Tropical ornamental pandanus plant is quite simple to care for, but not always suitable for home maintenance. Nevertheless, the spiral palm Pandanus attracts attention and many will not deny themselves the pleasure of growing it.
Pandanus (Pandanus), which is also called "Pandanus", very quickly grows to a rather impressive size, so the room in which the spiral palm will be kept should be wide and with high ceilings. While the plant is young, it is often confused with indoor bromeliads, dracaena or yucca.
Extremely spectacular instance from the Pandanova family, very unpretentious in care, patiently endures all the hardships and tribulations, while it looks gorgeous.
In indoor culture, the most popular two species are bred:
- Pandanus Sandera (pandanus sanderi) - a plant with a short trunk, an average of 1.5-2 m, the leaves are dark green, narrow, with yellow longitudinal stripes, finely prickly at the edges.
- Pandanus Veitch (pandanus veitchii) - leaves are leathery, green, with wide white longitudinal stripes and strong spikes along the edge, are located spirally along the trunk, tightly covering each other with their bases. It is not large in size, which makes it more compact and adapted to the room.
Photo: Veitch Pandanus with white longitudinal stripes along the leaf, reaches 1-1.5 m. Height.
The leaves of an adult pandanus are very interesting and unusual, they are narrow and long, green, with or without stripes, leathery and shiny with sharp spikes along the edges. The lower leaves fall off with age and the trunk is exposed, scars remain in their place, because of which the trunk seems to be spirally twisted and the magnificent pandanus takes the form of a false palm.
Pandanus utilis - under the specific name “useful”, in an enclosed space it reaches 2–3 m. Leaf blades with densely sharp spikes of a reddish hue, located by a screw, rigid, green, strongly branching, directly directed, leaves reach 1.5 meters in length. In nature, there is a tree with a height of more than 20 m.
Pandanus leaves grow in a spiral, so this palm tree with spiky leaves is often called a spiral. Photo, description of the types and features of care.
In the photo: a pandanus leaf with sharp spikes along the edges.
The screw palm has an interesting feature, it forms aerial roots on its trunk, which gradually grow and take root. At home, these are powerful stilted roots that, growing into the ground, keep the plant elevated above the surface of the soil. For this, the pandanus plant got the name "walking tree".
In an apartment, these are small aerial roots that should not be removed. On hot days, you can strengthen sphagnum on these roots and regularly moisturize it.
In culture, it does not bloom, at least not seen. In nature, gives fruit - similar to pineapples.
How to provide pandanus care
It is this procedure that provides comfortable conditions for the normal functioning of the plant. A pot with a prickly palm is placed away from bright sunlight, but not in the shade. It is best to place the flower on the east side, where the pandanus can stay under the first rays of the rising sun. If the sun does not fall on the leaves at all, then they will lose their colorful color and simply turn green.
Pandanus is not difficult to care for, the main thing is to provide it with a permanent place. With a lack of light, it is worth using fluorescent lights for at least 8 hours.
One of the main advantages of pandanus is considered to be the simplest care and conditions of detention at home.
- Temperature condition.
The temperature in the room should not fall below +18 degrees, because pandanus is a heat-loving indoor plant. It tolerates heat with regular spraying or rubbing the leaves. In addition, dry air in the room causes the tips of the leaves to dry out. Spare your palm from drafts, otherwise it will immediately affect the leaves - they turn yellow and dry out.
- Watering and humidity.
Water the pandanus under the root, excluding the ingress of water into the axils of the leaves, without fail by standing with warm water about once every one and a half weeks. In spring and summer, watering is recommended to be increased.
If water gets into the axils of the leaves, then this will be detrimental to the whole plant and it will begin to rot. Therefore, a shower for a spiral palm is contraindicated!
You can spray the leaves using a nozzle spraying water as steam, and then - only in extreme heat. It is possible to water through a pan, but after half an hour or an hour, water should be poured from the pan to prevent root decay.
