Black domestic cockroaches in different countries often bear quite original names:
- "Water bug" in English-speaking countries,
- "Palm Beetle" is often in the United States, Florida, but this large black cockroach is simply confused with forest Florida,
- “Black bug”, here at least the logic is clear,
- "Eastern cockroach" in English-speaking countries, tracing paper from the Latin name of this insect,
- black Russian cockroach in European countries, there is logic too, until the Prusak black cockroaches lived behind stoves in Russian huts.
The Latin name for the insect is Blatta orientalis from the cockroach squad, which includes the Blattidae family. There are three species of the genus Blatta:
The latter is crossed with a black oriental cockroach and the taxonomy of the genus can be revised, having reduced to 2 species.
Compared to the tropical species of black cockroaches, you cannot call huge. Their size is only 2 - 3 cm. The Latin word "blatta", which gave the name to the genus, means "slightly shiny insects." This is a good characterization of the appearance of members of the family. The body of a black cockroach is covered with a brilliant chitinous shell. Color varies from dark brown to black.
When looking at photos of black cockroaches, sex differences are striking. In females, wings are completely absent. The wings of males are rather decorative in nature and cover only half of the abdomen.
Building Blatta orientalis
The external structure of the insect is the same as that of most other species of the cockroach squad. The body of a black cockroach consists of 3 departments:
The head looks like an irregular oval with a wider occipital part. Partially, the head is hidden under the dorsum of the pronotum. Only the upper part is visible from above. On the sides of the head are 2 complex faceted eyes. On the front surface are attached 2 antennae. Between the mustache there are 2 simple eyes. The mouth apparatus is gnawing.
- upper and lower lips
- jaw and lower lip tentacles,
- upper and lower jaws - mandibles,
The insect uses its stings for grinding organics. None of the species of cockroaches is frankly aggressive and does not bite. But if you leave a large insect on your hand for a long time, it will begin to scratch your skin, trying to bite off a piece.
The thoracic region is covered with a shiny chitin shield from above. Under the shield, the chest is divided into 3 segments. A pair of walking legs is attached to each segment. The male also has wings attached to the first segment. At the female, only rudiments remained from the wings.
The abdominal section consists of 10 segments. There are no extremities on the abdomen. Only to the last segment are attached cerci, which play the same role as the antennae on the front end of the cockroach's body. The abdomen of a female is wider and more voluminous than that of a male.
The internal structure of the black cockroach is the same as that of the red-headed Prusak and includes:
- digestive tract
- cardiovascular system
- nervous system
- excretory system
- reproductive organs.
The primitiveness of the nervous system allows pests to create the appearance of life after decapitation.
A black cockroach is a southern insect that does not tolerate severe cold. The optimum temperature for his life is 20 - 29 ° C. His expansion around the world was helped by a man who also prefers to live in a warm house. For this reason, the existence of blatt orientalis in the northern regions is possible only in close symbiosis with humans. The pest prefers dark places with high humidity. For this reason, its usual habitats are sewer communications and heated damp basements. In relatively wild conditions, this species can be found in mines and greenhouses.
Pests are nocturnal and rarely come across people.
The formation of the capsule, which is called the oteka, in the female begins one day after mating. One ooteca contains 16 to 18 eggs. The female drops the capsule one day after formation. Further, the development of nymphs occurs without the participation of the parent.
The poorly developed care for the offspring is the reason why the eastern cockroach loses the war for survival to the smaller Prusak. The latter eat the abandoned ootics of competitors.
Also, the causes of the extinction of black cockroaches are a small number of eggs in one capsule and a long development time of nymphs.
A nymph emerging from an egg becomes sexually mature only after a year, having survived 7 molts. The imago lives up to 6 months and manages to put aside 8 capsules.
Inhabited in sewer pipes, this species clings to the paws anything: from bacteria to eggs of worms. Running around the house for foods intended for food, he leaves harmful microorganisms on food. Like Prusak, a black cockroach carries intestinal diseases. The insect is not able to cause any other harm to humans.
Other types of black cockroaches
There are almost none. There are certain color variations from brown to black.
The only exception is the black round cockroach from the turtle cockroach family. The family received the name for the shape of the body of its representatives.
Therea petiveriana hails from South India and bears several other names:
- Indian cockroach dominoes.
The insect has a characteristic black shell color with 7 large white dots. Scientists believe that this is mimicry under the ground beetle Anthia sexguttata.
