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Echinodorus major or Bart (Echinodorus major or martii)

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Among the most common plants that are used to design an aquarium, Echinodorus Magribinets is especially popular. Its presence allows you to complete the ecosystem in the aquarium. This plant is characterized by attractive appearance, unpretentiousness and excellent adaptation. The plant can quickly get used to other environmental conditions, lighting, water. For this reason, echinodorus Magribinets is especially popular with aquarists.

Description of the genus "Echinodorus (Echinodorus)"

Department of flowering, or Angiosperms (MAGNOLIOPHYTA), or (ANGIOSPERMAE)
Family: Chastukhovye (Alismataceae)

Grows in the southern part of S. America to South America, as well as in the Greater Antilles.
A plant with a shortened stem and a rosette of leaves, a number of species has a rhizome.
Planted in nutrient soil.

Lighting: 0.5 W / l.

Water: 22-25 ° C, dH 5-15 °, pH 6.5-7.5.

Propagated depending on the species in the following ways:

  • Species forming a flower arrow with inflorescence and flowers are pollinated with a soft brush. Ripened seeds change color from green to brown. They are separated and some aquarists are dried for 1-2 weeks, after which they are kept for 1.5-2 hours in a vessel with soft water at 25 ° C and its strong circulation to improve seed germination. Then the seeds are planted in a vessel with sand with a low water level with a temperature of 25-28 ° C, as the germination rate, the water level gradually increases.
  • Subsidiary plants formed on the flower arrow after the formation of roots and 5-7 leaves are separated and planted in the ground. You can tilt the flower arrow with a daughter plant to the ground and press it with a stone so that it takes root.
  • Subsidiary plants formed from the accessory buds on the rhizome, after the formation of roots and 5-7 leaves, can be cut off and planted in the ground.
  • V. Yudakov (Am 3/94) reproduces most species from the age of 1-1.5 years in the following way. He writes: "The instrument used - a medical lancet or a small knife with a thin blade - should be well sharpened. The mother bush is removed from the aquarium and the roots are straightened, having previously cleared them of soil. The correct cut is easier to make from the side of the roots, turning the bush upside down. Cut "so that both the separated and the remaining parts of the rhizome have several leaves and roots. After this, the leaves are removed from the plant and leaves that are weakly kept near the cut and are planted in the old place."
  • When transplanting an old plant with a long rhizome, the rhizome can be cut into pieces and pressed to the ground. Over time, daughter plants form from sleeping buds.
  • Layers formed on a creeping shoot, after the formation of the root system and several leaves, can be separated and planted in the ground. If not separated, then over time they form a lawn.

General information

Echinodorus (lat. Echinodorus) - popular perennial aquarium plants. Due to their amazing adaptive abilities, they are unpretentious to water parameters, such as hardness, acid-base composition and light exposure. Their sizes are different - from 1 cm to 1 m, depending on the specific type and conditions of detention. Using such straightforward plants, it’s easy enough to provide an amazing, eye-pleasing setting for your aquarium.

Most echinodorus grows in swamps and on the banks of stagnant or flowing water bodies. There are only a few species of these aquatic plants that live in strong currents. Ponds may even be temporary in nature, suitable for the full life of plants only in high water, but the rhizomes of echinodorus allow them to remain viable in the ground even in short periods of drought. At this time, plants begin to intensively absorb and absorb sunlight, forming inflorescences. Such a mechanism of adaptation is most characteristic of subtropical and tropical species.

A connection with temperature fluctuations and high water is observed. With periods of drought, the water temperature rises and flowering begins. While with full water, the temperature of the water decreases and the life cycle of plants slows down.

The lighting level for them requires a minimum - it is possible to live both in sunny areas and in the shade.

Appearance and structure

Sheet plates are different:

  • heart-shaped
  • oval
  • elliptical
  • linear
  • lanceolate.

The color scheme has always always ranged from light to dark green in color, but at the moment, many hybrids with a wide variety of leaf colors have already been bred. One of the main signs of the species difference between echinodorus is the presence or absence of a transparent pattern on the leaves.

Inflorescences of echinodorus also literally replete with diversity. Depending on the species, they grow on the underwater or surface part of the plant and there are:

  • simple
  • drooping
  • branched
  • upright
  • creeping.

Be sure to have a peduncle and come in various shapes.

Breeding

All echinodorus hermaphrodites - in the flower, the number of stamens is approximately proportional to the number of spiral carpels. As a rule, there are many seeds. At their tips you can see the residual fragment of the pestle.

Medium and large representatives can have large, powerful rhizomes, thanks to which they are capable of vegetative propagation. Then tuberous thickenings appear on the roots.

