Hearing the word "nymph", most of us imagine sweet and fragile creatures with unearthly beauty and marvelous abilities. In our imagination, we see them dancing in the moonlight, cheerful, laughing, airy and graceful. Contrary to popular belief, these mythical virgins do not live an idle and careless life: each of them has an important and honorable mission.
Meaning of the word “nymph”
What culture gave the world these sweet and virgin spirits? It is known that the word itself, its origin and interpretation have Greek roots. The ancient Greeks were pagans, they believed in the existence of formidable gods that host Olympus, fabulous creatures and otherworldly creatures that can both help people and harm. The image of ephemeral maidens, mysterious and very beautiful, also loomed clearly in their imagination. According to Greek legends, a nymph is the patroness of a certain object of nature, his soul and embodiment.
Beautiful creatures did not reach powerful gods. Deities of a lower rank have always been considered nymphs. Greek mythology, in spite of this hierarchy, assigned the virgins an equally important function: they protected the world around them, protected forests, fields, mountains, rivers and valleys from gross external invasion. Nymphs were the embodiment of the forces of nature, her daughters and at the same time patrons.
According to ancient Greek legends, they are inhabitants of forests and groves, guardians of trees and bushes. While being born with a green shoot, its patroness grows and develops with it. When the tree dies, its forest nymph dies. Dryads are the only mortals among all ephemeral creatures.
The Greeks represented the dryads with graceful beauties, whose body was intertwined with tree branches. Their complexion, eyes and hair change depending on the season: in winter it is silver, in autumn it is orange-red, in spring and summer it is emerald green. The maidens' clothes also change over the course of the seasons: it is either like foliage, now it is bark.
These are nymphs of the seas, sunny bays and cozy bays. Born from the mother of Dorida and the father of Nereus, they were considered a little higher in rank than their sisters - the oceans. The thing is that the former lived in "closed" seas, on the banks of which fishing villages and cities were built. Nereids were closer to people, often they appeared to them in the image of mermaids. As for the oceans, their oceans became huge oceans, which, according to legend, washed the edges of the Earth.
The sea nymph, a representative of the water element, has long blue hair, her body glistens like a fish scale. The eyes of the beauty are piercing blue: many sailors, meeting with the gaze of the virgin, lost their heads and dreamed of an unearthly creation until the end of days. Despite this, the Nereids tried to help sea travelers. They saved the sailors from certain death during the storm, when the elements were calm, they indicated the right way for the ships.
Sea nymph is a funny, funny and very cheerful creature. Gathering in small groups, the Nereids in the warm moonlit nights go ashore: circle in round dances and arrange competitions with newts. At the bottom of the sea, they live in silver caves, look after coral gardens and spin on gold spinning wheels.
They are the patroness of meadows and swamps. The Greeks believed that these creatures should be especially appeased, since they are not as peaceful as their mythical relatives. Lemonades often carry danger to people, turning flood meadows into marshy impassable bogs. At night, virgins leave the shelter: they walk under the stars, lighting marsh lights on their way. The Greeks said that if you, wandering among the forests, see a bright light in the distance, do not rush to approach it. Most likely, a meadow nymph attracts you. This is a trap, therefore it is better to avoid any strange glow.
Under natural conditions they live in forests located along river banks and in open eucalyptus groves, in savannas overgrown with low shrubs. They often sit on tops of dried trees and on tall bushes, due to their color, they remain invisible on them. Sitting high on a tree, they can close a person close, but in the grass they are very shy. Ponds never land on the shore, they descend vertically down directly onto the water, and, after making a couple of quick sips, fly up into the air. The main food is the seeds of grassy and many woody plants. They also sit on blooming eucalyptus trees, where they obviously feed on nectar, and maybe small insects. During the ripening period, they eat wheat grains.
What are nymphs?