Black cockroaches (Blatta orientalis)
This type of cockroach is quite common where people live or where they work. This mainly concerns catering facilities, as well as food production facilities, since they are interested in places where there is enough food. Their favorite places to live are dirty, cluttered cellars, landfills, or sewers. Therefore, they easily penetrate into a person’s house or apartment, into grocery stores, warehouses, etc. When it is warm outside, they feel quite comfortable in natural conditions, but when it starts to get cold, they tend to get into the home, because it is always warm and has something to profit from.
These insects grow up to 3 cm in length, are distinguished by an unpleasant odor and the presence of a black shell (chitinous layer). Depending on the conditions, their color may have shades, from dark gray to dirty red. This type of cockroach does not reproduce so quickly, so the timely fight against them gives high positive results. If this is not done, then the colony of these pests can take on alarming proportions and then getting rid of them is much more difficult.
As a rule, they accumulate in special places, such as:
- Within the bin.
- Within the stove for cooking.
- Behind the refrigerator or kitchen furniture.
- In pantries where food is stored.
Black cockroaches pose a serious danger to humans, since their favorite habitats are places with clear signs of unsanitary conditions. Therefore, it is difficult to even imagine how many bacteria and infections move along with these insects. Since they crawl in the same way with food, this is a great risk of contracting some kind of ailment.
Red cockroaches (Blattella germanica)
Red cockroaches are also called Prusaka or domestic cockroaches, as they more often than other species appear in the home, and regardless of the level of unsanitary conditions. The fact is that for them the main thing is that there is access to moisture and to the remnants of food.
Red cockroaches are considered quite tenacious insects that breed at an incredible rate.
In addition, they develop resistance to various kinds of chemical insect control agents, which complicates the fight against them.
There are red cockroaches in any conditions, for example:
- In living quarters.
- In the hospitals.
- In public places.
- In the utility rooms.
- In country houses, in summer cottages.
The red cockroach is characterized in that it has a slightly elongated body, and the chitinous layer is colored in red, and the shade can vary, from light to dark. For their life, they choose places where there is free access to food and water. Without much difficulty, they climb into the most difficult areas of the home.
Red cockroaches are living creatures that can find food for themselves where, at first glance, it does not exist.
Of particular importance in their life is moisture. Without food, they can be for a long time, but without water - no. If the cockroaches are poisoned, then it is necessary to block their access to moisture, otherwise the efforts may be useless. Red cockroaches are able to eat young sprouts of houseplants if they lack food.
Often, white cockroaches may appear in an apartment. This insect does not represent any new species, since an ordinary cockroach can acquire a white hue after molting. Cockroaches molt up to 10 times in their entire lives.
After molting, the cockroach can have a white, almost transparent color, which often makes it difficult to find these insects. After a while, when the insect grows a new shell, the cockroach takes on a classic appearance. As a rule, an insect takes about a couple of weeks to do this.
Cockroaches can change color under the influence of chemicals that are used to combat them. As a rule, this happens if ineffective chemical components are used, to which the insects have developed immunity. After some time, they again appear their natural color.
American (Periplaneta americana)
In fact, the homeland of American cockroaches is hot Africa, and they got to America with the help of cargo ships. After some time, they have already begun to meet on almost all continents.
The remains of food in huge quantities that accumulated in the trash near the houses, as well as the high level of unsanitary conditions in public places, led to the fact that this type of cockroaches appeared in our country. The American cockroach can be easily distinguished from other types of similar insects in large sizes, as well as in the shape of the body, which has an oval shape. In addition, this insect has a brown shell, similar to folded wings.
There is another factor that helps to distinguish this insect from other types of cockroaches - is that the American cockroach is afraid of the cold. Even when the temperature drops to 0 degrees, these insects die. In addition, the American cockroach is characterized by an increased level of aggression, so it can attack both humans and domestic animals, which cannot be said about other types of such insects.
Furniture (Supella longipalpa)
These insects were found in our apartments about 50 years ago and since then, residents have been waging an unsuccessful fight against them. These cockroaches can be easily distinguished by transparent wings with dark stripes and a bright red tint. You can’t meet them in the kitchen, because their diet consists of old books, paper, waste paper, as well as glue for wallpaper. Therefore, quite often they settle where there is a lot of paper, and these are libraries, archives, etc.
Central Asian (Shelfordella tartara)
For its life, this type of insect chooses the southern regions. They can easily be distinguished from other types of cockroaches by their yellow head and black abdomen. They have another distinguishing feature - the ability to jump from one object to another object. If the distance is too long, then they simply fly from one obstacle to another.
