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Family: Aplodontiidae Brandt, 1855 = Applaude

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Usually close to Lagomorpha, less often to Primates. The macrosystem was unsatisfactorily developed: from 3–4 to 6–9 suborders / infraorders (most of them modern) are distinguished in different variants, most often the monophilia Sciuromorpha, Myomorpha, Hystricognatha is recognized. In total, at least 60 families, of which 30–35 are modern (the most controversial Myomorpha families). From the wounds. paleogene. All around the world (including with man), except for Antarctica.

Suborder Sciuromorpha

Presumably a monophyletic taxon, in an extended interpretation (Sci urignathi concept), Anomaluromor pha is included here, less often also Myomorpha, with the exception Bathyergo mor - pha, as well. Perhaps includes Glirimorpha in the rank of infra-order. In fractional systems, the superfamilies included here are considered in the rank of infraorders.

Aplodont Family - Aplodont> Trouessart, 1897

Refers to basal radiation Sciuromorpha, sometimes included P rotrogomorpha. There are at least 9 genera, of which 1 is modern. From late paleogene. Forest mountain (up to 2200 m) areas of the west of the North. America.

Applaude Rod - Aplodontia Richardson, 1817

1 view. Distribution - as indicated for the family.

rufa Rafinesque, 1817.

Superfamily Sciuroidea s.lato

Monophyletic taxon, includes 1-2 families.

Squirrel Family - Sciur> Fischer, 1817

The composition and main subgeneric groups are debatable: the rank and subordination of the main groups are treated very differently. In its broadest interpretation includes 4 subfamilies (all modern), approx. 40 modern and as many fossil genera. With avg. paleogene. Eurasia, Africa, North. and South. America.

Subfamily Pteromyinae Brandt, 1855

Monophilia is both recognized and rejected. Often seen as a family. 13 genera, phylogenetic relationships between them are not clearly defined, the prenatal groups are interpreted contradictory. Mostly mountain forests South. and southeast. Asia from Hindustan (including the Hindu Kush system) to the Malay arch., Japan, the boreal forests of Eurasia, North. and Center. America.

Hylopetes Group

Probably a paraphyletic group uniting the least advanced representatives of the subfamily. 5 births.

Arrow-Tailed Flying Squirrel - Hylopetes Thomas, 1908

Borders with Petinomys are not well definedsometimes Eoglaucomys considered a genus. 2 subgenus, up to 10 species. Piedmont and mountain forests (150–3600 m) in the north of Hindustan (from eastern Afghanistan to the Punjab), Indochina, the Malacca Peninsula, the islands of Bolshoi Zondskie, Hainan, Philippines.

Subgenus Hylopetes s.str.

spadiceus Blyth, 1847. Indochina (except the east), Malacca Peninsula, about. Sumatra.

sipora Chasen, 1940. O. Sipora (Mentawai Group).

lepidus Horsfield, 1824. Malacca Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan, adjacent islands.

phayeri Blyth, 1859 (electilis Allen, 1925). Indochina, Southeast. China (Fujian), about. Hainan.

alboniger Hodgson, 1836. Center. and East. Himalayas, South and East. Tibet (Sichuan, Yunnan), Indochina, about. Hainan.

nigripes Thomas, 1893. Palawan Islands, Bankalan (Philippines).

winstoni Sody, 1949. O. Sumatra (northern part).

bartelsi Chasen, 1939. Oh. Java

Subgenus Eoglaucomys Howell, 1915

fimbriatus Gray, 1837. Mountain (1800–3600 m) forests of the North. India (Kashmir, Punjab).

baberi Blyth, 1847. Mountain (1600–3500 m) forests of the Hindu Kush from Vost. Afghanistan to the Punjab.

Genus Flying squirrels - Petinomys Thomas, 1908

Closest to Hylopetes (previously included H. bartelsi, H. electilis) 2 subgenera (sometimes considered to be genera), 7–8 species. Low-mountain (up to 1200 m) forests of the South. India, Malacca Peninsula, Sri Lanka, Mentawai, Great Sunda, Philippines.

Subgenus Petinomys s.str.

fuscocapillus Jerdon, 1847. South India, Fr. Sri Lanka .

hageni Jentink, 1888. Borneo Islands, Sumatra.

lugens Thomas, 1895. Mentawai Islands: Siberut, Sipora.

vordermanni Jentink, 1890. The south of the peninsula of Malacca, about. Borneo

genibarbis (? sagitta Linnaeus, 1766). Malacca Peninsula, Sunda Islands.

crinitus Hollister, 1911 (mindanensis Rabor, 1939). South part of the Philippine Islands.

Subgenus Listhomys McKenna, 1962

setosus Temminck, 1844. Southwest Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, Sumatra Island, Borneo.

Assamese Flying Squirrels - Biswamoyopterus Saha, 1981

Suggested proximity to Petinomys. 1 view. Mountain forests East. The Himalayas.

biswasi Saha, 1981. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Flying Squirrel family - Pygmies - Petaurillus Thomas, 1908

3 types. The south of the peninsula of Malacca, north of about. Borneo

hosei Thomas, 1900. North Fr. Borneo

emiliae Thomas, 1908. North Fr. Borneo

kinlochi Robinson, Kloss, 1911. South of the Malacca Peninsula.

Rod Squirrel black - Aeromys Robison, Kloss, 1915

2 types. Malacca Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo.

tephromelas Gunther, 1873. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

thomasi Hose, 1900. Oh. Borneo

Tribe Pteromyini s. str.

Flying squirrel species North Asian - Pteromys Cuvier, 1800

2 types. The taiga zone of Eurasia from Finland to Mongolia, the Far Eastern coast of Russia, North-East. China, Korea, Shantar, Sakhalin, Japanese.

volans Linnaeus, 1758. Distribution - as indicated for the genus (except for Honshu and Kyushu).

momonga Temminck, 1844. Japan: Honshu Island, Kyushu.

Flying Squirrel North American - Glaucomys Thomas, 1908

2 types. Forest areas North and Center. America.

volans Linnaeus, 1758. East, South, and Southwest North. America, Center. America.

sabrinus , Shaw, 1801. North and West Sev. America.

