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BIRD GUM (URINE DIATHESIS)

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Gout or uric acid diathesis (diathesis - predisposition) is a disease that occurs when the metabolism of nucleoproteins is impaired, characterized by an increased content of uric acid and its salts in the blood, followed by precipitation of uric acid crystals and amorphous uric acid in various tissues and organs.

Under normal conditions, the decay products of nucleoproteins (uric acid and its salts) in the dissolved state are excreted mainly from the body by the kidneys. In case of metabolic disturbance of these complex proteins, excessive formation of uric acid occurs, and its salts are deposited on the articular surfaces of the fingers of the extremities, in tendons, kidneys and serous membranes. At the place of deposition of crystals of uric acid salts, tissues undergo necrosis, an inflammatory lesion develops around the dead areas with proliferation of connective tissue.

Etiology. Gout in chickens occurs due to a lack of vital nutrients in the diet. A deficiency of vitamin A (hypovitaminosis A in chickens) has a great influence on the occurrence of the disease; a deficiency of vitamin B6 and B12 (B12 hypovitaminosis in birds) exacerbates the situation. Violation of mineral feeding (excess calcium, lack of phosphorus). The lack of drinking water. Feeding feed containing mycotoxins. Infectious diseases (infectious bronchitis of chickens).

Patry Show Data. In chickens, gout is manifested by deposits in the form of a thick white mass on the serous membranes of the chest and abdominal cavities (visceral uric acid diathesis), on the pericardium and epicardium, kidneys and on the articular surfaces of the toes. Under the overlays - serous cover with signs of inflammation.

The kidneys are enlarged, dotted with whitish bloom, whitish-gray or yellowish-white foci on the cut surface. Microscopy shows radiant crystals of urate, the renal tubule epithelium in a state of granular dystrophy and necrosis, the stroma is infiltrated by lymphoid and giant cells.

Clinical picture. The disease at the initial stage in chickens is impossible to detect. At a late stage of the disease, egg production and hatchability of eggs decreases, the general condition worsens, intestinal disorders, diarrhea appear, feces become white.

Gout in chickens and chickens can be in the form of articular and visceral forms.

With the articular form, joints are deformed, the formation of dense nodes, or gouty cones, the affected joints of the limbs are inactive and painful. More often, damage to the hock joints, joints of the phalanges of the fingers occurs. The skin of the affected joints has a gray-white color, when opening the abscesses, we note the leakage of a whitish gypsum-like mass. The joint form is more often affected by adult and elderly birds.

With the visceral form of gout in young animals, they note:

  • General weakness.
  • Great thirst.
  • Loss of appetite (the bird eats little or vice versa eats often and a lot).
  • Diarrhea.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Itchy skin appears.

Diagnosis. The diagnosis is usually made according to post-mortem autopsy.

Differential diagnosis. In case of a massive disease of chickens with gout in farms, it is necessary to exclude infectious diseases: chicken infectious bronchitis, egg-laying syndrome -76 (SSJ-76) - (egg-laying syndrome - 76 (SSJ), in which kidney damage occurs.

Treatment. It is not possible to cure gout in birds due to irreversible processes in the body. The other hens of the herd are watered with a 2% aqueous solution of bicarbonate of soda, a 0.5% solution of Carlsbad salt, and a 0.25% solution of urotropin. If the Farmer or the owner of the LPH has a large number of chickens, then the feed is alkalized with bicarbonate of soda and the bird is fed with such food for two weeks, a week break is made and again for the next two weeks it is fed with alkalized bicarbonate of soda. Nettles, beets, carrots, grass flour are introduced into the diet of chicken feeding.

The diet of chickens should be balanced in nutrients, vitamins and trace elements. Particular attention must be paid to a sufficient amount of vitamin A, B6 and B12 in the diet. Introduce premixes for laying hens — Ryabushka, Zdravur Laying — into the feeding ration (How to increase the productivity of laying hens in their holdings for LPH and KFH owners).

Prevention Prevention of gout in chickens should be based on a complete, balanced diet of nutrients, as well as vitamins, minerals. Feed used for feeding should not contain mycotoxins and other harmful chemical impurities. Chickens are vaccinated against infectious bronchitis.

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Gout is a metabolic disorder that results in excessive accumulation of uric acid and its salts in the blood, organs and tissues. All types of birds get sick, most often chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, pheasants, pigeons, parrots. The reason for gout is a high level of acids and peroxides in the feed, as well as poisoning with toxins, pesticides, nitrates, sodium chloride, restriction of movements, hypothermia, etc. It is especially difficult if the body lacks vitamin A and the disease develops gradually.

With gout, serous membranes, internal organs and joints are more often affected. In chickens, clinical signs of gout are weak. In the acute stage, an intestinal upset, white stools are observed, the general condition worsens, egg production and hatchability decrease. The joint form is manifested by impaired movement, swollen joints and an increase in local temperature.

Hock and finger joints are more often affected. In adult turkeys, the articular form of gout predominates. In geese, the disease is accompanied by diarrhea, shortness of breath, often sudden death.

In the visceral form, salts are deposited on the surface of the internal organs and the walls of the chest and abdominal cavity in the form of a thin coating or continuous gypsum deposits and in the thickness of the organs in the form of white foci. The ureters contain a white mucous mass, stones form from salts. With the articular form, tendons are affected, chalky deposits accumulate in the joint cavity. With a massive disease of chickens with gout, it is necessary to exclude infectious bronchitis and a syndrome of decreased egg production, in which kidney damage is common.

The effectiveness of the treatment of gout depends on the degree of development of the disease. A sick bird is given a 2% aqueous solution of bicarbonate of soda, 0.5% Carlsbad salt, 0.25% urotropine, 3% novatofana. In industrial enterprises, feed is alkalized with bicarbonate of soda (3 kg per 1 ton) and fed with periods of 10-15 days with breaks of 5-7 days. It is necessary to observe the standards for providing poultry with protein, amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements. It is mandatory to monitor the level of contamination of compound feeds with mycotoxins, upon detection of which they enter substances binding them (for example, silicone powders).

The necessary set of acids is provided by the inclusion of 3-4 types of grain in the diet. Choline chloride and other vitamins of groups B and E are introduced into high-calorie diets. On farms, for the prevention of gout, poultry can be given to the bird, as well as root and tubers with the addition of feed lime

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Vitamin B2 plays a large role in the growth and development of young pigeons. It is contained in the grain, especially a lot of it in the husk. Occasionally, pigeon’s gut diarrhea raises the need for vitamin B2.