Egyptian (Polyphaga aegyptiaca)
This insect is also mainly found in the southern regions with a warm climate. Pests do not sort out the living conditions, therefore they inhabit both the dwelling of a person and auxiliary, farm buildings, where livestock is kept. They do not pose a special threat to a person if their number is not high.
Egyptian cockroaches are distinguished by their unusual appearance, while they can grow in length up to several centimeters. The carapace is smooth and shiny, almost black. On farms where lizards are bred, Egyptian cockroaches serve as food for them.
Bit of exotic
As a rule, cockroaches in a person cause a feeling of disgust, as well as danger. Despite this, there are cockroach families, representatives of which are kept at home, as pets. Some of the decorative insects have a very interesting color. Chess Cockroach - This is one of the pets, and it is called so because its coloring resembles a chessboard. Leads a nocturnal lifestyle. In the daytime, he hides in his hiding place, and at night he actively moves around a person’s dwelling.
Cockroach Megaloblatta longipennis
Megaloblattalongipennis It inhabits the vastness of Latin America and is truly huge in size. This amazing insect flies without problems, and its wingspan reaches 25 cm. In addition, it is just a beautiful creature that has a black, with a purple tint color. It is found in wildlife. Because of its large size, they are afraid to keep it in apartments.
Interesting Facts! The increase in the cockroach population is due to several factors, such as habitat conditions, as well as crossbreeding of different species and mutations. Therefore, new types of cockroaches appear. Among them there are those that do not pose a danger to humans, but there are those that can cause a person to have a serious ailment.
Experts are sure that cockroaches can infect a person with a number of serious, sometimes incurable diseases. Therefore, they strongly recommend waging a merciless fight with them. Unfortunately, humans have been struggling with these insects for millennia, but cannot completely get rid of them. Here it is not only insects, but also the person who creates all the conditions for the life of these insects. In addition, cockroaches are very tenacious creatures and reproduce at a fast pace. The fight against them has its own characteristics, although there are effective methods of control that are safe for humans.
First of all, it is necessary to determine what exactly cockroaches wound up in the house. It is equally important to know how large the colony is in order to determine the methods of struggle. It is better to use means safe for humans, such as boric acid. Today it is the safest and most effective remedy against cockroaches.
Where do they live
These cockroaches are preferred at home with lots of moist, dark and protected areas to breed and develop. Often travel through sewers, penetrate the premises through pipes and drains.
Many outdoor plants provide shelter for insect populations to enter homes for food. In addition, leaking pipes and other plumbing is very attractive to them.
How dangerous are eastern cockroaches?
Black, eastern cockroaches eat almost everything, including decaying organic matter and garbage. They live in rarely used sink drains, garbage containers, under cabinets that contain plumbing or in the voids of the bathroom. Because they seek food in homes, pests can carry pathogenic bacteria to foods and countertops.
Black cockroaches are reported to spread at least 33 species of bacteria, six types of parasitic worms, and at least seven other types of human pathogens, including E.coli, Salmonella spp. If there are many, they can bite.
Due to the nutritional preference of garbage and decaying organic matter, oriental cockroaches carry pathogens on their legs and bodies from contaminated areas to clean surfaces.
In addition, they emit a smell. It is noticeable if the population is large and can spoil food by changing its flavor.
Signs of infection
In the warmer months, you can find black cockroaches gathering under storm drains and sewer wells. They are active at night, but occur during the day in moist, dark rooms.
Ovipositor of a black cockroach of dark brown or reddish color, 8-10 mm. The capsule, contains approximately 16 eggs, is discarded by the female 30 hours after production.
They live in the open air, eastern cockroaches are well adapted for survival in the natural environment, like Australian ones. Most external populations can be found living under mulch in landscape strata, leaf litter, under stones in the open air.
If there is access, insects live in voids or holes under the porch, the voids of the walls. In large cities, they can be found living in large numbers on storm drains and sewers.
They prefer cool, moist places, so they can be found in the basements. Black cockroaches crawl around toilets, toilets, bathtubs, sinks, radiators, pipes.
Eastern cockroach eats all kinds of food, especially decaying organic substances and starchy foods. This species can survive outdoors at low temperatures for a long period of time. Very dependent on water. Although studies have shown that they can survive for a month without food, insects do not live more than two weeks without water.