In the first half of spring, the pandanus needs to be fed. It is desirable to choose fertilizer for foliage of a nitrogen type. It is better to plant it in water immediately and water the top layer of the earth with it, being careful not to get on the plant itself, so as not to burn it.
Some fertilizers are sold in granules, so it’s enough to mix with the top layer of the earth, where they will dissolve with each watering. However, in order to avoid the death of the plant - observe the dosage indicated on the package!
Active growth requires periodic transplantation every 2-3 years. Only young plants are transplanted, and for adults, they simply change the topsoil. Spiral palm tree prefers arranged soil from sheet, turfy soil with the addition of sand and humus in equal parts.
Deciding to transplant a homemade pandanus flower, transplant in the spring. So that when planting leaves are not damaged, you need to tie the top in a bunch or cover with a bag.
Propagation of pandanus by cuttings
Some species of plants reproduce by seeds, and the rest produce lateral shoots with air layers. You need to cut such layering in the warm season, from April to July, until the pandanus enters the dormant period. Cuttings should be at least 10-20 cm long, since short shoots take root worse.
Propagating the pandanus by cuttings, plant the cuttings immediately in wet soil and put the pot with them in partial shade. If desired, a plastic bag or a glass jar can be put on the shoot - that is, to create a mini-greenhouse, opening it every day for two to three hours. At an air temperature of 25 ° C, root sprouting will occur in about a month.
When planting seeds in the ground, do not clear them of inflorescences and adhere to the same temperature conditions, creating a mini-greenhouse.
For any visible violations in the cultivation and growth of pandanus - pay attention to the factors surrounding it:
- the leaves have lost their motley color - lack of sunlight,
- the leaves on the contrary - became whitish and light - it’s worth removing the pot from the window,
- dry tips indicate dry air in the room or lack of moisture in the soil.
Caring for a pandanus at home will not be difficult if placed correctly.
Helix palm care at home
Indoor plants are not too whimsical. They very rarely form aerial roots due to the low humidity in the living area. Pandanus needs a lot of space, so most often it is grown in offices, spacious halls and halls.
Lighting and placement
Good lighting is important for a helical palm, otherwise the leaves begin to fade, and the plant loses its decorative qualities. Optimal for rooms with windows facing west or east. In the summer, pandanus can be displayed in the garden or on the balcony, but only in places where there are no drafts and strong winds.
Like many Tropicans, the palm tree loves warmth. For this plant, the ideal temperature should be kept at + 20- + 25 degrees. In a cold space, a “spiral palm" can drop leaves.
Pandanus is very hygrophilous, so it should be watered as soon as the topsoil dries. The plant is not sprayed because of the danger of rotting the stem after water enters the sinuses of the leaves. A palm tree requires regular rubbing of leaves from dust with a damp sponge or cloth, but this must be done carefully so as not to cut yourself on sharp edges.
During the active growing season, you need to fertilize 1-2 times a month with standard mineral fertilizers for indoor plants. In winter, top dressing can be reduced.
Young palm trees grow very quickly, so they need to be replanted every year in a more spacious pot. Adult plants are transplanted if necessary. The roots of pandanus are very fragile, so the plant is not dug out of the pot, but transferred to a larger one with the preservation of an earthen coma. The capacity is chosen deep, and 1/3 of it is filled with drainage.
Video - transplantation and reproduction of pandanus.
Types of Pandanus
Pandanus utilis (useful)
This ever-green species can often be found in cultural floriculture. The leaves of the useful pandanus are juicy, bright green, directed upwards, studded with red spikes. In room conditions it can grow up to 2-3 m.
Useful Pandanus (Pandanus utilis) © Drew Avery
Panadanus sanderi (Sandera)
Evergreen plant in the form of a tree with a short trunk. The leaves of this pandanus are long, about 80 cm. Yellow stripes can be seen along the entire length of the leaf, and the edges are spiked.