Types of Echinodorus

Echinodorus "Amazonian" (lat. Echinodorus amazonicus), popularly referred to as the "Amazon" - one of the most common aquarium plants due to its unpretentiousness. From the name it becomes clear that his homeland is the Amazon basin.

Also known by such names as Echinodorus brevipedicellutus and Amazon Sword, which is why it is often confused with Echinodorus bleheri - because of the consonance of these names and the similarity of appearance.

At a height of 30-50 cm, the leaf plates are narrow-lanceolate, pointed, their length is up to 40 cm, and their width is 1.5-3 cm, they are located by a socket. It grows moderately throughout the year. In an aquarium, only vegetative propagation is present. Forms flower stalks, forming daughter plants on them. In the future, they can be divided and transplanted.

Unlike other species, the Amazon is not picky about the acid-base composition of the aquatic environment. For a favorable plant life, it is recommended that only 1/5 of the total volume of the aquarium be replaced only once a week.

Echinodorus "gentle" (lat. Echinodorus Tenellus), it is also “grassy”, it is also called “dwarf Amazon” - the smallest representative of echinodorus. Distributed in swamps. It is formed by creeping shoots without rhizomes measuring 5-6 cm above the water, plus about the same under water, narrow-lanceolate leaf blades and the petiole of the above-water type.

With the proper level of lighting, it reproduces with the help of several mustaches. From each formed 2-3 daughter plants, which can soon be transplanted. For it, fine-grained soil rich in silt, or sand, is best suited. In a denser rhizome, they will not be able to develop normally, as a result of which shoots and leaves sprout unevenly. Most favorable gentle echinodorus develops in slightly acidic water of medium or low hardness, with a temperature of 18-20 ° C.

If you have a high aquarium (above 0.5 m), it is recommended to make sure that these delicate plants are adequately provided with light. With a sufficient level, the echinodorus will be low and dense. With a lack of lighting, it will stretch up, and its leaves will acquire a yellow-green hue.

It is possible artificial lighting fluorescent lamps LB-20. Depending on the specific power, the duration of their impact on the aquarium is from 10 to 14 hours. Also, do not forget about the presence of other greenery, partially or even entirely casting a shadow on small plants.

Aquariums contain 2 species of echinodorus, differing in length of leaves and shoots, as well as color:

  • the first form is low, with light green leaf plates,
  • the second is tall, has a green, dark green color with a brownish tint and with leaves up to 5 cm.

This echinodorus can also be grown in terrariums, paludariums and wet greenhouses, because this plant is resistant to mechanical damage. In the greenhouse, he is able to bloom and form inflorescences with seeds. Pollination in such cases is carried out artificially, using a soft small brush. Seeds ripen after 2 months, and they grow further in the flooded sand.

Echinodorus "vesuvius" (Echinodorus Vesuvius) - its height is 10-20 cm, and its width is 10-15 cm. It is a voluminous plant with spiral leaves resembling wisps of smoke. It is the result of selection, at the moment it is not very common among aquarists, however it is unpretentious, and you can plant it in any aquariums:

  • In small - perimeter planting is recommended to form a beautiful background.
  • In larger ones, it would be most appropriate to plant it in the middle.

For this echinodorus, lighting of 0.4-0.5 W is required, slightly acidic water of medium hardness and 25% change every week.

If the necessary conditions are not met or there is an oversupply of seeds during planting, straightening of the leaves is possible. In a favorable environment, Vesuvius is able to bloom, forming white inflorescences.

This species of echinodorus breeds using fragments of its rhizome for a short period of time. When planting, the rhizome is cut off on the sides for a couple of centimeters and the soil under it is fertilized. This contributes to its intensive germination.

Echinodorus "red leopard" (Echinodorus Roter Leopard) - small selection breeding hybrid with

wide leaves of dark red color, up to 25 tall, bloom with a rosette, have short petioles. Mature representatives of this genus on the surface of leaf blades appear dotted blots of dark red color, which is why the name of the plant.

Lighting requires a medium or high level. It can grow in the shade, but then the leaves will lose their color saturation. Soil saturation with mineral additives is recommended.

Echinodorus "Red Leopard".

Echinodorus "red mamba" (Echinodorus Roter Mamba) - he is also the "star of the jungle." Another hybrid, quite new at the moment and relatively expensive. It has long petioles and oblong leaves of red color with several bright veins stretching along the entire plate. The color range ranges from saturated red to brown and greenish-olive colors, depending on the age of the plant.