Proximity to water
Although their natural habitat is outdoors, homes often flood in the summer. Inside, as a rule, remain on the lower floors. Like other species, for example white cockroaches, black are omnivores and live off food crumbs, decaying plants, animals. Collected in groups near water sources.
Reproduction and Life Cycle
An adult male lives from 110 to 160 days, while a female lives 35 to 180 days. During this time, one female produces approximately eight or 16 eggs. About 30 hours after the egg is released, it is thrown into the protected area, where it will remain until the appearance of the young generation.
The reproduction time of a black cockroach is highly dependent on the season. In the warmer months, the time required for development from an egg to an adult takes up to 200 days. However, when the weather gets colder, or in the late autumn and winter months, it may take up to 800 days to pass from an egg to an adult state.
The best advice for controlling black cockroaches is to practice good sanitation. To prevent them from harming your space, often tidy up, seal all entrances around sewer pipes and ventilate the space to prevent moisture from accumulating.
If there is evidence of infection, contact a licensed specialist to resolve the problem.
How an insect gets into an apartment
- the most common option where do the black cockroaches come from in the apartment - negligent neighbors who already have a family of "tenants",
- the most affordable way to enter the home is through sewer passages,
- basements, ventilation shafts, garbage collectors - a favorable environment for the propagation of pests,
- big black cockroach in the apartment may appear as a skidding bag from work, a store or in a suitcase after rest,
- acquiring used furniture or household appliances, there is a risk of bringing an unwanted tenant to the house.
Black cockroach home hiding in secluded places. Usually these are cracks in the walls, cracks in the sewer pipes. Clutches of eggs can be found under skirting boards, behind wallpaper, in sofas, cabinets, near garbage cans, etc. There are pests in the wild, but always near a human home. therefore black cockroach wikipedia classified as synanthropic insect.
The benefits and harms of black cockroaches
The mere mention of cockroaches in many causes a disgusting reaction. Although in the olden days the ancestors respected them, it was Black who considered them to be the keepers of wealth in the house and the talisman of happiness.
In the East (in particular, in China) black large cockroaches are a feature of national cuisine (they relate to protein foods). It is believed that the viability of the insect is transmitted to the eater, giving it strength. Tibetan healers practice the treatment of certain diseases with dried cockroach powder.
In modern Russia, a slightly different view of small animals is considered to be parasites, from which continuous harm. In fact, the way it is, because black cockroach blatta orientalis he finds his livelihood in garbage, sewage, and then spreads harmful particles into the apartments on his feet.
It's no secret that insects often “walk” around dining tables, dishes, and products forgotten on the kitchen table. Even a microscopic particle of harmful pollen from the legs is enough to make an intestinal "catastrophe".
Having discovered little black cockroaches in the kitchen or in other rooms, immediate measures should be taken to eliminate them. But for this enemy you need to know "in person."
What does a black cockroach look like?
It is more common for compatriots to see red insects in apartments — they are more active in capturing territory and breeding. Therefore, not everyone knows what black cockroaches look like. This representative of the Blattidae family goes through several stages of its development, and nymphs differ in appearance from the imago.
In the same way as males from females, insects have significant sexual dimorphism. But there are common signs in description adult black cockroach:
- the body is flat, oval, one-color, shiny, sometimes with a reddish-brown tint,
- at the end of the flattened abdomen are multi-membered appendages,
- yellow eyes stand out on a moving black head,
- gnawing oral apparatus and platbands are lighter than other parts,
- long antennae are of the bristle type,
- elongated paws with pads slightly flattened,
- between the claws there are small suction cups,
- long spikes can be seen on the legs and hips.
In terms of size, black cockroaches are much larger than their red relatives. The rest of adults can distinguish sexual differences.
What do females and males of a black cockroach look like
|Torso||The body is oblong, slender, from 20 to 26 mm long||Stocky individual from 18 to 30 mm|
|Head||The forehead merges with a rounded Temech. The eyes are highly developed, and the distance between them is large. The antennae are comparable in length with the dimensions of the body (drawing of the head of a black cockroach presented below)||A distinctive feature is the gap in the eyes, significantly larger than the distance between the antennae|
|Pronotum (width / length, mm)||Oval-drip - the back is wider than the front. The transition of the back edge to the sidewalls is smooth (6.5-8 / 5-6)||Convex, well defined. The transition from the rear to the side is quite sharp (8-10.5 / 6-7)|
|Abdomen||A genital transverse plate with an arcuate backdrop is located above the genital epididymis. Anal plate is a short rectangular protruding lobe||The lower half rings are painted in a reddish tint. Anal plate roof-shaped, triangular. An oviposition is fixed on its top.|
|Wings||Brownish and have the same length with compacted elytra (10-17 mm). The latter cover the abdomen by 2/3||Almost absent, and the lanceolate elytra are thinner than males and too short (4.2-6.8 mm), so that they do not reach the abdomen|
If caught small black cockroaches in the apartmentthen these are nymphs. From an adult insect they are distinguished not only by their size, but also by the absence of genital appendages. Larvae go through 6 life stages, differing in size and shape.