Sanderi Pandanus (Panadanus sanderi) © Yercaud-elango
Pandanus tectorius (Hiding)
Palm shrub with powerful aerial roots. Leaves are long, pointed with white spikes. It blooms in large white flowers with a diameter of 6-10 cm. In nature it gives large fruits that are very pleasant to the taste.
Pandanus Hiding (Pandanus tectorius) © Forest and Kim Starr
Pandanus veitchii (Veitch)
A tree-like palm tree with a short trunk and actively emerging aerial roots that, upon reaching the ground, quickly and easily root. The leaves are long, about 90 cm with a white stripe around the edge. In indoor floriculture does not bloom.
Pandanus veitchii © K M
Palm Diseases and Pests
Spiral palm tree disease immediately declares its owners, changing the color of the leaves. If they become pale or even almost white, it means that the plant does not have enough moisture or bright sunlight falls on it. Also, the "helical palm" is easily affected by scutes, spider mites, aphids, which are best controlled with insecticides.
1. Seven secrets of success:
Botanical name: Pandanus
Pandanus home - family . Pandanova
Homeland of the plant. Madagascar, Asia, Africa.
Height . Plants aged 6 years or more reach a height of more than 1 m.
Branch of lateral processes with aerial roots. Seeds are sown in spring, the first sprouts appear after 2 weeks - 1.5 months. Seedlings are kept at a temperature of at least 25 ° C. By stem cuttings.
2.3.How to transplant
Transplant a houseplant in the spring to the same depth at which it was in the previous container. Pandanus forms aerial roots, which in the fall should be sprinkled with soil. When transplanting, try not to disturb the roots of the plant. Young plants are transplanted annually into fresh soil, slightly increasing the volume of the pot. Adult specimens need replanting every 4 - 5 years, in too large plants, the transplantation of which causes difficulties, they change the top layer of soil with a thickness of 5 - 7 cm to fresh annually, in spring.
Pandanus is an unpretentious plant, and it is not difficult to grow it even for beginners who love indoor floriculture. It feels best in a bright place or a slightly shaded place. Optimal for placing windows with western or eastern exposure. In summer, the windows of the southern exposure should be shaded from 11 to 17 hours. May put up with some lack of sunlight, but only a short period. With a lack of light, the leaves lose their strength and bend. In variegated forms with a lack of illumination, the original color of the leaves is lost.
In the summer, it can be taken out into the open air, but it should be protected from direct sunlight, from rain and draft. If you do not have the possibility of placing plants outdoors in the summer, then you should regularly ventilate the room.
In the autumn-winter period, good lighting is necessary, during this period shading is not required. You can create additional lighting using fluorescent lights for this, placing them above the plant at a distance of 60-70 cm, for at least 8 hours a day. In the autumn-winter period, it is also necessary to ventilate the room, but drafts should be avoided. To avoid one-sided development, it is recommended to turn the pot with pandanus often.
Pandanus tolerates room temperatures well. For a plant, the difference in winter and summer temperature is not important. Pandanus prefers in all seasons a temperature of at least 15 ° C, optimal in the range of 19-25 ° C.
In summer, pandanus is watered abundantly, between the irrigations the top layer of the substrate should dry. Do not allow the drying of an earthen coma. A good result is given by lower irrigation with warm (up to 35 ° C) water. After half an hour after watering, excess water from the pan must be poured. In autumn and winter, watering pandanus is moderate or limited, depending on the temperature regime, watered two to three days after the top layer of soil dries. The water used for irrigation is soft and well-settled, two to three degrees above room temperature. When watering with water at a temperature of 18 ° C or lower, the plant may become sick.
Humidity is maintained moderate. Pandanus is not recommended for spraying, as well as for washing, since water can get into the axils of the leaves, which causes the stem to rot. To increase moisture, the plant can be placed on a pallet with wet moss, expanded clay or pebbles. In this case, the bottom of the pot should not touch the water.