This nymph is translated from the Greek maiden, the bride. Parents of nymphs are considered the god of Thunderer Zeus and Gaia (Earth). In ancient times, people were very careful about nature, considering it alive in all its manifestations and forms. Nymphs are ancient Greek lower deities who patronize the source of nature in which they settled. At the initial stage, the spirits did not have names, but some of them had a strong influence on the life of the gods and people that became famous. Basically, nymphs were named after the halo of their habitat.
What does a nymph look like?
Nymph - a child of nature, not enduring fuss and crowded places. People knew where the nymphs lived, but few mortals saw with their own eyes what the virgins of nature looked like, and there was a belief: to see a frolicing nymph a simple person could be blinded, and if she was naked, she would expect an imminent death. Fairy nymphs are very delicate and fragile creatures. In the sources of ancient Greek mythology, the appearance of nymphs is described:
- young half-naked or naked beauties,
- long flowing hair of different shades flowing in a stream, into which flowers, shells or tree branches are woven,
- the skin is white, pink or greenish in color,
- charmers, with their eyes and gentle iridescent laughter, charming a person.
What are the nymphs?
The ancient Greeks associated the beautiful virgins of nature with their habitat and activity. What are the nymphs:
- Nereids are sea virgins.
- Oceans are oceanic spirits.
- Limnades - nymphs of swamps and lakes.
- Naiads are divas of rivers and sources.
- Oreads, Orestiads, and Agrostins are nymphs of mountains and gorges.
- Nanen, Napaea - the virgins of the valleys.
- Alseids - nymphs of groves.
- Dryads, Hamadriads - arboreal girls.
- Hyades - Rain Spirits
The forest lives its secret life and in the minds of ancient people strong and mighty centuries-old trees, in particular oaks and ash trees that stood out from the rest, were the reservoir of the beautiful soul of the dryad. The forest nymph is closely connected with the life of her tree, and if the dryad can choose another tree after its death, the hamadriads (lower nymphs) died with the destroyed tree. In ancient Greece, the felling of a century-old tree was considered blasphemy and was punishable by death. According to legend, the nymph of the forest of Orsinoe gave birth to Hermes the goat-footed Pan, who became the god of wildlife and shepherding for the Greeks.
Nymph of rivers and lakes
The river nymph is a whimsical and tender creature. Naiads settle in streams, small rivers and springs, do not live in stagnant water. Fragile creatures that can die when the source withers or its dam. People who revered the water element tried their best to appease the virgins of water, for this they built sanctuaries and nymphs (complexes with fountains). On the banks of rivers and lakes left bread, vessels with milk, cheeses, sacrificed animals. Saying Naiad, fleeing the harassment of the pan, turned into a reed, but God cut it and made a beautiful flute to delight the ear.
The nymph of the sea on the canvases of ancient artists is depicted with a sea shell in the bosom. Nereids - daughters of the god revered by the Greeks Nereus, who patronizes sea travelers and the nymphs of Dorida. According to various sources, there were from 50 to 100. The personification of a calm sea element - the Nereids lead a measured life, dance around the bottom of the sea, at night they can go to the surface of the earth and sing, dance with land nymphs. Famous Sea Nymphs:
- Galatea - her story of unhappy love was sung by the poet Philoxen in the work Cyclops. Nereida fell in love with Akida, the son of the nymph Semitida, but Cyclops Polyphemus, also very in love with Galatea, in anger tore the rock from the volcano Etna and crushed the unfortunate. The saddened nymph turned the blood of her lover into the river Akid.
- Amphitrite is the wife of the lord of the seas of Poseidon. She was revered by the Greeks on a par with her husband and portrayed with him in a chariot drawn by newts.
- Panopeia is a sea diva that sailors turned to during severe storms to gain protection and protection.
Nymphs are all the beauty of nature, inspired by people. The Pleiades of the heavens are the daughters of the Titan Atlanta and the Pleiahs nymphs. Initially, they served the hunting goddess Artemis, accompanied her on trips. In a later period, the ancient Greeks transformed them into celestial nymphs. Their names, forever imprinted in the eponymous name of the constellation Pleiades:
There are various myths about the transformation of sisters:
- The Pleiades, saddened by the fate of Atlanta to keep the entire firmament on themselves, decided to commit suicide in order to be next to their beloved father.