Trogopterus Group

Genus Flying Tooth - Trogopterus Heude, 1898

Close to Belomyswhich is sometimes combined. 1 view. Low-mountain (1300-1500 m) forests of the South. Of China.

xanthipes Milne-Edwards, 1867. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Rod flying-legged genus - Belomys Thomas, 1908

Close to Trogopterus. 1 view. Mountain (1500–2600 m) broad-leaved forests East. Himalayas, South Tibet, Indochina, about. Taiwan.

pearsoni Gray, 1842. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Smoky squirrel genus - Pteromyscus Thomas, 1908

1 view. Primary lowland forests of Malacca Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo.

pulverulentus Gunther, 1873. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Triba Petauristini Miller, 1912

Giant Sagittarius genus - Petaurista Link, 1795

The composition is not clear: in different sources from 5 to 9 species (in different combinations) are indicated, here are 8. Mountain (up to 4000 m) forests of Hindustan (including the Hindu Kush), China, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, Sri Lanka, Natun, Big Sunda, Hainan, Taiwan, Japanese (except for Hokkaido).

Group of species " petaurista»

elegans Muller, 1840. Center. and East. Himalayas, South and East. Tibet (Sichuan, Yunnan), north and center of Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, Sunda Islands.

petaurista Pallas, 1766. Hindu Kush, Himalayas, South. Tibet, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, Sunda Islands.

philippensis Elliot, 1839. Hindustan, South - West. China, West Indochina, Sri Lanka, Sunda, Hainan, Taiwan.

alborufus Milne-Edwards, 1870. South. and Center. China, about. Taiwan.

magnificus Hodgson, 1836. Center. and East. Himalayas, East Tibet.

nobilis Gray, 1842. Center. and East. Himalayas.

Group of species " leucogenys»

leucogenys Temminck, 1827. East. and South. Tibet (South China), Japan (except for Hokkaido Island).

xanthotis Milne-Edwards, 1872. Mountains Center. and Southwest. China: Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan.

Genus Chinese Flying Squirrel - Aeretes Allen, 1940

1 view. Center. and East. China (Sichuan, Hebei).

melanopterus Milne-Edwards, 1867. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Subfamily Sciurinae s. str.

Most likely, monophyletic taxon. The supragenital groups are insufficiently substantiated: from 3 to 5 tribes, some are sometimes considered as independent subfamilies. In the composition adopted here approx. 25 births. Forest areas of Eurasia (incl. Malay arch.), North., Center. and South. America, different types of forests and savannahs of Africa.

Tribe Nannosciurini Major, 1893

= Callosciurini Pocock, 1923.

Squirrel genus beautiful - Callosciurus Gray, 1867

Glyphotes are sometimes included here. , Sundasciurus. OK. 15 species, a significant part of which is clearly divided into 2 groups. Center. and East. Himalayas, South Tibet, Indochina, the Malacca Peninsula, the islands of the Great Sunda Islands (possibly except Sulawesi), Mentawai, Bali, Taiwan.

Group of species " caniceps»

caniceps Gray, 1842. South - West. Indochina, Malacca Peninsula and adjacent islands.

phayeri Blyth, 1855. Central areas of Indochina.

inornatus Gray, 1867. North. Indochina, South Yunnan.

Group of species " notatus »

notatus Boddaert, 1785. Malacca Peninsula, the Bolshoi Sunda Islands (except Sulawesi), Bali, Lombok, and also the adjacent small islands.

albescens Bonhote, 1901. Oh. Sumatra.

nigrovittatus Horsfield, 1824. South. Vietnam, Malacca Peninsula, Sunda Islands (except Sulawesi), adjacent small islands.

orestes Thomas, 1895 (canalvus Moore, 1959). Middle belt of mountains of the northern part of about. Borneo

adamsi Kloss, 1921. The lower belt of mountains in the northern part of about. Borneo

melanogaster Thomas, 1895. Arch. Mentawai.

Callosciurusinc. sed.

erythraeus Pallas, 1778 (? Flavimanus Geoffroy, 1831). East Himalayas, South China, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, about. Taiwan.

finlaysoni Horsfield, 1823 (ferrugineus Cuvier, 1829). Indochina.

pygerythrus Geoffroy, 1832. Center. and East. Himalayas, Southeast. Tibet

quinquestriatus Anderson, 1871. East. Himalayas, Southeast. Tibet

prevosti Desmarest, 1822. Malacca Peninsula, Sunda Islands (possibly introduced in Sulawesi), adjacent small islands.

baluensis Bonhote, 1901. The northern part of about. Borneo

Genus Kalimantan Squirrels - Glyphotes Thomas, 1898

Sometimes included in Callosciurus. 1 view. Mountains (1000–1700 m) of the northern part of Fr. Borneo

simus Thomas, 1898. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Probe Squirrel genus - Sundasciurus Moore, 1958

Close to Callosciurus . 2 subgenus, up to 15 species (sometimes up to 7). Malacca Peninsula, Big Sunda Islands (partially), Riau, Natuna, Philippines.

Subgenus Sundasciurus s.str.

lowi Thomas, 1892. Peninsula of Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, Riau, Natuna.

? fraterculus Thomas, 1895. Mentawai Island.

brookei Thomas, 1892. About. Borneo

jentinki Thomas, 1887. About. Borneo

tenuis Horsfield, 1824. Peninsula of Malacca, the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, Riau, Natuna.

Subgenus Aletesciurus Moore, 1958

hippurus Geoffroy, 1831. South. Vietnam, the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, Riau, Natun.

mindanensis Steere, 1890. O. Mindanao and the small adjacent islands (Philippines).

samarensis Steere, 1890. Samar and Leyte Islands (Philippines).

davensis Sanborn, 1952. Oh. Mindanao.

philippinensis Waterhouse, 1839. Southern Philippines.

steerei Gunther, 1877. Balabak and Palawan Islands (Southern) (Philippines).

mollendorffi Matschie, 1898 (albicauda Matschie, 1898). Calamian Islands (Philippines).

juvencus Thomas, 1908. About. Palawan.

rabori Heaney, 1979.O. Palawan.

hoogstraali Sanborn, 1952. Busuang Island, Calaut (Philippines).