Dust removal from the leaves is necessary with a slightly damp cloth (such that water does not drip when squeezed from it), wipe them from the base of the leaf to the top, since the pandanus leaves have spikes along the leaf. This procedure is best carried out with gloves.
The plant forms stilted roots (aerial), it is impossible to trim and remove them. To prevent them from drying out, you can cover the roots and part of the trunk with wet moss or peat, and periodically moisten. These events are especially important in the summer. In indoor conditions, the formation of stilted (air) roots is very rare, due to low humidity. Therefore, the plant loses resistance with age. At low humidity, the tips of the leaves dry out.
The plant needs fertilizing with flower fertilizer from March to August, either weekly or every two weeks. In autumn and winter, top dressing is performed no more than 1 time per month.
A transplant is performed as necessary when the roots are covered with an earthen lump. Young every year, adults every 2-3 years. Since the pandanus has very fragile roots, it is recommended to transship it (without destroying the earthen coma).
Substrate make up (with pH about 6): turf, leafy soil, humus and sand in equal shares. For specimens older than 5 years, a heavier substrate is prepared.
The dishes are taken deep, the drainage in the pot should be at least one third of the pot. When transplanting, the pandanus, despite the presence of aerial roots, is not buried in the substrate - they are planted in a new pot at the same level as it used to grow. When adult pandanuses are planted in large-capacity containers (box, tub), the amount of turf soil is increased to 3 parts. Potted plants do not need replanting, only an annual addition of a fresh portion of the earth is needed.Before transshipment or transplantation, it is recommended that the thorny pandanus leaves be gathered up “in a bundle” and tied up.
Propagated by seeds, division of the bush, cuttings.
Some species are propagated by seed. Seeds, not freeing from fertility, are sown immediately after harvest. Sow the seeds in a mixture of sheet soil and sand or peat and sand (1: 1). Cover crops with a glass cap or a transparent plastic bag, maintain a temperature of at least 25 ° C, constantly spray and regularly ventilate. When using mini-greenhouses with lower heating, seed germination is faster. Shoots appear in groups after 2-4 weeks. Upon reaching the seedlings of two three leaves, they are planted one at a time in pots filled with earth mixtures from equal parts of turf, leaf soil and sand.
When propagated by cuttings, they are harvested from lateral shoots. Cuttings are cut at least 20 cm long, since short roots form poorly. Place the sections sprinkled with charcoal powder and dried. After this, the cuttings are planted in an earth mixture from equal parts of peat land and sand. Cover with a glass cap or a transparent plastic bag. Maintain a temperature of 25-28 ° C, constantly sprayed and regularly ventilated. Rooted cuttings in 1.5-2 months. When using root stimulants and mini-greenhouses, rooting is faster.
Pandanus is successfully propagated by daughter rosettes, which appear in large numbers on an adult plant both at the base of the trunk and in the axils of the leaves. The daughter rosettes of the pandanus are separated from the mother plant when they have reached a length of about 20 cm and already have roots. In order to stimulate the growth of their roots, the base of the daughter rosettes is loosely covered with sphagnum (you can fix the moss), the moss is regularly and only slightly moistened from a fine spray (Epin can be added to water). The most favorable time for plant propagation is mid-spring. Cut out sockets must be dried for one day and planted in containers, on the bottom of which a drainage layer (1.5-2 cm) from shards and coarse sand is laid, then a 6-7 cm layer of turf and a layer (3-4 cm) of washed sand. Sockets are planted to a depth of 2 cm, compacted tightly, sprinkled abundantly and covered with glass. Humidity must be kept moderate at all times. Apply lower heating (soil temperature should not be lower than 22 ° C). Rooting outlets occurs after 1-1.5 months. For rooting, you can use phytohormones.
After two months, the cuttings need to be transplanted into a pot with a mixture that consists of three parts of leafy, two parts of sod land and one part of sand.
Precautionary measures: the plant has spines on the leaves.