- Atlas, which participated in the battle against the gods, was defeated and, as a punishment, was forever condemned to support itself with all the burden of the vault of heaven. In the absence of titanium, the hunter Orion began to pursue and harass his daughters. The Pleiades turned to the gods for help, and Zeus took pity on them, turning them into seven pigeons with the condition that they would carry him a heavenly drink - ragweed.
- Another myth tells that from the persecution of Orion, Zeus helped the Pleiades - turned them into a constellation, and Orion was punished by turning into the constellation Orion, in the form of which he pursues the Pleiades, but he will never overtake them.
Mountains, grottoes, gorges and caves are home to another kind of nymphs - Orestiad or Oread. Mountain divas are depicted sitting meditating on rocks, patronizing miners and shepherds. The famous representative of the oread, the beautiful nymph Echo, according to legend, is cursed by the mistress of Olympus - Hero. Zeus's wife convicted Echo that she distracted Hera while her husband had fun and cheated on her with the nymphs. Hera deprived an oracle of voice, and she could not speak first, but only echo the last sounds of the words of those who spoke.
Nymphs - Mythology
The lower deities of the nymphs are not immortal unlike the gods, but their life span can reach up to 7000 years, which in the view of man looks like immortality. In mythology, the beautiful virgins of nature, being lower in the rank of gods, nevertheless cooperate with them, exert their influence on them and participate in divine feasts and advice. In alliances between nymphs and gods, heroes are born, new gods and mythological entities. The Greeks endowed the nymphs with various superpowers:
- fair (not always) rulers of fate,
- patronesses of shepherds and cattle,
- with the power to give people the gift of foresight and poetry,
- predicted the future
- healed the wounds
- they sent madness, blindness or rage to those who were cruel to nature.
Nymphs in Slavic mythology
The Slavic nymph in Russian folklore is a mermaid, a waterman, or a vilia. These ancient spirits of nature, in contrast to the ancient Greek nymphs, are not entirely friendly and often openly hostile to people. During the life of the virgin, they knew a bitter fate: they were ruined by men, died prematurely, before they reached the wedding. Mermaids were associated with the cult of fertility among the Slavs, and there was a feast of Rusalia, it was believed that these days mermaids and waterweed go round dance - you can’t work in the field, because in anger they could trample all the crops.
Nymph in Greek mythology
The nymphs of Ancient Greece had a huge influence on the gods, sometimes replaced their mothers, others became wives and the gods listened to their opinion - you can not argue with nature. The most important were the nymphs of water sources and this is understandable - water is the source of life. Nymphs famous and captured in Greek mythology:
- Kinosura - became the nurse of Zeus, hiding in her mountain of Crete during the persecution of father Kronos. Zeus, feeling gratitude, placed her in the sky in the form of the constellation Ursa Minor.
- Daphne - the myth of Apollo and the nymph Daphne is one of the most popular and beloved by the Greeks. The luminiferous god Apollo ridiculed Eros with his bow and arrows, for which he decided to teach him a lesson and struck with an arrow of love for mountain maiden Daphne, and her heart was struck with an arrow of rejection. Apollo, burning with feelings, began to pursue the nymph and Daphne prayed to mother Gee to change her appearance - this was how the laurel tree appeared. The god of light, in memory of his beloved, proclaimed the laurel as his sacred tree. On the statues of ancient sculptors - a laurel wreath is one of the attributes of Apollo.
- Dodon nymphs (hyades) - raised and nourished the god of winemaking and all vegetation of Dionysus. In gratitude, Dionysus asked the sorceress Medea to make them forever young. In another version, Zeus placed them in the sky in the form of an open star cluster of Hyades. In modern Greece, it is still commonly believed that as soon as the Hyades cluster becomes visible, this is the beginning of the rainy season.