Intensive lighting and daylight hours of 10-12 hours are required. It is grown in the soil 5-10 cm, preferably additional fertilizer. The water parameters are unpretentious, a weakly acid medium medium hardness and a weekly change of 20% of its volume are recommended.

Echinodorus "Red Mamba".

Echinodorus "Red October" (Echinodorus Roter October) - a very large representative of echinodorus, height and width up to 45 cm, a hybrid of Harbich rot and Echinodorus Indian Red, bred in Germany.

It is well cultivated, actively propagated with the help of basal processes and peduncles. It requires good lighting, it is not very sensitive to the parameters of hardness and acidity of the water, but it is worth monitoring the temperature - 25-30 ° C.

Echinodorus "Red October".

Echinodorus "red flame" (Echinodorus Red Flame) is another German-made hybrid that has lush foliage with plentiful red-brown spotting. It is whimsical only to the soil (it should be silted, enriched with organic matter) and lighting, which should be bright, with a daylight of at least 10 hours.

The rest is simple in content, like most of its kind. Subject to daylight hours and regular weekly replacement, 20% of the aquarium water can grow in height up to 30 cm and in width up to 20 cm.

To support the full development of the plant, additional provision of carbon dioxide through the tube and fertilizing with iron-containing fertilizers is allowed.

The "red flame" is very sensitive to copper, so it is not recommended to use copper-containing drugs in the aquarium, so as not to harm the plant.

It is able to multiply with the help of rhizomes and flower arrows. When the daughter plants are separated from the rhizome, their subsequent growth is slowed down, so for transplanting and breeding the “red flame” it is worth getting daughter plants from the pedicels.

Echinodorus "Red flame".

Echinodorus "red beauty" - obtained by crossing Ech. Osiris and Ech. Uruguayensis, is best known in the CIS countries as an echinodorus "Bart" (Ech. Barthii). The leaves grow to a length of 18-20 cm. The diameter of the outlet is usually not more than 40 cm. Found widespread among aquarists due to the saturation in red and the pleasant shape of its sinewy leaves. With age, they become golden, then turn green and eventually fade to the darkest shades, but the red color on most leaves lasts a long time. Due to its compactness, it is well suited for the role of a foreground plant for small aquariums.

The leaves of the "red beauty" are softer than other echinodorus, and they grow more slowly - no more than 2-3 leaves a week appear, and their life expectancy is shorter. And on the plant itself, as a rule, no more than 50 leaf blades grow, 20-30 of which will be red.

Sensitive to a sharp change in water parameters, up to the possibility of chlorosis in the plant. Good lighting and peat additives are recommended. It reproduces slowly: only in a vegetative way, with the help of root processes.

Echinodorus "Red Beauty".

Echinodorus "white flame" (Echinodorus Bright Flame) - aka “bright flame”. An exotic hybrid does not require any special conditions for full growth, however, a noticeable germination of the plant can drag on for up to a year. 20-50 cm high, up to 40 cm wide, with outlet widths up to 30 cm in diameter. It has several oblong leaves of an unusual cream color, due to which some first think about the iron deficiency of the plant, but this appearance is natural.

Echinodorus "White flame".

Echinodorus "red pirate" (Echinodorus Roter Pirat) - up to 45 cm high, with long petioles and wide lanceolate leaves. Young representatives of this species have reddish-brown leaves with bright spots, which completely turn green with age.

Echinodorus "red dawn" (Echinodorus Roter Zora) - a little-known representative with long leaves, red on the upper side and light green spots on the lower.

Echinodorus "ruby" (Echinodorus Rubin) or “red ruby” is a large hybrid obtained by crossing species such as Echinodorus Barthii and Echinodorus Horemanii. Its height is up to 60 cm, with a outlet width of up to 30 cm. It has ellipsoid leaves with veins and short petioles.

The growing conditions are a little more finicky than most echinodorus: for a “ruby”, it is desirable to have bright lighting and 8-10 cm of soil enriched with silt in the form of fine gravel. Mineral, iron supplements and CO2 recharge are recommended.

Like the "red flame", it is sensitive to copper-containing drugs, therefore, it is recommended to avoid their use in the same aquarium with the "ruby".

Propagated by root shoots and flowering arrows. It is advisable to plant it in aquariums of large and medium capacity, in the background, so as not to obscure the smaller representatives of the flora in the aquarium.

“Rubin” also has a narrow-leaved subspecies of smaller sizes: the echinodorus “ruby narrow-leaved” (Echinodorus Rubin narrow leaves), which has a much more saturated red shade of the leaves, up to a fiery-orange color under appropriate lighting. The conditions of detention are the same as those of the main species. It is better to plant it in the central part of the aquarium.