Dry brown leaf tips are due to too dry air. Pandanusi, although they do not require frequent spraying, but if the apartment has central heating, you will have to regularly moisten the air. This may also be due to lack of nutrition, since pandanus is a fast-growing plant, regular top dressing in spring and summer is necessary. Perhaps there is a lack of moisture in the substrate, the drying of an earthen coma is unacceptable, the earth should be slightly moist.
Leaves lose their variegation, and new leaves are not large - due to lack of light. Pandanus does not like direct sunlight, but the place for it should be bright, especially in winter.
Leaves become light, almost white due to excess lighting, high calcium content in the soil and irrigation with hard water.
Authors of the article: Alexander and Marina Mityaevs
The following materials were used in the article:
Garnizonenko T.S. Woody indoor plants. Encyclopedia / Series “World of Flowers and Plants”. - Rostov n / a: Phoenix, 2002 .-- 384s.: Ill.
House Floriculture / R. Milevskaya, J. Vies. - Minsk: Book House, 2005 .-- 608 pp., Ill.
Stepura A.V. Home decorative floriculture. Modern Encyclopedia: 5000 valuable tips from professionals. - Donetsk: PKF BAO LLC, 2006. - 384s.
Saakov S.G. Greenhouse and indoor plants and their care. - L .: Nauka, 1985 .-- 621 p.
Pandanus, aka Pandanus, is a genus that includes arboreal evergreens from the Pandanian family. The genus is quite numerous, consists of almost 7.5 hundred species.
The range of their growth is extensive and extends to the entire territory of the tropical forests of the Eastern Hemisphere. In Madagascar alone, there are nearly 90 species of pandanas. These false palms are also found in the flora of Australia, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia.
Externally, these plants are similar to vines or palm trees, but some species grow in the form of shrubs. The height of individual specimens reaches 25 meters.
Pandans often acquire aerial roots that reach the soil surface and serve as an additional support for the plant. They hold the specimen during strong, gale-force winds. Later, the lower part of the trunk begins to die off and the pandanus hangs in the air, holding on thanks to the airy root system. As a rule, by this time the roots are already lignified.
Pandanus trunks branch, leaf blades are elongated and narrowed, their length is 3-4 m, and their width is 10-15 cm. The upper side of the leaves is covered with a large number of sharp spines-needles. The leaves are arranged in a spiral, for this plant has received another name - a spiral palm.
Flowers are same-sex, most often they form a spike-shaped inflorescence, less often panicle.
Pandanas can adapt to different conditions. They are found on marine coastal zones, sandy or rocky soils. Abundant thickets of these plants are often formed in areas of coastal dunes and cliffs.
Some varieties of pandanas give edible fruits. And from their veins of leaf plates weave various products. Traditional medicine uses almost all parts of these false palm trees, medicines are prepared from fruits, inflorescences, leaves and roots. In addition, pandanic are frequent "participants" in ritual rites among the indigenous population.
Florists and gardeners also did not ignore the exotic representatives of the flora, and a number of pandans are actively grown as ornamental vegetation.
The main decorative views
Not all pandans can exist in an artificially created environment, most only natural conditions are suitable. But, for growing at home, the following representatives of the genus are perfectly suitable:
Spiral palm tree with a shortened lignified trunk. Roots extend down from it, the surface of which is also lignified. Home specimens are characterized by slow growth and even after 10 years their height can not exceed one and a half meters.
The foliage of the Veitch pandanus is xiphoid, tight-fitting at the base and diverging in the form of a voluminous fan. The length of the leaves varies from 60 to 90 cm, the width does not exceed 8 cm. The color of the leaves is saturated green, with a bright snow-white strip located on the side. On the edges of the plates are light brownish spikes.
A palm tree with hard, belt-shaped leaves, the length of which can reach 0.8 m and a width of 50 mm. The color of the foliage is dark green, the plates are decorated with narrow yellow stripes and provided with spikes of brown shade.