Squirrel dwarf Sulawesian genus - Prosciurillus Ellerman, 1947

Usually closer to the river. Sundasciurus . 4 types. O. Sulawesi, Sangihyo Island.

murinus Muller et Schlegel, 1844. O. Sulawesi (northeast and center).

abstrusus Moore, 1958. O. Sulawesi (southeastern part).

weberi Jentink, 1890. Oh. Sulawesi.

leucomus Muller et Schlegel, 1844 (elbertae Schwarz, 1911, sarasinorum Meyer, 1898). O. Sulawesi, Sangihyo Island.

Rod Squirrel Ruby - Rubrisciurus Ellerman, 1954

Sometimes considered as a subgenus in Callosciurus. 1 view. O. Sulawesi.

rubriventer Muller et Schlegel, 1844. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Genus Tamiops - Tamiops Allen, 1906

Sometimes considered as a subgenus Callosciurus. 4 types. Foothill and low-mountain forests Centr., Yuzh. and East. China Center. and East. Himalayas, Indochina, on the islands of Taiwan, Hainan.

macclellandi Horsfield, 1840. Center. and East. Himalayas, South Tibet, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula.

rodolphei Milne-Edwards, 1867. South Indochina.

swinhoei Milne-Edwards, 1874. South. and East. China, North Indochina.

maritimus Bonhote, 1900. South. China, North and East. Indochina, Taiwan, Hainan.

Rod Dremomys - Dremomys Heude, 1898

5 types. Center. and East. Himalayas, Center. and South. China, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, Borneo Islands, Taiwan. From sea level to 3400 m.

lokriah Hodgson, 1836. Mountain Forest Center. and East. The Himalayas.

pernyi Milne-Edwards, 1867. East. Himalayas, Center. and South. China, North Indochina, about. Taiwan.

rufigenis Blanford, 1878. East. Himalayas, South China, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula.

pyrrhonotus Thomas, 1895. Center. and South. China, North Vietnam, about. Hainan.

everetti Thomas, 1890. Mountains of the northern and western parts of about. Borneo

Genus Squirrels Malay - Lariscus Thomas et Wrougthon, 1909

Sometimes it is divided into 2 genera. 4 types. Malacca Peninsula, arch. Riau, the islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the adjacent small islands.

Subgenus Lariscus s.str.

insignis Cuvier, 1821. Peninsula of Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the adjacent islands.

niobe Thomas, 1898. Mountain forests of the islands of Sumatra, Java, Mentawai.

obscurus Miller, 1903. Mentawai Islands.

Subgenus Paralariscus Ellerman, 1947

hosei Thomas, 1892. Mountains of the northern part of about. Borneo

Genus Squirrels multiband - Menetes Thomas, 1908

1 view. East Himalayas, Indochina.

berdmorei Blyth, 1849. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Genus Long-nosed Squirrels - Rhinosciurus Blyth, 1855

1 view. Peninsula Malacca, the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, many small islands between them.

laticaudatus Muller, 1840. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Genus Sulaweski Squirrels - Hyosciurus Archbold et Tate, 1935

1 or 2 types. Mountain (1700–2300 m) forests of Fr. Sulawesi.

heinrichi Archbold et Tate, 1935. The central part of about. Sulawesi.

? ileile Tate et Archbold, 1936. Northern part of Fr. Sulawesi.

Squirrel genus Black-eared - Nannosciurus Trouessart, 1880

1 view. The islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the small adjacent islands.

melanotis Muller, 1840. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Squirrel genus tiny - Exilisciurus Moore, 1958

Closest to Nannosciurus. 3 types. O. Borneo, southern Philippines (Mindanao, Basilan, Samar Islands).

exilis Muller, 1838. Borneo Islands, Bangui.

whitheadi Thomas, 1887. North and West Fr. Borneo

concinnus Thomas, 1888. Southern Philippines.

Tribe Sciurini s. str.

Includes 4 genera (possibly more), some of them are sometimes distinguished into separate tribes, perhaps Rheithrosciurus. Forests of the Palearctic part of Eurasia, tropical Africa, the New World.

Squirrel genus - Sciurus Linnaeus, 1758

5–7 subgenus, approx. 30 species, neotropical species are sometimes distinguished in the genus Guerlinguetes (with two subgenera). North Eurasia, North and Center. America, North South. America.

Subgenus Tenes Thomas, 1909

anomalus Gmelin, 1778. Transcaucasia, North. and West. Iran, Asia Minor, Levant.

Subgenus Sciurus s. str.

vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758. The Palearctic part of the range of the genus (except Japan).

lis Temminck, 1844. Japanese Islands: Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu.

carolinensis Gmelin, 1788. Mixed forests of the eastern part of the North. America, brought to England.

aureogaster Cuvier, 1829 (griseoflavus Gray, 1867, nelsoni Merriam, 1893, poliopus Fitzinger, 1867, socialis Wagner, 1837). The extreme southwest of the North. America, Center. America.

colliaei Richardson, 1839 (sinaloensis Nelson, 1899, truei Nelson, 1899). West Mexico

yucatanensis Allen 1877. Center. America

variegatoides Ogilby, 1839. Center. America.

deppei Peters, 1863. Center. America.

niger Linnaeus, 1758. Center, East and South North. America.

oculatus Peters, 1863. Mexico.

alleni Nelson, 1898. Mexico.

nayaritensis , Nelson, 1889 (apache Allen, 1893, chiracahua Goldman, 1933). Southwest North America.

arizonensis Coues, 1867. Southwest North. America.

Subgenus Hesperosciurus Nelson, 1899

griseus Ord, 1818. Mid and South West North. America.

Subgenus Otosciurus Nelson, 1899

aberti Woodhouse, 1853 (kaibabensis Merriam, 1904). Southwest North America.

Subgenus Guerlinguetus Gray, 1821

granatensis Humboldt, 1811. Center. America, North South. America.

richmondi Nelson, 1898. Center. America

aestuans Linnaeus, 1766. Forests of the Amazon, Brazilian plateau.

gilvigularis Wagner, 1842. Northern part of the Amazon region South. America.

ignitus Gray, 1867. North, West, center of North. America.

pucherani Fitzinger, 1867. Mountain (2000–3000 m) forests of Colombia.

stramineus Eydoux et Souleyet, 1841. Northwest South. America.

sanborni Osgood, 1944. Locally in tropical forests in the northwest of South. America.