Clinical symptoms develop in young pigeons more often at the age of 14-30 days. Growth dynamics change, feather growth is delayed, hemorrhage in the cornea of ​​the eye occurs. Pigeons rest on the hock, the toes are twisted (stern paralysis). Often there is an intestinal upset. The muscles of the legs are atrophied, and the skin is dry.

In adult pigeons, they find a loss of appetite, a decrease in hatchability. After 14 days after vitamin deficiency, hatchability from eggs is reduced, and 7 days after inclusion in the diet, it is restored. Embryo death with vitamin B deficiency2 sometimes reaches 90%. In severe cases of hypovitaminosis, inflammation of the pectoral and sciatic nerves can be observed, which increase by 4–5 times in volume. Vitamin B2 found in root crops, vegetables, milk, yeast, grass meal. An artificial vitamin preparation is produced — crystalline riboflavin, which can be added to grain feed or to drinking water.

Pantothenic acid (B3) is necessary for the formation of plumage in growing young animals. A lack of vitamin causes exhaustion of young animals, a delay in feather growth during juvenile molting. Vitamin found in alfalfa, clover, yeast, cabbage leaves. It is especially dangerous to keep pigeons on the diet of corn, since it contains no nicotinic acid. Vitamin is found in meat, bone and fishmeal, wheat and rice bran, carrots, cabbage leaf.

Niacin (B5) was first isolated from rice bran. Vitamin is well soluble in water, unstable to high temperatures and alkali.

The need for vitamin in birds is different. In pigeons, it is 50–70 mg per 1 kg of feed. The most important signs of the disease: an increase and inflammation of the hock joints, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity, the skin of the eyelids, corners of the mouth are covered with crusts, poor operability and indigestion. Often there is a trembling of the wings and legs due to disorders of the nervous system.

Prevention and treatment. For prevention, it is necessary to give pigeons food containing enough niacin. 100 g of wheat bran contains 125-140 mg of vitamin A, in carrots - 14 mg, and grass of cereals - 7.2 mg, in rice bran - 966 mg, in yeast - 40-60 mg. In corn grain, niacin is in a bound state, therefore feeding pigeons of one corn can cause vitamin deficiency.

For the prevention of niacin deficiency, you can use a set of vitamins of group B “phylamix” (the preparations included in its composition mutually complement each other), mg:

vitamin b1 (thiamine) - 1000

vitamin b2, (riboflavin) - 1800

The complex of B vitamins has a positive effect on metabolic disorders, growth retardation, impaired hematopoietic function and nervous system, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract. The reserve of B vitamins in the body of birds is not created, so the drug is recommended to dose 3 pigeons per 1 kg of feed. With hypovitaminosis for therapeutic purposes, it is increased by 2-3 times and fed for at least 14 days.

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) regulates protein metabolism. Its absence in the diet causes a drop in mass, underdevelopment, inflammation of the skin around the eyes, beak, on the legs. In a severe stage, convulsions and death occur. Vitamin is found in rice and wheat bran, yeast, herbs.

A lack of this vitamin (folic acid) leads to anemia, paralysis of the neck, weakness of the limbs, and poor susceptibility. It is found in yeast, green fodder. In case of illness, pigeons add 8-16 mg of folic acid per 100 g of feed to the feed.

This vitamin regulates protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Both adult pigeons and chicks are sick: with signs of anemia, muscle atrophy, stunted growth and development. Vitamin is contained in preparations - bio-Vit-40 and 80, PABA, sapropel. The need for vitamin with the addition of these drugs is fully covered.

Biotin deficiency

Biotin (vitamin H) was first found in the liver, and subsequently in crystalline form it was isolated from egg yolk. Biotin is found in plants; microbes also form it during growth.

The need for biotin depends on the activity of the intestinal microflora, which is involved in the synthesis of vitamin. Most often it is produced by intestinal microflora. Liver powder, yeast, dairy products and molasses contain biotin. The need for biotin in pigeons is 0.09-0.1 mg per 1 kg of feed. Biotin contained in feed in a bound state is released in the digestive tract and is absorbed by the intestinal wall. In body tissues, biotin is almost exclusively in a bound state with proteins, peptides. The blood contains in the form of biocytinase. The disease occurs in pigeons if the feed contains boiled protein components, which is very rare in practice.

Gout

The disease is accompanied by metabolic disorders, the deposition of uric acid salts in the form of crystals in various parts of the body after impaired renal function. In recent years, gout is quite common in connection with an excess of nitrogenous substances introduced in the form of fertilizers for crops of grain crops. Gout may occur due to poisoning. With common gout, which is more common than articular, uric acid salts are deposited in the internal organs.

It was found that the predisposition to the disease is slightly higher in old pigeons. The emergence of the disease contribute to uniform grain feeding, kidney damage. Gout can worsen after an upset bowel, sodium chloride poisoning, and kidney inflammation. Gout is severe with a lack of vitamin A.

General organ damage in gout occurs in adults and young pigeons, and joint damage is more common in adults. The first signs of the disease are very uncharacteristic and occur in the form of weakness, loss of appetite, emaciation, diarrhea, sudden death. The joint form of the disease is also manifested by painful tumor-like thickening of the skin in the joints, a violation of motor ability. Airborne sacs affected by gout, cardiac chemise, liver, and peritoneal membranes are penetrated by a white overlay consisting of uric acid salts, the kidneys are usually inflamed, the ureters are enlarged, filled with uric acid salts, and the intestines are inflamed. In the articular form, salt deposits occur first on one joint, and then transfer to another. When salt poisoning occurs, they are deposited in the liver, kidneys and blood vessels.

The joint form with a certain feeding and treatment can result in recovery, a general damage to the internal organs leads to death.

Prevention and treatment. Within 14 days, 10 g of bicarbonate of soda is added to drinking water, or twice 0.5 g of atofan per pigeon. Inflamed joints are treated with rubbing salicylic ointment and iodine preparations, the resulting nodes open and husk the contents, then treated with tincture of iodine. Pigeons need to be given as much green feed as possible, exclude protein-rich feeds from the diet, add a variety of grain feeds without salt to the diet, pigeons should move more.

Insufficiency of egg shell formation

The disease is associated with metabolic disorders, primarily mineral nutrition, and the lack of vitamin D which affects the formation of the shell. Laying eggs without shells or with soft shells often depends on a lack of calcium, so a month before the start of the breeding period, pigeons need to put slaked lime, chalk, shell shells, crushed to 2-3 mm, which they glue, depending on need.The egg shell performs important functions during the development of the chick: it holds the contents of the egg, protects the embryo from the adverse effects of the external environment, the embryo uses some of the shell material in the development process to build the skeleton, therefore the hatched bluebell has an already formed skeleton.