Echinodorus "ocelot" (Echinodorus Ozelot) - arose as a result of crossing Ech. Barthii and Ech. schlueteri Leopard, 30-50 cm high, 20-40 cm wide. It differs in the rather rapid growth of its ellipsoid leaves with a short petiole. “Ocelot” has reddish-brown blotches that are so characteristic of it, but unlike other spotted echinodorus, they do not disappear from a lack of light.

At the moment, there are only 3 varieties of "ocelots": red, green and golden, which differ from each other only in the color of the leaves.

It is better to position the plant in volumetric aquariums from 100 l and 50 cm in height. For full development, additional CO2 recharge and good lighting are recommended. When planting in a container under the rhizome as a mineral top dressing, you can put a mixture of clay, charcoal and chopped peat.

Echinodorus - an amazing plant

To date, there are more than 50 species of this plant. Thanks to the active work of modern gardening, echinodorus varieties were born that received international certificates of hybrid species. A photo with the names of aquarium plants already indicates the attractiveness of this hybrid.

The birthplace of this amazing plant is both Africa and South America. These species, of course, have some external differences, but they are almost invisible. They are mainly distinguished by the presence of essential oils in the tissues. They are present in South American form.

In the wild, this plant can be characterized by various sizes. You can find species from a few centimeters to 1.5 m in height.

This plant has a special structure. Some of its species lack rhizomes. Others may have either a cone-shaped or horizontal rhizome.

These rhizomes differ from each other by the growth method. The horizontal location of the rhizome is characteristic of creeping species. The root diameter can be from 5 to 25 mm, depending on the size of the plant itself.

Echinodorus large or Bart: keeping and breeding

Photo: Echinodorus major or martii

Homeland - South America, the eastern states of Brazil. One of the most magnificent aquatic plants. Long wavy light green leaves form a loose outlet. Good specimens reach a height of 70-80 cm, so you need to keep the plant in a container at least 45-50 cm high. You need to place it closer to the center and back wall of the aquarium, not forgetting that the plant occupies a fairly large area. This species of echinodorus grows in the aquarium throughout the year and never forms airy leaves. To the conditions of detention, he is demanding. Aquarists are very popular.

The water temperature for echinodorus should be in the range of 22-28 ° C. The plant is more suitable for a tropical aquarium, since at a temperature below 22 ° C, its growth rate is noticeably reduced. Water hardness is preferred 6-12 °, but the plant can exist in more hard water. Very soft water for this echinodorus is almost unacceptable. The active reaction should be neutral or slightly alkaline - pH in the range of 7-8.5. In an acidic environment, the plant degrades rapidly. Water should be very clean, should be replaced regularly to 1 / 6-1 / 5 of the volume of the aquarium.

Echinodorus the great needs bright lighting. To form a beautiful bush, it is better to use only the upper light. With additional lateral lighting, the bush turns out to be sprawling and rarer. In addition, lateral daughter plants begin to form, inhibiting the growth of the mother bush. Natural lighting for echinodorus is very helpful. Sunlight falling on the aquarium 2-3 hours a day makes the color of the leaves more juicy. For artificial lighting, LB type fluorescent lamps with a power of about 0.5 W per 1 liter of aquarium volume are most suitable. Additional illumination with incandescent lamps does not significantly affect growth, but slightly improves leaf color. The daylight hours are 12-14 hours.

The soil for large echinodorus should be nutritious, with a sufficient amount of silt. In a new soil, under the roots of the plant, it is necessary to put a lump of clay or a mixture of clay and peat, it is useful to add some charcoal. The root system of the plant is very powerful, therefore, it requires a thick layer of soil - at least 8-10 cm. Sand and very fine pebbles should not be used as a substrate.

Mineral nutrition for this echinodorus is very useful, especially during the flowering period. You can use complex fertilizers with a full range of substances necessary for the plant. In addition to the trace elements included in the fertilizer, it is necessary to regularly (approximately twice a month) add ferrous salts of water - about 0.1 mg per 1 liter.

Large echinodorus propagates mainly vegetatively; under artificial conditions, seed reproduction is not often achieved. The plant gives flower arrows several times a year, but almost does not form full-fledged seeds. Artificial pollination with a soft brush slightly increases the chances of success. The fruits are removed after they have fully ripened. Some experts advise additionally drying the seeds for 1-2 months. After that, they are sown in a bowl of sand covered with water, and kept at a temperature of 28 ° C.