Subgenus Hadrosciurus Allen, 1915

flammifer Thomas, 1904. Locally in the lower reaches of the river. Orinoco (North South America).

pyrrhinus Thomas, 1898. Locally in the rainforests in the northwest of South. America.

Subgenus Urosciurus Allen, 1915.

igniventris Wagner, 1842. North Sout. America.

spadiceus Olfers, 1818 (langsdorffi Brandt, 1835, pyrrhonotus Wagner, 1842). Amazon region.

Squirrel genus racemes - Rheithrosciuris Gray, 1867

1 view. Forests about. Borneo

macrotis Gray, 1857. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Squirrel genus - Pygmies - Sciurillus Thomas, 1914

1 view. Primary forests of the northern part of the Amazon region America.

pusillus Desmarest, 1822. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Genus Squirrels furrowed - Syntheosciurus Bangs, 1902

1-2 species. Mountain (approx. 2000 m) Rainforest Center. America.

brochus Bang, 1902 (? Poasensis Goodwin, 1942). Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Genus Dwarf Squirrels - Microsciurus Allen, 1895

5 types. Rainforest Center. America, North South. America.

alfari Allen, 1895 (septentrionalis Anthony, 1920). Center. America.

mumulus Thomas, 1898 (boquetensis Nelson, 1903, isthmius Nelson, 1999, palmeri Thomas, 1909). Mountain Forest Center. America, the extreme northwest of the South. America.

flaviventer Gray, 1867 (? Avunculus Thomas, 1914, florenciae Allen, 1914, manarius Thomas, 1920, napi Thomas, 1900, otinus Thomas, 1901, peruanus Allen, 1897, rubrirostris Allen, 1914, sabanillae Anthony, 1922, similis Nelson, 1999, simonsi Thomas, 1900). Forests of the northwest of the Amazon.

santanderensis Hernandez-Camacho, 1957. Colombia.

Genus Red Squirrels - Tamiasciurus Trouessart, 1880

The kinship is not clear: perhaps it should be excluded from Sciurini. 3 types. Coniferous and mixed forests of the North. America

hudsonicus Erxleben, 1777. North, West (Rocky Mountains) and East (Appalachian Mountains) North. America.

douglasi Bachman, 1838. West Sev. America.

mearnsi Townsend, 1897. South - West North. America.

Triba Funambulini Pocock, 1923

Composition and taxonomic boundaries are not clear enough: sometimes Sciurotamias are also included here, some genera from Protoxerini.

Rod Squirrel palm - Funambulus Lesson, 1835

2 subgenus, 5 species. Sparse forests and shrubbery in arid areas, tropical forests of Hindustan (west to the right bank of the Indus), about. Sri Lanka.

Subgenus Prasadsciurus Moore et Tate, 1965

pennanti Wroughton, 1905. Foothill forests from the Southeast. Iran to Nepal, Sev. and center. Hindustan, introduced on the Andaman Islands and in the West. Australia

Subgenus Funambulus s. str.

palmarum Linnaeus, 1766. Center and south of Hindustan (two isolated sites), about. Sri Lanka.

tristriatus Waterhouse, 1837. West coast of Hindustan.

layardi Blyth, 1849. The extreme south of Hindustan, about. Sri Lanka.

sublineatus Waterhouse, 1838. South - West. Hindustan, about. Sri Lanka.

Squirrel genus giant - Ratufa Gray, 1867

Sometimes stands out in a separate tribe Ratufini Moore, 1959. 4 species. Plain and low-mountain (up to 2000 m) forests of Hindustan, Indochina, Malacca Peninsula, Sri Lanka, Bolshoi Zondskie, Natuna, Rio, Bali, Hainan.

bicolor Sparrman, 1778. East. Himalayas, South Tibet, Indochina and the Malacca Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Bali, Hainan, also on some adjacent islands.

indica Erxleben, 1777. Most of the forest regions Center. and South. Hindustan.

macroura Pennant, 1769. South of Hindustan, about. Sri Lanka.

affinis Raffles, 1821. Peninsula of Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, a number of small neighboring islands.

Genus Mouse Proteins - Myosciurus Thomas, 1909

1 view. Forest Territories Zap. Africa.

pumilio Le Conte, 1857. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Squirrel genus striped - Funisciurus Trouessart, 1880

Up to 9 species. Plain and mountain (up to 2400 m) forests, plantations, shrub savannahs Equator. and Southwest. Africa.

caruthersi Thomas, 1906. Mountain (1800-2400 m) forests of the Rift zone.

isabella Gray, 1862. Center. Africa

lemniscatus Le Conte, 1857. Center. Africa.

congicus Kuhl, 1820. Tropical and Savannah Forest Center. and Southwest. Africa.

bayoni Bocage, 1890. Southwest. Africa.

substriatus Winton, 1899. West. Africa

leucogenys Waterhouse, 1942. Forest areas of the West. and part of the Center. Africa, about. Fernando Po.

pyrrhopus Cuvier, 1833. Plain and low-mountain secondary forests and abandoned plantations Zap., Center. and partially South-West. Africa.

anerythrus Thomas, 1890. Secondary forests and abandoned plantations Zap., Center. and Southwest. Africa.

Genus Shrub Squirrels - Paraxerus Major, 1893

3 subgenera, 11 species (previously some were attributed to Heliosciurus) Forests, plantations, savannah woodlands Vost. and South. Africa.

Subgenus Paraxerus s.str.

flavovittis Peters, 1852. East. Africa

poensis Smith, 1834. Forest regions of the West. and Center. Africa, about. Fernando Po.

vincenti Hayman, 1950. Locally in Vost. Africa.

ochraceus Huet, 1880. Xerophytic savannah woodland Vost. Africa.

cepapi Smith, 1836. Savannah woodlands of the north of the South African subcontinent.