A positive effect on the formation of the shell is exerted by fish oil, which contains vitamin D and its derivatives, adding it to the feed in a small amount prevents the insufficient formation of the shell. A good effect is given by adding a mineral premix to the feed. If the shell is not strong enough, then certain measures should be taken to prevent the destruction of the shell. First of all, you need to take care of the quality of the litter material for the nest, in which it should be laid in the form of a mesh basket, preferably with the addition of a small amount of feather.

Fighting pigeons can also lead to the destruction of the egg shell. If pigeons fly freely into the fields, then they will always find the necessary material to form the nest. Pigeons, feathers, straws, twigs are used for litter of the nest. Some pigeon growers put pieces of burlap at the bottom of the nest, as they absorb the liquid part of the litter, and insulate the bottom of the nest. Sometimes a plastic net is placed at the bottom for this purpose, through which droppings fall to the bottom. It is strictly forbidden to use the nests without bedding, as this can lead to the bending of the toes of the chicks. If the pigeon behaves uneasily in the nest and there is a danger of shell destruction, it is better to lay gypsum eggs, and lay the laid eggs under other, calm pigeons. After the chicks are hatched, the gypsum eggs are removed, and the young hatched are placed in their place.

Egg removal, which is often done by pigeon breeders in order to obtain a new pair of eggs, should not be carried out immediately after laying. Shelling is a very complex process, if you make the pigeon often lay eggs, this can lead to the laying of thin-shell and shell-less eggs.

Feathering Disorder

The pen consists of a pouch - a solid rod, the end of which is enclosed in a feather bag of leather, and the individual beards are connected by hooks. Depending on the function, the structure of the pen is slightly different. For example, wing feathers have a sharp end, one half is slightly larger than the other. The sequence of feather formation in young animals is as follows: the hatched chick is covered with rare fluff, the top of the covering feather is in its infancy in a feather bag, then the feather begins to grow, feathers appear in the form of folded tubes, plentifully supplied with nutrients through the blood vessels. Pigeon breeders usually call such feathers "blood". In the first place, feathers of the tail and wings begin active growth.

In some cases, in normally developed adult pigeons, the offspring do not have separate wing feathers. This violation occurs in individual couples and is inherited.

In other pigeons, the disease is associated with metabolic disorders. Non-feathered (“bald”) patches appear on the head and back. Typically, these phenomena are due to a lack of vitamins, trace elements and amino acids involved in the formation of feathers or included in their composition. The pigeon has 12 feathers attached to feather bags, up to 16 in some breeds, and up to 20 feathers for a peacock dove. The destruction of the tips of the pen is most often associated with malnutrition with a lack of B vitamins. Vitamin affects the growth of the pigeon, its plumage. In an ordinary grain mixture, this vitamin is small, it is found in yeast, proteins of microbial origin. Especially a lot of it in drugs such as acidophilic broth culture.

Damage to the tips of the feathers of a pigeon often occurs in individual breeds when they are turned over in the air (for playing pigeons - “playing a pole”). The pen can withstand significant mechanical stress. Each pigeon breeder watched a dove pass feathers and coverts through its beak. At the same time, the shaft is bent and the fan is in, due to the elasticity, the feather does not break, and the adhesion between the grooves is so strong that the shape of the feather is not disturbed.

Goiter inflammation

With inflammation in the goiter, accumulation and impregnation of the secretions of the goiter glands of the feed occurs before evacuation to the stomach. Goiter inflammation occurs due to ingestion of pesticides irritating the mucous membrane, foreign objects (hay, litter), poor-quality food products - spoiled fishmeal, rancid fat, grain, affected by mushroom toxins.

Often the disease develops in violation of the diet, bacterial contamination of water and feed, and for other reasons. Often the cause of the disease is the causative agent of smallpox, candidiasis. The lack of vitamin A predisposes to this disorder. In mild cases, the pigeon loses its appetite, sits, having dried up, hides its head under the wing. When probing a goiter, fluid or gas is detected. When pressing on the goiter, a mucous membrane, an unpleasant acidic odor, flows out of the oral cavity. In severe cases, the pigeon does not take food, the beak turns blue, and death quickly occurs. At opening, foamy contents are found in the goiter, the bottom and walls of the goiter are catarrhally and hemorrhagically inflamed. The diagnosis takes into account anamnestic data, studies of feed for the presence of pesticides and table salt.

Prevention and treatment. It is necessary to feed pigeons 2-3 times with various types of grain that do not contain harmful impurities, sand, fiber, pesticides. Drinking bowls should be washed daily and filled with clean water. Goiter inflammation often occurs with irregular feeding, starvation and rapid filling of goiter. With goiter inflammation, an adverse factor causing the disease is excluded. As a drink, they give weak disinfectant aqueous solutions: 0.1 percent - formalin and rivanol, 5 percent - drinking soda. In individual cases, the bird is washed with goiter, a mucous decoction of flaxseed, milk is introduced.

Hanging goiter

When a goiter is clogged with a pigeon, oppression, sagging of the goiter, sometimes after taking water - leakage of liquid from the beak.

Hanging goiter can be found in any breed of pigeons, but most often this disease is characteristic of pigeons puffin. Suddenly, a strong increase in goiter occurs with the continuation of the process to the angle of the beak. The pigeon breeder, as a rule, tries to massage the affected area.

Differentiated treatment is necessary depending on the cause. As a rule, during blockage of the lower esophagus and stagnation of feed, surgical intervention is required: cutting goiter, removing fodder masses. In some cases, this can not be done: if the stomach is clogged and the food decomposes, with goiter damage associated with paralysis and nerve paresis. Sagging goiter can occur when pigeons lay eggs (simple inflammation of the mucous membrane of the goiter), nonspecific inflammation, hanging goiter - with the formation of milk in a nursing dove, with infectious diseases.

Sometimes pigeons have obstruction of goiter associated with improper feeding, for example, when feeding large grains after prolonged starvation. If the blockage is not associated with other diseases, then it is easy to eliminate. For this purpose, 10 to 15 g of castor oil is administered once in a gelatin capsule through the beak. Helminths, roundworms, filamentous worms, etc. can also cause blockage. In these cases, special preparations against the corresponding helminths are required. Specific medications are also recommended for blockage caused by smallpox virus (diphtheria process).

Clogging of goiter is especially often recorded in individual breeds of pigeons with large goiter. At the same time, digestive disorders, loss of appetite are noted, further signs occur later in the form of shortness of breath, outflow from the open beak, and the release of an unpleasantly smelling liquid.