In the event that the fruits on the peduncle are not tied, it should be drowned. Then daughter plants will certainly appear on the flower arrow, which can be removed after the formation of 4-5 leaves and the root system. Young plants should be planted in separate plates, and water should only cover the leaves, and place them directly under the illuminator. It is even better to press the entire arrow to the ground near the light source, without separating the daughter plants until a well-formed rosette of leaves with a height of 15-18 cm is formed.

The aquarist, who has achieved the flowering of echinodorus large, must take into account that after the formation of the flower arrow, and especially after the appearance of daughter plants on it, the condition of the mother bush deteriorates. New leaves form very slowly and are much smaller. Even a full additional top dressing during this period does not help prevent a deterioration in the appearance of the plant. Therefore, do not allow the formation of several flower arrows, even in the strongest and largest plants.

Periodically, daughter plants are formed on the rhizome of echinodorus large. More often this happens with a fairly bright side illumination. Such shoots develop much better than plants on flower arrows. You can separate them after the formation of an independent root system and the appearance of large leaves. They adapt very well in a new place and quickly start to grow. The formation of new plants on the rhizome does not inhibit the development of the mother bush.

Echinodorus Magribinets

This species can be safely called the most sophisticated and harmonious of all representatives. So, let's proceed to the description of the echinodorus Magribinets - this is a hybrid that was grown under artificial conditions. In 2001, breeder Igor Filippov was able to grow this amazing plant. However, he did not record which plants he pollinated. Therefore, it still remains a mystery what kind of echinodorus were the parents of this plant. Surprisingly, European breeders could not get such an attractive plant in appearance as a result of their activities. Moreover, it is undemanding. Echinodorus will grow well in various aquariums.

The average size of the echinodorus Magribinets is up to 35 cm in height and up to 30 cm in diameter. Young leaves have a dark pink tint. As they grow older, they change color to a more saturated, brown hue.

The leaf plate is covered with clearly visible veins. The surface is glossy matte, hard to the touch. The edges of the leaves are wavy, and the tips are slightly wrapped. Leaflets reach 20 cm in length. All petioles on a bush of green color, up to 10 cm long. The plant grows long enough.

In the growth of 1.5-2 years, the bush becomes ripe. He often gives flower stalks, match-thick. Up to 8 children appear on it. If the plant has enough nutrients, you can save all the kids.

Signs of improper cultivation

According to breeders, this plant is not demanding and unpretentious. But the content of echinodorus Magribinets does not tolerate gross errors that may arise due to improper care. The main condition for normal growth is regular soil flushing and water replacement. Photos with the names of aquarium plants attract beauty and simplicity at the same time.

Otherwise, the aquarium ecosystem will quickly begin to age. These are unsuitable conditions for growth. The first signs indicating abnormal development of the plant include:

  • stunting
  • ejection of needle-shaped leaves
  • shrubs vegetation of the bush

These signs indicate unsatisfactory growth conditions. It is urgent to eliminate the cause of what is happening, otherwise the plant may die at all.

Causes of the "malaise" of the plant

The cause of the unsatisfactory state of the plant may be rotting of the roots. To revive the echinodorus, you should carefully dig out its root and carefully examine it. Healthy roots should be white.

The roots that began to rot, acquire a dark shade, become translucent. Experts recommend completely getting rid of them, carefully cutting off all affected areas with a sharp knife. The places of cuts must be treated at the edges, well crushed with birch charcoal.

When cutting roots, pay attention to the tool. It should be thin and well sharpened.

The plant is then planted in a well-washed soil. In this case, the surviving pieces of roots do not need to be buried completely. They should be half in the soil. In this case, the cut should remain above the ground. Thus, the process of decay will not resume.

To provoke plant growth, you need to "wake up" the kidneys. To do this, it is enough that the parts of the rhizome are well-lit.

Features of plant content

Growing echinodorus, you should also pay attention to such features:

  • Each week it is necessary to replace about 25% of the total water volume.
  • Water temperature should be in the range from +18 to +26 ° С. Hardness - up to 10 units. A neutral pH balance is recommended.
  • Good lighting.
  • The soil should consist of fine gravel and sand, which must be washed with a siphon every month.
  • Water must be saturated with CO2. If carbon dioxide is not enough, then calcium will settle on the surface of the leaves from the water. This is harmful to the aquarium ecosystem, and to the plant.
  • With this plant in the aquarium must be ancistruses and ampullarium. They clean the leaves, they can even cope with calcium plaque.
  • It is imperative to introduce radical top dressing.
  • In the spring, the plant must be transplanted and updated annually.
  • Rhizome fragments with awakened kidneys or new growth points are separated.

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