In addition, varietal pandanuses are grown in floriculture, which have higher decorative properties than their wild-growing counterparts.
The plant grows well both in a place with good lighting and in shading. With a lack of light, the stripes on the leaves become less pronounced.
Pandanus itself is a large flower and sooner or later the owner has to clean it from the window and place it in the interior. But even standing in the back of the room he quickly adapts against the background of changing light conditions.
To form a uniform crown and straight straight trunk, it is recommended that every 2 weeks a little rotation of the container with the flower around the axis.
In warmer months, pandanas are suitable for air at normal room temperature. In winter, you need to ensure that this figure is not below +16 degrees. It is important to protect the exotic pet from cold drafts. Although, often there are strong specimens located in the halls and other non-residential premises, including those standing at the doors.
The plant does not make any requirements for this indicator. Spray the foliage of indoor pandan should not be, as the penetration of water into the sinuses of the leaves can lead to decay of the stem.
Florists are advised to periodically wipe the leaf blades with a damp cloth, this is necessary to remove dirt and dust. But, you need to proceed carefully - the spikes of the palm are quite sharp.
The soil must be nutritious, it is allowed to use ready-made mixtures for palm. The composition can be prepared with your own hands, mixing in equal parts leafy soil, turf, sand and humus. For adult specimens, more soddy soil should be added to the soil.
In the spring-summer period, false palms are watered abundantly, since numerous long foliage quickly evaporates moisture. For this, water is used with a temperature of +27 - +30 degrees.
Since autumn, the frequency of watering has been reduced, since plant growth slows down and stops. The lower the air temperature in the room where the pandanus is located, the less moisture is introduced.
Pandanus has sensitive roots and “moving” it is not easy for her. Young spring pandanuses are carefully moved each spring from the old container to the new transfer method. Adult palm trees are transplanted only when necessary.
It is worth remembering that air roots cannot be placed in the ground. Capacity the plant needs a heavy and stable, so that it does not fall.
Rooting of the processes
Children cut from the trunk of the plant, already having 2-3 cm of roots, are very easy to root. It is possible to accelerate the formation of aerial roots by wrapping the lower part of the trunk with a moistened sphagnum moss.
The processes should be dried in air for 10-12 hours, and after they are placed in a substrate - nutritious and breathable.
The container with the children is covered with glass or cellophane. It is important to maintain a stable temperature around +22 - + 24 degrees and periodically moisten the soil from the spray gun. After rooting, the covering material is removed.
To propagate pandanus, you can use the side shoots. They are cut, dried, and the sections are sprinkled with activated carbon or charcoal powder.
Cuttings are planted according to the same algorithm as the children. They need the same care.
About diseases and parasites
If the palm receives proper care and is kept in suitable conditions, then it rarely gets sick. Most ailments are associated with violation of the regime of detention:
- Foliage dries, starting from the tips - a sign of overdried air and / or lack of water in the ground.
- Fall of the lower leaves - this symptom is associated with natural aging. But if the process is too intense, then perhaps the plant does not have enough moisture.
- Shredding foliage, slowing palm growth and the disappearance of light streaks in variegated varieties - indicates insufficient lighting.
- Brownish spots on the plates - it is possible that these are sunburns.
- Leaves discolor - most often this happens when a pandanus is watered with hard water.
- Foliage turns yellow - an alarming phenomenon that indicates the development of rot in the root system. Rot occurs when soil is waterlogged against a background of low temperature. And also the leaves may turn yellow as a result of insufficient watering.
Pests are not particularly interested in indoor pandanuses. Unless the most promiscuous of them - mealybugs, spider mites and representatives of the scale insects family - can infringe on exotics. An insignificant colony of parasites can be eliminated with the help of a soapy water treatment of the plant. If there are a lot of insects, then it is worth resorting to more effective insecticidal preparations.
It is important! It should be borne in mind that to combat scabies, it may be necessary to use several means, since parasites are equipped with protective shields and can be immune to the action of many chemicals.