With a complete blockage of goiter, food accumulates in it and can cause poisoning and death of the bird. If the patency of the feed is impaired, then the goiter wall becomes thinner, sometimes a rupture and the appearance of a fistula. It is also often established after swallowing sharp foreign objects.

Treatment is associated with the presence of hard or soft goiter. Soft goiter occurs as a result of loss of tone of the walls of the goiter, hard - after swallowing in a large amount of dense indigestible feed. With soft goiter, it is recommended that first aid be given by prescribing a teaspoon of a 1 percent solution of sodium chloride, after which the contents of the goiter are carefully massaged. You can also flush the goiter through a rubber tube. For 24 hours, the pigeon is left without food, but water is given freely. With solid goiter, massage and washing are necessary, but it is better to quickly open the goiter, which is easily tolerated by pigeons. Given that this operation is accompanied by bleeding, you need to make an incision in the middle of the goiter 1-2 cm long with the pigeon on its back. After operative access, the contents are removed with long tweezers, then the goiter wall is sutured and the pigeons are not given food and water on the first day, boiled milk is drunk on the second day, and soft feeds are fed after the third day.

A special form of goiter blockage is when eggs are laid. Immediately during the laying of a dove of eggs, goiter formation can occur. The cause is usually an egg squeezing of the gastrointestinal tract. Such changes are possible without deviations after egg laying. Sometimes the pigeon breeder mistakenly takes such a temporary violation for the disease. If disturbances arise persistent, then the bird, as a rule, only drinks water and does not accept food. Stagnation of food in the goiter for several hours leads to decay of the remains of the feed and stretching of the walls of the goiter. Due to the multiplication of microbes, the walls of the goiter become inflamed. In order to prevent the disease, it is advisable to add a weak solution of disinfectants (salicylic acid, potassium permanganate, etc.) to drinking water to pigeons.

Non-specific inflammation of the goiter occurs from blockage, which leads to sagging. Such pigeons need to be planted immediately, because rupture and injury to the goiter by other pigeons, as well as protruding objects, can occur.

In all cases, a starvation diet is needed so that new food does not enter an already crowded goiter. If there is no improvement in the patient's condition, then it is necessary to rinse the goiter through an open beak with a syringe, then it is carefully massaged and the contents are poured into a cuvette or on moistened cardboard so that a study can be performed. It is good to rinse the goiter with a thin rubber tube, on the end of which put on a funnel, and lubricate the other end with Vaseline and insert into the open goiter. This should not be feared, since the lumen of the trachea is so narrow and the tube will not get into it, and the esophagus is easily stretched.

In practice, there are cases of rupture of goiter. During artificial feeding of a pigeon, sometimes the crumbs of bread accumulate in such a quantity that this leads to rupture of the goiter and the release of fodder masses under the skin. Such cases, as a rule, end with the death of the chicks. After removing the contents of the goiter or operation, it is advisable to keep the pigeon on a hungry diet, feed carefully, in small portions. It is useful to add astringents to drinking water, place the pigeon in a warm place.

Catarrhal gastroenteritis

The disease is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the glandular stomach and intestines, mostly adult birds and young animals of older age are affected. It occurs when feeding a moldy, rotten and frozen feed to a bird, evaporating contaminated industrial waste or long-standing stale water and eating pigeons eating mineral fertilizers. Vitamin-mineral deficiency, violation of the feeding regimen, unsanitary condition are predisposed to the onset of the disease.

Gastroenteritis can be a symptom of hypovitaminosis A and some infectious and invasive diseases. Depending on the cause of the disease and the condition of the body, the disease is acute or chronic, acute catarrh can become chronic. In a sick bird, depression, general weakness, loss of appetite, atony and prolapse of the muscle stomach, symptoms of catarrh of goiter are noted. In the acute course, diarrhea develops, feces are yellow-green, fetid, with an acidic or putrid odor, foamy, sometimes with undigested food residues, feathers around the cloaca are contaminated with them.

In a chronic course, anemia, intestinal atony, progressive emaciation develop, diarrhea ceases, and the intestines become full of gases. Prevention of the disease consists in eliminating the cause that caused it, and improving the conditions of detention and feeding. The sick pigeon is washed and disinfected with goiter, after which vaseline or sunflower oil is poured through the probe as a laxative.

When washing goiter and giving a laxative, the bird is prescribed a hungry diet for up to one day, give weak disinfectant solutions (potassium permanganate 1: 10000, 1% - drinking soda). Antibiotics and sulfonamide drugs have a good therapeutic effect. In case of chronic gastroenteritis, a 10% solution of hydrochloric acid is added to drinking water, bismuth preparations (0.1–0.5 g) are injected inside, mucous decoctions of rice, flaxseed, castor oil (2-3 drops), aloe juice (0) are given , 1-0.2 ml).

Bowel obstruction

When an intestine is blocked, its lumen is closed from the inside in various areas by food masses or foreign objects, sometimes by a tumor. The reason may be undigested feed particles, mainly oats, barley, pulp (especially overripe greens), various foreign objects.

Pigeons show general oppression, refusal to feed, difficulty or lack of bowel movement. The course of the disease depends on the age of the bird and the place of closure of the intestinal lumen. With blockage of the duodenum, death occurs from exhaustion and intestinal intoxication.

Prevention of this disease is based on strict control of feed quality, the content of fiber in the diet should not exceed 5%. Feeding grain with films is unacceptable, long delays in feeding. It is necessary to provide pigeons with gravel, to include only good quality grass meal in the diet.

For therapeutic purposes, antibiotics are given - tetracycline, biomycin, weak disinfectant solutions are drunk.

Cloacite

Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cloaca. The predisposing factor of the disease is hypovitaminosis A, E, and D. In case of hypovitaminosis and mineral deficiency, high in protein food, pigeons have a metabolic disorder with increased excretion of uric acid salts, which irritate the mucous membrane of cloaca and cause erosion. Various microbes penetrate through them, and ulcers form on its mucous membrane.

In case of illness, it becomes covered with yellowish films, the anus narrows to almost complete obstruction. The feathers around the cesspool are stained with feces and fall out. The skin around the anus becomes inflamed. An unpleasant specific smell appears. In young animals, obstruction of the anus with feces is often observed.

During treatment, the cloacal mucosa is cleaned of the films and zinc or furacilin ointment is applied, then it is dusted with iodoform. Periodically irrigate cloaca with a 2% solution of lysol. Intramuscularly administered trivitamin or trivit. With complete obstruction of the cesspool hole, it can be expanded with a scalpel.

Obesity and degeneration of the liver

This disease is associated with metabolic disorders, liver damage and belongs to the group of serious diseases. Most often it occurs in pigeons after ingestion of grain affected by toxins.