Subgenus Aethosciurus Thomas, 1916

lucifer Thomas, 1897.Southeast Africa

palliatus Peters, 1852. Forest regions of East. Africa.

vexillaris Kershaw, 1923. Mountain forests of the Rift Zone.

cooperi Hayman, 1950. Locally in the forests of Zap. Africa.

Subgenus Tamiscus Thomas, 1918

alexandri Thomas et Wroughton, 1907. Center. Africa

boehmi Reichenow, 1881. Plain and low-mountain forests, riverine shrub savannas of the North-East. and East. Africa.

Triba Protoxerini Moore, 1959

Occupies an intermediate position between Funambulini and Xerinae.

Genus Oil Squirrel - Protoxerus Major, 1893

On Allosciurus Conisbee, 1953. 2 species. Plain and mid-mountain savannas and mesophytic forests, plantations in sub-Saharan Africa (except in the extreme south of the continent).

aubinni Gray, 1873. West. Africa.

stangeri Waterhouse, 1842. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Squirrel genus African - Epixerus Thomas, 1909

2 types. Xerophytic forests of Zap. Africa.

ebii Temminck, 1853. From Sierra Leone to Ghana.

wilsoni Caillu, 1860. From Cameroon to Gabon.

Rod Squirrels solar - Heliosciurus Trouessart, 1880

Earlier here included Aethosciurus. Up to 6 species. Forest regions of sub-Saharan Africa (excluding the extreme south of the continent).

ruwenzorii Schwann, 1907. Mountain (1600–2800 m) forests of the Rift zone.

gambianus Ogilby, 1822. Savannah woodlands and secondary forests of Zap. and Center. Africa, North South African subcontinent.

mutabilis Peters, 1852. Southeast. Africa

punctatus Temminck, 1853. From Liberia to Ghana.

rufobrachium Waterhouse, 1842. Plain and mountain (up to 3000 m) gallery and savannah forests Equator. and southeast. Africa.

undulatus True, 1892. East. Africa.

Subfamily Xerinae Osborn, 1910

Sometimes considered as a tribe in the composition of Sciurinae. 3 genera. Arid open spaces of Africa (excluding the Sahara), Central Asia.

Genus Maghreb Squirrels - Atlantoxerus Major, 1893

1 view. Rocky Deserts of the North-West Africa.

getulus Linnaeus, 1758. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Genus Ground Squirrels - Xerus Hemprich et Ehrenberg, 1832

On Geosciurus Smith, 1964. Sometimes divided into 2 genera. 4 types. Dry savannahs, semi-deserts and deserts of Africa (except for the northern regions).

rutilus Cretzchmar, 1826. Dry savannas of the North-East. and East. Africa.

erythropus Geoffroy, 1803. Semi-deserts bounding from the west and south of the Sahara, North-East. Africa

inaurus Zimmermann, 1780. Deserts South. Africa.

princeps Thomas, 1923. Rocky areas in the deserts of the South. Africa.

Gopher squirrel - Spermophilopsis Blasius, 1884

1 view. Plain sandy deserts Southeast. Kazakhstan, Central Asia, North-East. Iran and Northwest Afghanistan.

leptodactylus Lichtenstein, 1823. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

Tribe Tamiini Moore, 1959

Squirrel Chipmunks - Sciurotamias Miller, 1901

On Rupestes Thomas, 1922. The systematic position is unclear: refers to Tamiini or Funambulini, sometimes stands out in a separate tribe. 2 types. Upper belt of mountain coniferous forests Centr., Vost. and southeast. Of China.

davidianus Milne-Edwards, 1867. The eastern part of the range of the genus (from Hebei to Sichuan and Guizhou).

forresti Thomas, 1922. South. and East. Tibet

Rod Chipmunks - Tamias Illiger, 1811

On Eutamias Trouessart, 1880. 2–3 subgenus (sometimes regarded as genera), 20–25 species. Plain taiga and mountain forests of the North. America, taiga zone of Eurasia.

Subgenus Tamias s.str.

striatus Linnaeus, 1758. East and southeast Sev. America.

sibiricus Laxmann, 1769. The Eurasian part of the range of the genus (from northern Europe to the Pacific coast, south to north-eastern China, Sakhalin Island, Hokkaido).

Subgenus Neotamias Howell, 1929

minimus Bachman, 1839. Taiga forests of the north and northwest of Sev. America and the South Rockies.

townsendi Bachman, 1839. Coastal mountain forests of the midwest of the North. America.

siskiyou Howell, 1922. Midwest and Southwest North. America.

senex Allen, 1890. Midwest and Southwest North. America.

ochrogenys Merriam, 1897. Midwest North. America.

umbrinus Allen, 1890. The central part of the Rocky Mountains (midwest and center of North America).

amoenus Allen, 1890. The central part of the Rocky Mountains.

ruficaudus Howell, 1920. Central Rockies.

canipes Baley, 1902. Southeast Rockies.

quadrivittatus Say, 1823. Middle of the Rockies.

rufus Hoffmeister et Ellis, 1979. Southeast Rockies.

quadrimaculatus Gray, 1867. California.

cinereicollis Allen, 1890. The South Rocky Mountains.

merriami Allen, 1889. California.

obscurus Allen, 1890. North. California

alpinus Merriam, 1893. Southwest North. America.

palmeri Merriam, 1897. Locally in Nevada.

bulleri Allen, 1889. Mountains of Zap. Sierra Madre

? durangae Allen, 1903. Mountains of Zap. Sierra Madre

sonomae Grinnell, 1915. Southwest North. America.

speciosus Merriam, 1890. California.

panamintinus Merriam, 1893. Large pool.

dorsalis Baird, 1855. South of the Rockies.

Tribe Spermophilini Moore, 1959

In classical systems, it is sometimes divided into 2 tribes - Spermophilini s. str. and Otospermo philini Gromov, 1965. Perhaps the traditional system of childbirth and natal groups is cladistically incorrect and needs to be reviewed.

Gopher genus - Spermophilus Cuvier, 1825

= Citellus Oken, 1816 nom. nud. Perhaps paraphyletic. The taxonomy is poorly developed: in the broadest interpretation, Ictidomys Otospermo philus Cal lospermophilus , in the narrowest exclude them, and also sometimes Colobotis , Notocitellus Xerospermophilus . 5–6 subgenus, 25–30 species. Steppes, semi-pits, tundra (including mountain) Eurasia and North. America.