The cylindrical brown ootek of a black cockroach is quite large (6x12 mm), with a high scallop on which there are spherical protrusions. The perimeter of the ridge is framed by round-triangular outgrowths (there are 8 of them).
It looks like a familiar domestic black beetle on the a photo. If you met black cockroach with a yellow stripe, then this individual in Russian apartments clearly came from other latitudes.
The stages of development of a black cockroach
Having studied external structure of a black cockroach, attention should be paid to the phases of its development. This will allow you to more productively get rid of insects in the apartment.
A female who has reached the age of a mature uterus is already capable of putting off ooteks. Until the imago is 7 months old, the female regularly makes egg laying (about 22 times). First, she carries the capsule with her for 1-2 weeks. Finding a secluded, warm place, secures the oteku there, leaving it for independent development.
The capsule contains 8-20 eggs, but no more than 65% of the larvae hatch. When opened, the ootek empties in 5 minutes, and the nymphs creep out in all directions at high speed.
In favorable conditions small black cockroaches quickly reach the stage of imago, and the whole life cycle is invested in 6–7 (maximum 12) months. At low temperatures, development slows down. There were even cases when the larvae waited for suitable conditions for several years.
How to deal with black cockroaches
If black cockroaches appeared at home, what to do - becomes an urgent issue. These insects are real cosmopolitans, so the problem is, how to get black cockroaches, is being decided all over the world. Hence the variety of methods and means of struggle - mechanical, chemical, folk. But not all are effective.
Some, finding large black cockroaches in the apartment, without hesitation, where do they come from they begin to react with lightning speed, clutching at slippers or a vacuum cleaner. But chasing every insect is unrealistic, given their speed of movement. In this case, the race around the apartment will have to be arranged at night, when cockroaches actively creep out of the holes.
Mechanically kill large black cockroaches (see photo) it doesn’t work - they have too hard a chitinous coating. Do not forget about egg laying - after a while even more insects will crawl out of them, and slippers can no longer cope with colonies.
Chemical attack on black cockroaches
Modern means of combating cockroaches on a chemical basis are developed taking into account the biological characteristics of insects and affect the nervous system. After contact with insecticides, not only the infected insect dies, but also the brethren in the colony - particles of chemicals remain on the paws and other parts of the body.
The drugs are available in the form of aerosols, dusts and gels. They should be used in strict compliance with the recommendations of the instruction. Otherwise, the insects will develop immunity to poison.
It should also be borne in mind that somewhere in the back streets egg capsules mature. Therefore, it will be necessary to process the apartment a couple more times, not allowing the hatched nymphs to ripen to the imago.
Folk remedies for cockroaches
Even before the development of the chemical industry, the people solved the problem with cockroaches in their own way:
- boric acid is still the most popular remedy. It is mixed with sweetened egg yolks or mashed potatoes, and the dried balls are laid out at the supposed places of cockroach accumulation,
- dried inflorescences of chamomile, orange peel, laurel leaves, elderberry have a pungent odor that can scare off insects,
- sticky traps are used - cardboard sheets greased with sticky mass,
- glass jars with bait give a good effect. The walls of the trap and the neck are coated with oil, which prevents the cockroach from getting out.
If desired, you can also purchase factory equipment that helps to quickly catch insects. If conditions permit, colony can be exposed to cold. Having cooled the apartment during the day, in one fell swoop it is easy to get rid of adults and oviposites.
If appeared black cockroaches in the apartment, where they came - not a secondary issue. Knowing the cause of their appearance, it is easier to carry out destruction activities. It is also worth taking care of preventive measures in order to prevent such a sharing. After all large black cockroach in the apartment (How on a photo) - not only nasty in appearance, but also a rather dangerous individual. Even in the series "Men in Black "Cockroach much harmless.