High-calorie diets, inadequate supply of vitamins and amino acids, and content in cramped cells increase the manifestation of the disease.

Pigeons of meat breeds are more prone to obesity, which occurs with the formation of thick fatty layers on the lower abdomen, between intestinal loops and in other parts of the body, fat is also deposited in the cells of tissues (in the liver, spleen and walls of blood vessels).

In case of a disease, the liver, spleen and yolks of the eggs burst at the slightest concern, since the cells of the tissues do not have sufficient elasticity and, in the case of a minor injury, overstrain. Upon rupture, bleeding is detected, which leads to the death of the bird from loss of blood.

For therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, it is recommended to observe the norms of provision with vitamin E (10 mg per 1 kg of feed).

Developmental disorder during fasting

Complete feed deficiency in pigeons is rare, partial - more often, especially with a uniform diet. Adult pigeons tolerate complete fasting from 2 to 3 weeks. In these cases, growth is inhibited and loss of body nutrient reserves occurs. Losses in mass in adult pigeons before death range from 38 to 42%, of individual internal organs the following: liver - 32%, spleen - 28%, kidneys - 19%.

With the death of pigeons from starvation, hemorrhages are found in the mucous membranes of the stomach, intestines, and cloaca. The adverse effects of prolonged malnutrition depend mainly on age, gender, season, and other factors.

The most important criterion for the effect of malnutrition in young pigeons is growth retardation, plumage change, prolonged juvenile molting. Young pigeons lose their feather after prolonged fasting. Only a large covering feather remains, the upper part of the beak grows longer than the lower, and bends. Skeletal growth is impaired, and during X-ray examination, there is a lack of ossification of the tubular bones.

At autopsy of pigeons with suspicion of chronic starvation, it is necessary to pay attention to the pectoral muscles.

Reduced feed intake in birds predisposes to the manifestation of bacterial and parasitic infectious diseases. This is usually associated with impaired defense mechanisms.

Resistance to diseases is greatly reduced in the first phase of fasting.

Prevention of the disease is based on compliance with the rules for feeding pigeons: a complete diet of several types of grain with the addition of vitamins, trace elements is necessary.

If abnormalities are found, frequent, plentiful feeding should be practiced. In pigeons, feeding plenty at night is of great importance.

Ovarian and salpingitis

Defective feeding (deficiency of calcium, vitamins A, D, E and choline chloride, protein toxicosis), injuries, infections and infestations can cause inflammation of the ovary and oviduct. Inflammation of the cloaca (cloacite) is often complicated by salpingitis, and, conversely, inflammation of the oviduct can pass into cloacite.

At the beginning of the disease, the temperature rises, blueness of the beak, claws, weakness, depression, outflow from the cloaca are noted. Often, inflammation occurs chronically, the bird stops laying eggs and dies after a few weeks. For treatment, vitamins (trivitamin, fish oil, undevit) and a 1 percent solution of calcium chloride are used.

Difficult egg laying

Difficult oviposition usually occurs as a result of the lack of formation of the genitals or the laying of large, for example, two-yolk eggs, the presence of tumors, paralysis of the muscles of the oviduct. Predisposes to difficult egg laying violation in feeding and keeping, for example, a uniform diet, which leads to the general underdevelopment of pigeons. In this case, the egg comes out with its sharp end forward, at the moment of passage of the egg, the opening of the oviduct ampoule protrudes into the cloaca to the cloacal opening.

Signs of the disease: initially restless behavior, the pigeon is mainly located in the nest, the stomach becomes hot, the abdominal wall is very tense. Sitting in the nest, pigeons gradually weaken, stop feeding and die. Since the oviduct may not relax in time, the egg in the final part of the oviduct is delayed and, despite attempts, does not go outside. Convulsions come, which at times turn into paralysis.

Prevention and treatment. Pigeons should include grass flour or green grass, succulent feed, and root crops in the diet. It has been established that providing pigeons with vitamin A prevents oviposition disturbance. Intramuscular administration of penicillin or streptomycin at a dose of 5 thousand IE has a beneficial effect on the contractile function of the genital tract. Individual treatment is possible by massaging the abdominal wall and extracting the egg with the index finger of the right hand. A hot bath also enhances the activity of the oviduct. The shell is removed from the oviduct using tweezers. After removing the egg or shell, 20-30 ml of vegetable oil is introduced into the oviduct.

Rhinitis

Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity. The main cause of the disease is overcooling birds, drafts, especially in combination with high humidity. It can also be caused by the dustiness of the room, the high content of ammonia, the lack of vitamin A.

In this case, serous-mucous discharge from the nasal openings is noted, in the future it becomes mucopurulent, crusts dry around the nasal slots. Due to narrowing of the lumen of the nasal passages and obstruction of the nasal openings, breathing becomes difficult and tense. Through the lacrimal-nasal canal, the process can go to the conjunctiva. Often, inflammation of the larynx and bronchi is simultaneously observed. In sick pigeons, especially in the chronic course of the disease, appetite worsens, exhaustion develops. The course of the disease with colds is more acute, with hypovitaminosis - chronic.

A sick bird constantly shakes its head, claws its beak and nasal openings, breathes with an open beak. The shape of the lumen of the nasal openings changes. If the inflammation passes to the surrounding tissue, then it is destroyed. After separation of the necrotic masses, large openings remain, and the destroyed tissue is not completely restored. For therapeutic purposes, the nasal cavity is washed through the nasal passages with 2% percent boric acid, a 1-2% solution of protargol. Antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, etc.) have a good effect. They are introduced into the nasal cavity with a syringe with a special blunt needle.

Laryngotracheitis

This disease is characterized by inflammation of the larynx, trachea, large bronchi. More often young pigeons are amazed.

The cause of the disease is hypothermia in damp weather, drafts. With hypovitaminosis A, laryngotracheitis occurs chronically, with erased symptoms.

In patients with pigeons, general depression, weakness, extension of the neck and lowering of the head are noted. The beak is open, tense breathing, sometimes with a whistle. With the defeat of the lower part of the trachea, with the capture of the song larynx, it seems that the birds moan mournfully. In some cases, wheezing is heard from a distance during inspiration and expiration. A swelling of the upper larynx is established by inspection, the mucous membrane of the initial part of the trachea is inflamed, sometimes with hemorrhages, covered with foamy secretions or mucus. If you easily tap with your finger in the trachea and larynx, then increased sensitivity is noted, the bird extends its neck, breathing becomes tense, coughing can be observed.