Subgenus Urocitellus Obolensky, 1927

parryi Richardson, 1825. The extreme north-east of Siberia, the north of the Far East, Kamchatka, north-west Sev. America.

undulatus Pallas, 1778. South Siberia from Altai to Manchuria, Center. Yakutia.

columbianus Ord, 1815. Mountain meadows of the midwest of the North. America.

Subgenus Spermophilus s. str.

townsendi Bachman, 1839. Washington State.

mollis Kennicott, 1863. Washington State.

canus Merriam, 1898 (vigilis Merriam, 1913). Oregon, Nevada.

washingtoni Howell, 1938. Washington, Oregon.

brunneus Howell, 1928. West-Central Great Plains.

armatus Kennicott, 1863. Southern Rockies.

beldingi Merriam, 1888. Large pool and south of the Rocky Mountains.

richardsoni Sabine, 1822. Northern Great Plains.

elegans Kennicott, 1863. Western Great Plains.

Subgenus Colobotis Brandt, 1844

fulvus Lichtenstein, 1823. Kazakhstan, Plain Central Asia, North-East. Iran, North-West Afghanistan, west of Xinjiang.

major Pallas, 1779. Steppes between the Volga and Irtysh to the South. Ural, south west Siberia, in Kazakhstan.

erythrogenys Brandt, 1841 (pallidicaudus Satunin, 1903). Plains East Kazakhstan, south west Siberia, Xinjiang, Center. Mongolia, Inner Mongolia.

pygmaeus Pallas, 1778. Plain steppes of the South-West. Ukraine, Ciscaucasia, Lower. Volga region to the center. Kazakhstan.

musicus Menetries, 1832. Alpine meadows of the Greater Caucasus.

dauricus Brandt, 1844. Transbaikalia, East. Mongolia, North-East China

alaschanicus Buchner, 1888. North. China, South Mongolia.

relictus Kashkarov, 1923. Tien Shan mountains in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

susclicus Guldenstaedt, 1770. Steppes Center. and East. Of Europe.

citellus Linnaeus, 1766. Plain and low-mountain steppes Center. and South. Of Europe.

xanthoprymnus Bennett, 1835. Mountain steppes of Transcaucasia. Asia Minor, Levant.

Subgenus Poliocitellus Howell, 1938

franklini Sabine, 1822. Great Plains of the North. America.

Subgenus Xerospermophilus Merriam, 1892

mohavensis Merriam, 1889. The Mojave Desert (southwest North America).

tereticaudus Baird, 1858. South of the Great Basin, California.

Subgenus Notocitellus Howell, 1938

annulatus Audubon et Bachman, 1842. Mountains of the Western Sierra Madre (southwest North America).

Genus Iktidomys - Ictidomys Allen, 1887

Sometimes included in Spermophilus, in some systems Poliocitellus. 4 types. Low-grass steppes (prairies) and semi-deserts of the central, southern and south-western regions of the North. America, North Center. America.

spilosoma Merriam, 1893. Savannahs, steppes and semi-deserts of the center and southwest of the North. America.

tridecemlineatus Mitchell, 1821. The Great Plains.

mexicanus Erxleben, 1777. Mexican Highlands.

perotensis Merriam, 1893. South of the Highlands of Mexico.

Rhode Gopher Rock - Otospermophilus Brandt, 1814

Sometimes combined with Spermophilus, with a wide interpretation here include Callospermophilus. 5 types. Arid open landscapes of the west and southwest of the North. America.

beecheyi Richardson, 1829. Coastal ridges of the midwest and southwest of the North. America.

variegatus Erxleben, 1777. The Sierra Nevada Mountains.

atricapillus Bryant, 1889. California.

adocetus Merriam, 1903. Mountains of the Western Sierra Madre.

Genus Gophers golden - Callospermophilus Merriam, 1897

Closest to Otospermophilus, sometimes combined with him. 3 types. Mountain meadows and steppes of the west and southwest of the North. America.

lateralis Say, 1823. Midwest North. America.

saturatus Rhoods, 1895. Midwest North. America.

madrensis Merriam, 1901. North. Mexico

Genus Antelope Gophers - Ammospermophilus Merriam, 1892

5 types. Plain and foothill deserts and semi-deserts of the southwest of the North. America.

harrisi Audubon et Bachman, 1854. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

leucurus Merriam, 1889. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

interpres Merriam, 1890. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

insularis Nelson et Goldman, 1909. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.

nelsoni Merriam, 1893. The northern part of the range of the genus.

Rod Meadow Dogs - Cynomys Rafinesque, 1817

In traditional systems, it sometimes stands out in a separate tribe. 2 subgenus, 5 species. Steppes (prairies) of the central and southern regions of the North. America.

Subgenus Cynomys s.str.

ludovicianus Ord, 1815. The Great Plains.

mexicanus Merriam, 1892. Locally on the Mexican Highlands.

Subgenus Leucrossuromys Hollister, 1916

leucurus Merriam, 1890. The Great Plains.

parvidens Allen, 1905. The Great Plains.

gunissoni Baird, 1855. The Great Plains.

Tribe Marmotini s. str.

Perhaps part of Spermophilini.

Marmot family - Marmota Blumenbach, 1779

2 subgenera (or groups of species), 13-14 species. Plain and mountain steppes and meadows Center. and East. Europe, Kazakhstan, the south of Zap. Siberia, Middle and Center. Asia (to Mongolia and Transbaikalia), northeast Siberia, Kamchatka, North. America.

Subgenus Marmota s.str.

marmota Linnaeus, 1758. Alpine meadows of the mountains of Zap. and Center. Of Europe.

bobak Muller, 1776. Plain steppes Vost. Europe, the north of Kazakhstan.

baibacina Kastschenko, 1899 (?kastschenkoi Stroganov et Yudin, 1956). Mountain steppes and alpine meadows of the south of Zap. Siberia, Tuva, North-West. Mongolia, East Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, North-West. Xinjiang

sibirica Radde, 1862. Mountain steppes and alpine meadows of Tuva, Transbaikalia, Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria.

menzbieri Kashkarov, 1925. Alpine meadows of the Western Tien Shan in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

caudata Geoffroy, 1844. Alpine meadows of the Tien Shan, Pamir, Hindu Kush, Kashmir.

himalayana Hodgson, 1841. Highlands of the Himalayas and Tibet.

camtschatica Pallas, 1811. East. Baikal, Verkhoyansk and Kolyma highlands, Kamchatka Peninsula.

monax Linnaeus, 1758. Plain and foothill meadows and steppes of the north and west of the North. America.