They breed in the rainy season when there is a lot of food for birds and their chicks. Nest in the voids of the thick branches of withered trees. In clutch usually 3-7 white eggs. Both parents take part in the incubation. The incubation period is 21 days. Hatched chicks are covered with a yellowish fluff. Parents feed them one by one, and after 4-6 weeks, the young leaves the nest. At this time, adults make a second egg laying, continuing to feed the first brood.
Australian law does not allow their export abroad, but they are easily propagated in captivity. They are very popular. They are quickly tamed and can learn individual words, as well as melodies, though their voice is annoying and monotonous. Several color variations of Corelli have been deduced - purely white, lizard, piebald and others. Life expectancy up to 20-25 years.
First of all, it should be said about mollusk, the keeper of springs, rivers, lakes. The water nymph is one of the most ancient deities. Often mentioned in Greek manuscripts along with satyrs and coribantes. Naiads are very kind, they give people healing from ailments, if you swim in the reservoirs that they command.
Humans are also supportive of man - a rare variety of maidens. They manage the valleys and plains. Often help people with the housework, as they live very close to residential buildings. There are still oreads - mountain deities. The most famous nymph is a voiceless beauty named Echo. Having angered Hera with her pride and self-confidence, she was punished: her mouth remained dumb forever, they could only echo the sounds.
Taxonomy and Etymology
Originally described by Scottish writer and naturalist Robert Kerr in 1793, as Psittacus hollandicus , in a parrot (or cockateel) has been moved to its genus, Nymphicus , according to Wagler in 1832. Its genus name reflects the experience of one of the earliest groups of Europeans to see birds in their native habitat, travelers believed that the birds were so beautiful that they named them after mythical nymphs. View name hollandicus refers to New Holland, the historical name of Australia.
His biological relationship has long been claimed, she is now classified into the monotypic subfamily Nymphicinae but were sometimes in the past were incorrectly classified among Platycercinae, with wide-tailed parrots.This issue is currently resolved with molecular studies. A 1984 study of the allozyme protein signaled its closer relationship to the cockatoo than the parrots and the mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence of data sites that it is among the Calyptorhynchinae (dark cockatoo) subfamily. The unique, parrot (which means long-tailed parrot) morphological feature is the result of a decrease in size and accompanying a change in the ecological niche.
Sequence analysis of intron 7 nuclear ? - The fibrinogen gene, on the other hand, indicates that it can still be sufficiently diverse to guarantee recognition of Nymphicinae, and not the inclusion of the genus in Calyptorhynchinae.
The parrot is now biologically classified as a genuine member of Cacatuidae due to the sharing of all the biological characteristics of the cockatoo family, namely the erectile comb, in the gall bladder, the powder down, suppressed the cloud-layer (which precludes the possibility of displaying blue and green structurally flowers), and feathers of the face. covering the sides of the beak, all of which are rarely found outside the Cacatuidae family.
Distinctive erectile In a parrot in the crest expresses the emotional state of the animal. The crest is sharply vertical when the corella is struck or agitated, slightly obliquely in its neutral or relaxed state, and flattened close to the head when the animal is angry or defensive. The comb also keeps flat, but protrudes outward in the back when the parrot tries to appear enticing or flirty. Unlike most cockatoos, the parrot has long tail feathers, approximately half its total length. At 30 to 33 cm (12 to 13 in), the Corella is the smallest of the cockatoos, which are usually larger in the range of 30 to 60 cm (12 and 24 inches).
The “normal gray” or “wild type” plumage of the Cockatiel is mostly gray with prominent white flashes at the outer edges of each wing. The male face is yellow or white, while the female face is mostly gray or light gray, and both sexes have a round orange area on both ears, often referred to as “cheddar cheeks”. This orange color is usually bright in adult males, and often quite muted in females. Visual sex determination is often possible with this bird option.
Australian parrots are relatively vocal birds, appealing to a man to be more diverse than that of a female. Australian parrots can be taught to sing specific tunes and speak a lot of words and phrases.