Symptoms

Manifestations of gout in chickens depend on the form of the disease: visceral (visceral), articular or mixed, and can be either acute or chronic. Common clinical signs include:

  • depressed state,
  • loss of appetite and emaciation,
  • pallor of earrings and crest.

The joint form is characterized by thickening of the joints, lameness. The visceral type is characterized by the presence of white feces. The feathers in the cloaca zone are smeared with a white mass of uric acid salts.

Acute form

This stage is characterized by pronounced clinical signs:

  • bowel disorder,
  • feces in white,
  • violation of general condition,
  • reduced feed intake,
  • crest cyanosis.

There is a decrease in egg production, especially hatching eggs hatch. With the visceral form of gout, a significant loss of chickens is possible. In newborn chickens, the following are recorded:

  • high mortality rate in the early days,
  • refusal of feed,
  • profuse diarrhea,
  • bonding foul excrement.

Permanent course of the disease

This form is characteristic of the articular form of gout in chickens. Signs:

  • movement disorder,
  • swollen, sore, and hard joints (hock, phalange of fingers),
  • lameness,
  • increase in local temperature.

In the process of disease progression, the affected areas of the joints become gray-white, abscesses are revealed with a whitish mass of gypsum-like consistency.

Pathological changes

With the visceral form, the following are observed:

  • the presence in the kidneys of crystals of uric acid salts in the form of whitish striped deposits or foci,
  • surface nodules in the kidney area,
  • in embryos and chickens, due to the accumulation of uric acid salts, the kidneys may look like raspberries,
  • expansion of the ureter and the presence of mucous white masses,
  • superficial lesions (powder surface) of the epicardium and pericardium,
  • uric acid coating of the serous membranes of the lungs, intestines, spleen, liver, air sacs.

Signs of articular form:

  • thickening of the joints of the legs,
  • the presence of fine deposits in the joint cavity (loose or dense),
  • the surface layer of the joints is penetrated by urate.

Pathogenesis

Gout in chickens occurs due to:

  • systematic excessive intake of proteins (overfeeding with fish, meat and bone meal),
  • imbalances in nutrients and vitaminsespecially A and D,
  • feed intoxication (poisoning with salt, nitrates, pesticides),
  • lack or lack of water for drinking,
  • small outdoor activities, which leads to insufficiency of oxidative processes,
  • lack of green feed in the diet (herbs of alfalfa, clover, etc.).

Diagnostics

A lifetime diagnosis is made only for the articular type of gout. Held:

  • clinical examination of the bird for thickening of the joints of the fingers, lameness, lethargy,
  • uric acid examination of joint contents using murexide test (the sample is heated with an oxidizing agent and treated with an ammonia solution, a crimson color appears),
  • the nodule under the microscope has a needle formation.

Treatment

Cure gout of chickens is possible only at the initial stage of the disease. In advanced cases, the result is negligible. The treatment consists in feeding the bird:

  • aqueous solution of bicarbonate of soda (sodium bicarbonate) 2% concentration,
  • 3% Novatofan solution,
  • Urotropin (0.25% aqueous solution).

Preventive measures

  • compliance with chicken and protein and amino acids,
  • monitoring the level of feed contamination with mycotoxins,
  • feeding yeast, green feed, root crops with additives of feed lime,
  • removal of chickens from the hatchery no later than 8 hours after hatching, with processing before transportation by aerosols of glucose and vitamins.

What are the causes of the disease

The causes of gouty arthritis are very diverse. Doctors say that quite often the symptoms of this disease arise due to the hereditary predisposition of the patient. Often the victim does not even suspect such a predisposition. If the patient's parents led a healthy lifestyle, then they may not have the symptoms of gout throughout their lives. The disease will exist all the time in a latent form. And if the patient, having a predisposition to this ailment, leads an unhealthy lifestyle, then there is a big chance that an unpleasant disease will make itself felt.

Doctors warn that a typical gout looks something like this - a fat middle-aged man who abuses such foods as salinity, meat soups, smoked meats, beans, meat, chocolate, strong tea, sausages and alcoholic beverages. The thing is that the above products lead to an increase in uric acid in the blood. As a result of this, the formation of a poorly soluble salt of sodium urate. From all this we can conclude that the abuse of the above products can cause gouty arthritis.

Experts warn that gout may develop due to the use of certain medications. Most often, unpleasant symptoms appear after taking funds from high blood pressure. The above disease can develop after prolonged use of cytostatics and diuretics.

This type of arthritis can develop against the background of hormonal changes, renal and heart diseases, and hemoblastosis. Therefore, people who have these diseases should be extremely careful and pay attention to all the abnormalities in the body. ICD code 10 for gout due to impaired renal function - M10.3

Doctors warn that frequent or systematic hypothermia can also cause the development of the disease described above. That is why it is very important to dress warmly in the winter.

It should be noted that there are 2 types of gouty arthritis:

  1. Primary - develops due to a hereditary predisposition and abuse of harmful products.
  2. Secondary - some medications and the presence of concomitant diseases can cause.

Symptoms of the disease

Doctors note that in some cases, the accumulation of microcrystals of sodium urate in the joint cavity may not cause any symptoms for a rather long period of time. Unpleasant symptoms begin to appear only after any factor causes an acute attack.

In the form of this factor can be:

  • overwork,
  • stress,
  • infection,
  • alcohol in combination with purine food.

Specialists distinguish 3 periods of the development of this ailment:

  1. Latent - during this period, the patient does not complain of any unpleasant symptoms. To determine the presence of the disease is possible only after a blood test and the detection of elevated uric acid levels.
  2. Acute gouty arthritis - severe gouty attacks appear.
  3. Chronic - this period is characterized by long periods of remission.

Severe seizures can occur both 1 time per week-month, and 1-2 times a year. The first attacks of the disease are most often short-term. The attack, as a rule, begins suddenly at night and lasts in most cases for several days, causing severe pain and discomfort, after which it suddenly disappears. However, after some time, the pain returns and becomes even stronger. The intervals between attacks become shorter, and their duration is longer. All this leads to the fact that after some time the pain in the joint becomes permanent (chronic form). This form of the disease is characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and the formation of special defects ("punches") in the bones adjacent to the joint.

Determining the presence of the above disease is quite simple.The following bright symptoms are characteristic of it:

  1. First of all, there is a strong pain syndrome in the big toe. The pain, according to patients, is so great that I want to "climb the wall." Pain increases during movement.
  2. After a short period of time, the skin over the inflamed joint becomes red or crimson.

Around the inflamed joint appear whitish subcutaneous growths. Such growths are called tofuses. Sometimes they break through and through the formed fistula uric acid crystals begin to stand out. Most often, after a few days, the tofus breakout site independently heals without serious consequences.