Subgenus Petromarmota Steppan et al., 1999

flaviventris Audubon et Bachman, 1841. The middle part of the Rocky Mountains (western North America).

caligata Escholz, 1829. Foothills and mountains of the north and the center of the North American Cordillera (northwest and midwest of North America).

broweri Hall et Gilmore, 1934. North Alaska Peninsula.

olympus Merriam, 1898. West pc. Washington

? vancouverensis Swarth, 1911. O. Vancouver (the coast of the midwest of North America).

Applause

Animal applause or a mountain beaver (it has nothing to do with beavers) is one of the most ancient representatives of rodents, while it is the only representative of the genus of applause and the applause family.

Parameter Name Value
Applause size 30 - 50 cm
Applause weight 0.9 - 1.6 kg
What does applause eat? Herbivorous animal. Applause feeds on aboveground and underground parts of plants. Favorite food - ferns, also eats barberry, nettle, maple, willow, alder, etc. Nibbles shrubs and trees. It is able to climb 6 meters along a tree trunk to get thin branches.
Where does applause live? Applause is found in North America along the Pacific coast from Columbia to California. They settle in dense forests where there are bushes and ferns, as well as loose soil for convenient digging of holes. It is much more common in deciduous forests than in conifers.

Applause Lifestyle

Applause is a nocturnal animal, although on cloudy days it can leave the hole in the afternoon. Her tail is short, only 4 cm. Her vision and hearing are weak, but her sense of smell and touch are well developed. They live mainly underground. The applause is pulled out by extensive tunnel systems that have a nesting chamber (1 - 1.5 m underground) and aft, and long tunnels go from them with many exits to the surface, covered by vegetation. Tunnels may intersect with other representatives of this species. Does not hibernate. In winter, they can dig burrows under snow cover. She takes food sitting on her hind legs like a squirrel.

Reproduction of applause

The mating season in applause originates in January-March. Pregnancy in a female lasts about 30 days. most often 2 to 4 cubs are born. They are born blind and without hair. 2 months, the female feeds them with her milk, and at 2 months the cubs are already independent. At 2 years they reach puberty. These interesting animals live for 5-10 years.

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Rodents

DomainEukaryotes
KingdomAnimals
KingdomEumetazoi
NattypeChordaria
A typeChordate

SubtypeVertebrates
InfratypeMaxillary
OverclassTetrapods
ClassMammals (Mammalia)
SubclassBeasts (Theria)
InfraclassPlacental (Eutheria)
SquadEuarchontoglirs (Euarchontoglires)
DetachmentRodents

Rodents (lat. Rodentia ) - the most numerous detachment of placental lat. Eutheria ) mammals (lat. Mammalia ).

Edit Origin

Rodents arose about 60 million years ago. Most likely, their ancestors were small omnivorous animals similar to insectivores. The fossil remains of rodents, known from the Lower Paleocene in the New World and from the Lower Eocene in the Old, already belong to rather specialized forms.

The appearance of the detachment can be assumed in the Cretaceous or even in the Upper Jurassic. Relationships with other orders of mammals have not been clarified. The closest related group should be considered rabbits, which the majority considers an independent detachment.

The biological specificity of rodents was determined by adaptation to nutrition of plant foods.

At the same time, ungulates formed, which are also herbivorous, but larger. Therefore, rodents, to avoid competition, remained small. The smallest of them (for example, a baby mouse) are close to the size minimum of the class of mammals - they weigh only 5-10 g, and the largest reach only 50-60 kg. Thus, only insectivores and bats are on average smaller than rodents.

It is interesting that in this order, as in the class of mammals as a whole, animals that lead a semi-aquatic lifestyle — beavers and capybaras — reach the largest sizes.

Edit Systematics

The taxonomy of the detachment is very difficult and complex due to the large number and diversity of its representatives, sometimes having convergent features. To date, there is no consensus among experts even regarding relatively large taxonomic categories (suborders, superfamilies).

Rodent Squad (Rodentia) (Bowdich, 1821) It is subdivided into 6 suborders and includes about 1600 species and 29 families.

    suborder Thorn-like (Anomaluromorpha) (Bugge, 1974)
      Spiky-Tailed family (Anomalur> edit General description

    Most rodents are folded quite proportionally. They have small paws and ears. They are long-tailed, covered with short thick fur. Only forms that have developed special adaptations to protection from predators, food, or a specific way of life evade this type.

    • So, the eyes of the underground inhabitants are often reduced (mole rats).
    • Inhabitants of open desert spaces run away from pursuit on very long hind legs (jerboas).
    • In woody animals that are able to plan, a leathery fold hangs from the sides of the body, turning them in the air into a kind of small “parachute” (flying squirrels). In many rodents, for protection against predators, their hair is turned into spikes, for example, in porcupines.

    The appearance of rodents is quite diverse. Their sizes are from small (body length 5-6 cm in some mouse-like rodents) to medium (body length 130 cm in capybara). Tail from very long (1.5-2 times longer than body) to rudimentary.

    The hair of rodents is usually thick, soft, and often spines (porcupines, some mice) develop. As an exception, the hairline can be almost absent (naked mole rats).

    The upper lip of rodents is usually more or less split.

    Edit The structure of the skull

    Skull with a shortened cerebral region, an orbit open behind the orbit, of medium size, or large (sometimes hypertrophic in desert rodents) auditory drums. The infraorbital foramen is small to hypertrophied. Its structure is of great taxonomic importance in the allocation of suborders: it is traditionally distinguished sciomorphic (minimum hole sizes), myomorphic and histricomorphic (maximum sizes) types.