All wild parrot chicks and juveniles look female, and are practically indistinguishable from the time of hatching until their first molt. They show horizontal yellow stripes or stripes on the ventral surface of their tail feathers, yellow spots on the ventral surface of the primary feathers of flight with their wings, on the gray color of the crest and face, and a dull orange patch on each of the cheeks.
Adult corella are sexual dimorphism, although to a lesser extent than many other bird species. This appears only after the first molt, as a rule, it takes about six to nine months after hatching: the male loses white or yellow forbidding spots on the underside of his tail feathers and wings. The gray feathers on the cheeks and crest are replaced by bright yellow feathers, while the orange cheek patch becomes brighter and more distinct. The face and crest of the female, as a rule, remain mostly gray, although with the orange cheeks as a band-aid. In addition, a woman usually keeps horizontal prohibitive on the underside of her tail feathers.
The color in the corrella comes from two pigments: melanin (which provides a gray color in feathers, eyes, beak and legs), and lipochromes (which provide a yellow color on the face and tail and an orange color on the cheeks patch). The gray color of melanin overlaps the yellow and orange of the lipochromes when both are present.
The melanin content decreases in the face of men as they mature, allowing yellow and orange lipochromes to be more visible, while an increase in the melanin content in the tail causes the horizontal yellow tail rods to disappear.
In addition to these visible characteristics, the vocalization of adult males is generally louder and more complex than that of females.
Around the world, there are currently 22 parrot color mutations established in poultry farming with eight being exclusively Australia. Mutations in captivity appeared in different colors, some completely different from those observed in nature. Wild corals are gray with marked differences between men and women. Male gray corals usually have yellow heads while a female has a gray head. Juveniles are usually similar to females with pinker beaks. A mottled mutation first appeared in California in 1949. This mutation is the spotting color of an otherwise solid bird color. For example, it may look like a gray spot on a yellow parrot.
Lutino staining was first noticed in 1958. These birds do not have the gray color of their wild counterparts and are white to soft yellow. This is a popular color, due to inbreeding, these corals often have a small bald spot behind their crests. Cinnamon mutations, first shown in the 1950s, are very similar in appearance to gray. However, these birds have a warmer, browner color. The pearl was first seen in 1967. It is seen as a feather of the same color with another colored edge, such as gray feathers with yellow tips. This distinctive pattern is on bird wings or back. Albino color mutation is the lack of pigment. These birds are white with red eyes. Steam correllas first appeared around the 1970s. This mutation shows how a bird with cinnamon stains with yellow sections. Other mutations include: emerald / olive, dominant and recessive silver, as well as mutations exclusively for Australia. These include: Australian ferry, lost (silver west coast), diluted / pastel silver (silver east coast) silver sequin (cropped diluted), platinum drenched (Australian olive) and tin. Other mutations, such as mutation-altering mutations include, Whiteface, pastelface, dominant yellow cheek, sexually linked yellow cheek, gold cheek, creamface and Australian yellow cheek.
Cockatiel color mutations can become even more complex, as a single bird can have multiple color mutations. For example, a yellow parrot lutino may have a pearlescent - white spots on its back and wings. This is a double mutation. An example of a quadruple mutation would be a parrot cinnamon with a yellowface coloration with pearl and flycatcher markings.
Distribution and habitat
Australian parrots are native to Australia, where they are found mainly in an arid or semi-arid country, but are always close to the water. Basically a nomadic way of life, the species will move to where food and water are available. They are usually observed in pairs or small flocks. Sometimes hundreds flock around one body of water. To the dismay of many farmers, they often eat row crops. They are absent in the most fertile southwest and southeast corners of the country, the deepest western Australian deserts and the Cape York Peninsula. They are the only cockatoo species that can sometimes breed at the end of the first year.
life expectancy of a parrot in captivity is usually given as 16 to 25 years, although it is sometimes given as short as 10 to 15 years, and there are reports of Corella living as long as 32 years, the oldest confirmed samples reported that 36 years. Diet and exercise are the main determining factors.