The affected joint swells a lot. If arthritis of the knee joint has developed, then the entire knee swells.

The skin over the affected area is hot to the touch. Even a slight touch on the sore spot can cause severe pain.

In addition to all of the above symptoms, the neglected form of the ailment is very often accompanied by the deposition of urate in the kidneys, which becomes the cause of urolithiasis. Pyelonephritis may also develop.

It should be noted that gouty arthritis of the ankle joint and other joints in women usually proceeds much milder than in men. In a weak part of the population, acute gouty attacks, bone piercers and tofuses are very rare.

Gout Arthritis Diet

As mentioned above, gouty arthritis is often the cause of malnutrition. That is why immediately after the discovery of this disease, doctors prescribe a special diet for the patient. If you do not adhere to dietary nutrition, then the disease is likely to progress, and it will not work out.

The patient is assigned a dietary table No. 6, the main principle of which is the exclusion of products that are the source of purines. It is necessary to refuse such products as: fatty meats (pork, lamb), ham, sausages, meat broths, liver, kidneys, canned goods, smoked meats, porcini mushrooms, shrimps, raspberries, radishes, figs, chocolate, coffee, spicy cheese, salty dishes, mustard, beans, peas. You should also exclude alcohol from your diet.

From the above, we can conclude that the diet for gouty arthritis is not very complicated. It includes a large number of healthy products - many vegetables and fruits, cereals (except oatmeal), vegetarian soups, rye and wheat bread. Sweet tooth can treat themselves to honey, jam or jelly. Without exacerbations, you can afford a little red wine.

If it even happened that the patient could not resist and ate the prohibited product, then the doctors recommend immediately taking special medications that inject uric acid metabolism products.

Therapy Rules

Symptoms and treatment of gouty arthritis should be known to everyone who cares about their health and is at risk.

It should be noted that the methods of treatment of this disease often depend on its severity, characteristics of the body and many other factors.

With exacerbation, doctors act in several directions:

  1. The patient is prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that relieve inflammation. Diclofenac is very popular.
  2. To stop a strong pain syndrome, analgesics of a non-narcotic group are prescribed.
  3. During the period of remission, doctors may prescribe some physiotherapeutic procedures, massage or treatment exercises.
  4. Gouty arthritis can be treated with topical agents. Various ointments based on NSAIDs are very popular.
  5. In the chronic form of this ailment, doctors often prescribe special medications that help lower uric acid in the body. Such drugs as Allomaron and Allopurinol are considered very effective.

Before treating the disease at home

If you have gout, then before you begin treatment at home, you must first consult a doctor.

Only a specialist will be able to assess the general condition, prescribe a course of medications, and give effective recommendations.

The next step is a strict diet. Since gout attacks occur most often due to a neglect of the diet, you should normalize your diet.

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Do not forget about the movement. Special sets of exercises will help not only restore and maintain joint mobility, but also destroy small crystals of uric acid salts. Combination of physiotherapy exercises and massage gives excellent results.

And, of course, there are many recipes for traditional medicine for both external and internal use.

Gout Diet

The main goal of the diet is to exclude the ingestion of purines, sources of uric acid with food.

With gout it is forbidden to eat meat and fish products, mushrooms, legumes, canned food, chocolate, smoked meats, strong coffee and tea.

It is allowed to eat poultry meat, eggs, dairy products, cereals, vegetables and fruits, berries, nuts.

In order for uric acid to be more actively excreted from the body, it is recommended to increase the use of liquid - water, both drinking and mineral (alkaline medicinal waters are preferred), juices, fruit drinks.

Outdoor facilities

Folk remedies for gout for external use:

  1. Pork fat will help cope with pain during gout. If the joints of the fingers or toes are affected by the disease, thin strips of fat should be cut so that they completely cover the affected areas. Fat is slowly rubbed into the skin until the pieces are reduced in size. Residues should be discarded. With gout localized in larger joints - elbow, shoulder, knee, you should take a larger piece of fat, attach it tightly to the affected area, fix it with a bandage and leave it like that for the night.
  2. Activated carbon is an excellent absorbent that absorbs excess harmful substances even through the surface of the skin, including uric acid. From this means accessible to everyone, a very effective therapeutic paste can be prepared. It is necessary to take several packs of activated carbon and grind the tablets to a state of very fine powder. This can be done with a coffee grinder or pestle. You should get about half a glass of powder. Next, add a small amount of water and a teaspoon of flaxseed oil. All ingredients are mixed until a homogeneous paste is obtained. The product is rubbed into the skin before bedtime, after which the joint must be closed with a plastic film and wrapped with a warm scarf or scarf. The next morning, pain and inflammation if not completely disappear, then significantly reduced.
  3. Pharmacy chamomile is known for its anti-inflammatory effect. It helps with gout. From a decoction of chamomile, you can prepare baths for hands or feet. A particularly good result is achieved when sea salt is added to the solution in a proportion of 200 grams per 10 liters. Compresses from chamomile and black elderberry flowers are great help for pain. A decoction is prepared from these herbs, in which pieces of tissue are soaked. The tissue is applied to the inflamed joints and left until the compress has completely cooled.
  4. You can have a different attitude to urinotherapy, but experience shows that the baths for arms and legs from fresh urine do an excellent job of joint inflammation.
  5. You can make an ointment using horse chestnut - a miracle cure for the treatment of joints. The fruits of the chestnut are chopped and mixed in equal proportions with camphor or ghee. Slices of rye bread, which are applied to the affected areas, are soaked in the resulting product.
  6. For the manufacture of compresses, you can use a decoction of nettle, birch, cabbage, coltsfoot, burdock, hop cones, St. John's wort, clover. All these herbs perfectly relieve pain and inflammation of the joints.

Means for internal use

Alternative treatment of gout with means for internal use:

  1. With excess uric acid, the most common onion perfectly copes. Take three medium-sized onions and, without removing the husks, place in a liter of boiling water. Boil until the bulbs are completely boiled, then wipe through a sieve. The resulting broth should be taken for two weeks, one glass, three times a day before meals. The course is repeated with exacerbations of gout.
  2. For those who can not stand the taste of onions, there is a more pleasant remedy - apples. Patients with gout are recommended to eat as many of these fruits as possible - both in fresh form and in the form of juices, compotes, preserves. You can also add apple slices to freshly brewed tea.
  3. Horsetail infusion helps relieve pain. For its preparation, dried grass is taken at the rate of 2 teaspoons per glass of boiling water and infused in heat for two hours. Take the infusion in a tablespoon, six times a day.
  4. You can insist on alcohol valerian root and take the resulting tincture of 10 drops three times a day.
  5. A warm infusion of a series helps well from gout. Dried grass is poured with hot but not boiling water and aged until golden. Infusion can be drunk in any quantities. It is recommended to replace them with tea.
  6. There is another effective infusion against pain and inflammation. It will take 1 tablespoon of peppermint, St. John's wort, 2 tablespoons of elecampane roots and yarrow herbs, 3 tablespoons of calendula and linden flowers. A teaspoon of the mixture is poured with boiling water, decanted after two hours. Take a glass in the morning and evening, before meals.