    The lower jaw is of two main types. This is also taken into account when developing the taxonomic system of the order (in the sciurognathic type, the coronoid process is large, angular lies on the same plane with it, in the histricognatous type, the coronoid process is reduced, and the angular process is shifted outward relative to the first).

    Edit teeth

    A distinctive feature of all, without exception, rodents associated with nutrition of vegetation is a pair of enlarged incisors in the upper and lower jaws. They are very long, constantly growing, with their root part they penetrate far into the bones of the skull. Due to the fact that the enamel layer covers only the front surface of the cutters, when processing a hard surface, it erases more slowly than the rear, so that the cutting edge constantly remains very sharp. In typical rodents, this pair of incisors is the only one, in rabbit-like main incisors, the second pair of rudiments adjoins, but it does not participate in biting. On this basis, by the way, rabbits are sometimes called double-incisors and are allocated in a separate detachment.

    The remaining teeth of rodents are located at a considerable distance from the incisors - this is generally characteristic of herbivorous mammals, including ungulates. Rodents have no fangs, and molars, located on the sides of the oral cavity, are approximately the same shape, with a flat chewing surface. They can crush the seeds, “cut” the grass, but cutting the meat and especially crushing the bones is quite difficult.

    The number of teeth is from 12 to 22.

    Edit Extremities

    The limbs are most often short, but in jumping desert forms (jerboas) the hind legs are very elongated. Fingers with claws, which in species leading an underground lifestyle, are greatly enlarged. Auricle absent in burrowing forms (mole rats, gophers) or greatly enlarged (some jerboas).

    The clavicles are in most cases well developed, sometimes absent. The ulna and radius are often capable of rotational movement, which allows the front legs to bring food to the mouth.

    Shin bones in some rodents fuse, in others they are separate.

    Toes on the front legs are usually 5, but the internal parts are little or not developed. There are often five toes on the hind legs, even when there are only four on the front legs. Sometimes the number of toes on the hind legs is reduced to three.In jerboas with three toes on their hind legs, the metatarsal bones corresponding to them are fused into one bone, similar to the long metatarsus of birds.

    Rodents' fingers are armed with claws, sometimes with flat nails. Almost all rodents are stop-roaming.

    Edit cheek bags

    Many rodents have cheek pouches. These are the lateral saccular protrusions of the walls of the oral cavity between the lips and jaws. In some rodents, instead of these inner cheek pouches, there are outer cheeks that open on the outer surface, are lined with hair and extend along the neck to the shoulder region.

    Cheek bags serve to collect food supplies.

    The digestive system

    The rodent stomach is simple, occasionally divided into the cardiac and pyloric departments.

    In connection with the nutrition of coarse plant foods, the intestinal tract of rodents is quite long. The intestines are 5-17 times longer than the body.

    All rodents, except for the somniform, have a cecum in which food, in particular, is processed by fermentation. The cecum is often wider than the colon and even the stomach, and in length it is longer than the body.

    The cecum is especially strongly developed in species feeding on grass and tree bark.

    The reproductive system

    Some rodents have two completely separate uterus. In others, both uterus merge with each other only in their lower end and have one common vaginal opening.

    Testicles (testicles) either remain in the abdominal cavity, or are placed in the inguinal canal.

    The placenta is disc-shaped, with a falling membrane.

    Nipples from 2 to 14. They are located on the belly, and with a large number of them - and on the chest.

    Edit lifestyle

    Rodents live in a wide variety of landscape and climatic conditions, from sea level to highlands. These are terrestrial, arboreal or semi-aquatic animals. Some species are capable of planning. Specialized desert rodents are characterized by movement on their hind legs (usually by ricocheting jumps).

    Among rodents, there are only nocturnal species, feeding only during the daylight hours and active at any time of the day.

    Rodents are very distinct and very diverse in their lifestyle: from terrestrial (mouse, rat) to completely underground (mole rats, zocora) and semi-aquatic (beavers, capybaras) and from running (gerbil) and jumping (jerboas, long-legged) to climbing (squirrels) , mouse mice). There are forms adapted for planning a flight (flying squirrels).

    Many rodents dig their holes in the ground.

    Many winter species fall into deep hibernation (ground squirrels, woodchucks, marmots, sony). Animals leading public life, some erect large buildings together: for example, beavers, American musk rat, muskrat.

    The life expectancy of small rodents is 1.5-2 years, large (marmots, beavers) - 4-7 years. Puberty in small rodents occurs in 2-3 months, in large - in the 2nd year of life.

    Edit Power

    The main food of rodents is vegetation: leaves, young shoots, roots, grains, fruits, even bark and wood. But most species on occasion do not disdain animal substances (mice and rats are omnivores, squirrel eats eggs of birds).

    There are also fish-eating representatives.

    In many species, animal food (mainly insects) is included in the diet, some are specialized predators (in particular, large semi-aquatic rats and hamsters feed on fish).

    For winter, some species collect food in underground burrows (chipmunk, Tamias, in Siberia and America).

    Edit Reproduction

    Rodents are a group that flourishes in the modern geological era. The ability to rapidly reproduce under very diverse conditions of existence determines a faster rate of evolution than in other orders.

    Most rodents, especially small ones, are characterized by high fecundity. Several (up to 3-6) litters per year of 8-14 cubs each and early maturity at the age of 2-3 months.

    On the other hand, in most large rodents, 1-3 cubs will be born once a year. In some rodents (many mice, field voles, squirrels) newborns are underdeveloped, in others (for example, needle mice) they are able to follow the female almost immediately after birth. The former are characterized by significant fluctuations in numbers.

    Edit Protection and status

    The value of rodents for humans is very high. Some give valuable fur (beaver, squirrel, muskrat), others - tasty meat (hares, rabbits). There are carriers of pathogens of such dangerous diseases as plague (gerbils in deserts, rats in cities), pests of agriculture (ground squirrels) and domestic (mice, rats) farms. Some of the rodents are objects of cell farming (rabbit, nutria), “regulars” of scientific and medical laboratories (white rats and mice, guinea pigs, hamsters).

    Despite the abundance of rodents, some species have become rare due to human faults, including in our country. Some suffered because of the beautiful and durable fur (beavers, groundhogs), while others were unable to adapt to the altered habitat (mole rats).

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