Changing lifestyle

At the first symptoms of gout, treatment at home should begin with changes in lifestyle and nutrition.

Salts of uric acid tend to be deposited in sedentary joints. A short charge every morning will help protect against this trouble.

If it is not possible to carry out exercises, it is advisable to take walks every day - at least half an hour and, if possible, prefer walking and transport and elevators.

If gout occurs, it is necessary to additionally check the functioning of the kidneys, because if they are disturbed, even the strictest diet and taking all the necessary medicines will not help to remove all excess uric acid.

Gout is believed to be an incurable disease, but if you contact a specialist in a timely manner and follow all the treatment and prevention measures, you can completely get rid of the painful symptoms of the disease, maintain full joint mobility and continue to enjoy life!

Therapeutic diet for gout

Gout is a serious metabolic disease in which excessive accumulation of uric acid metabolic products in the body occurs. Now there are a fairly large number of drugs that help improve the condition with this ailment. But one of the best additional methods of treating the disease is a therapeutic diet, which should not be neglected. The fact that it includes which products can and cannot be eaten with gout, we will tell today.

To achieve a quick therapeutic effect, patients with gouty arthritis are prescribed appropriate diet food. So, there are cases when only a strict diet with gouty lesions of the joints or kidneys gave a good therapeutic effect. This can be explained by the fact that dietary nutrition for gout restricts the intake of exogenous purines, which has a beneficial effect on the level of these compounds in blood serum and their content in tissues.

A strict diet for gouty arthritis does not mean severe starvation during an attack of the disease or in the interictal period.

Proper nutrition is an important element of treatment

In the event that an elevated level of uric acid can be detected in a person by chance, he should adhere to a diet that is recommended for patients suffering from gout.

Compliance with this rule allows several times to reduce the likelihood of developing an attack of the disease and prevent massive deposits of purine compounds in the tissues of the body.

Basic principles of nutrition:

  • It is important to eat regularly and divide the entire daily diet into 3-4 meals - in this case, it is possible to avoid peak bursts in the concentration of purine bases in the blood serum.
  • Overeating is unacceptable (it provokes excess weight in the patient) and starvation.
  • It is necessary to reduce body weight, but gradual, not more than 1-2 kg per month.
  • During the day, the patient should receive a sufficient amount of fluid - at least 1.5-2 liters in remission and 3 liters when an exacerbation occurs.
  • The use of alkaline mineral water is mandatory - alkalization of blood helps to remove urates from the body.

Starvation is a prohibited treatment

Some patients with exacerbation of gouty arthritis completely unjustifiably decide to use starvation, trying to "cleanse" their body of excess amounts of purine bases. Such practice only leads to the fact that the patient’s condition deteriorates sharply, and the cause of the exacerbation is hidden in the physiology of the human body.

In the case when food ceases to enter the body, to ensure its own energy needs, it begins to expend its own reserves, and protein compounds become the most accessible material.

That is why in the first days of fasting, the level of uric acid in the blood serum increases sharply, and it begins to be deposited in the synovial membrane of the joints and body tissues, causing an exacerbation of the disease.

In this case, a massive deposition of urate occurs in the synovial membrane of the joints, and at the same time in the glomeruli of the renal tubules, which provokes the occurrence of acute gouty nephropathy.

Foods Prohibited For This Disease

When choosing a treatment menu for patients with impaired purine metabolism in the body, it is important to simultaneously reduce the amount of products containing a large number of purine bases and products that stimulate the “exit” of urates from blood serum and their deposition in the peripheral tissues of the body.

Products that contain an excess of purine bases include:

meat, fish and mushroom broths - they contain purine bases in an accessible, easily digestible form,

  • offal - brains, liver, lungs, kidneys,
  • canned meat and sauces,
  • animal fats,
  • legumes - peas, lentils, beans, beans, soy crops.
  • Products that change the acid-base state of the body include:
    • spices - pepper, mustard, horseradish,
    • vegetable sauces
    • sorrel, spinach, fresh herbs in large quantities,
    • salted fish and any salted products from it (caviar, canned food),
    • alcohol in any form and quantity, especially beer and wine,
    • foods containing large amounts of cocoa butter,
    • sharp and salty cheese.

    With diet in the presence of gouty arthritis, it is allowed to eat meat or fish baked or stewed once a week, but in no case should you eat fried foods!

    Allowed Products

    Among the products that are poor in purine bases, one should highlight milk, chicken eggs, bread, caviar, Swiss cheese, hazelnuts and walnuts. It is allowed to eat carrots, buckwheat and pearl barley, millet.

    In the diet of patients, the amount of fat, salt, which contributes to the accumulation of urate in the tissues, is necessarily limited. They increase the amount of fluid, which helps the body more intensively remove uric acid compounds from the body.

    It is absolutely necessary to reduce the total calorie content of food that the patient consumes, especially in cases when he has concomitant obesity.

    Often patients do not include tomatoes in their diet, considering them harmful, although tomatoes can be consumed, simply not in large quantities, since they actually contain a small amount of purines. It should be remembered that it is more advisable to exclude various sausages, smoked food from your diet, you can also not use seasonings (this does not apply to bay leaf and vinegar).

    It’s good to do fasting days from time to time and consume raw vegetables and fruits. You can, for example, spend rice and apple fasting days.

    Diet in the presence of this disease includes a ban on alcohol, since it retains uric acid in the body. This is especially true for wine and beer. Strong tea, cocoa or coffee, which can aggravate pain, should also be excluded.

    Of the drinks, it is recommended to use vegetable and fruit juices, as well as alkaline mineral water.

    It is good to eat foods that contain vitamin B1 and ascorbic acid.

    For therapeutic nutrition with gouty arthritis, they use diet No. 6 according to M. Pevzner, which meets all the above conditions.

    It is worth noting that some researchers believe that dietary therapy for this disease is not necessary with proper pharmacological treatment. But as practice shows, dietary nutrition for gout greatly facilitates its course, so most doctors include a diet in the overall scheme for the comprehensive treatment of this disease.

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