The presence of fresh clean water is a necessary condition for the existence of all living organisms on the planet.
The share of usable fresh water accounts for only 3% of its total amount.
Despite this, a person in the process of his activity mercilessly pollutes it.
Thus, a very large volume of fresh water has now become completely unsuitable. A sharp deterioration in the quality of fresh water occurred as a result of contamination with its chemical and radioactive substances, pesticides, synthetic fertilizers and sewage, and this is already a global environmental problem of our time.
During the operation of large plants, industrial effluents are discharged into fresh water, the composition of which abounds in various kinds of heavy metals. Many of them, getting into the human body, have a detrimental effect on it, leading to severe poisoning, death. Such substances are called xenobiotics, that is, elements that are alien to a living organism. The class of xenobiotics includes such elements as cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and many others.
Known sources of water pollution with these substances. This is primarily metallurgical enterprises, car factories.
Natural processes on the planet can also contribute to pollution. For example, harmful compounds are found in large quantities in products of volcanic activity, which from time to time fall into the lakes, polluting them.
But, of course, the anthropogenic factor is crucial here.
The development of the nuclear industry has caused significant harm to all living things on the planet, including freshwater reservoirs. In the process of the activity of nuclear enterprises, radioactive isotopes are formed, as a result of the decay of which particles with different penetrating power (alpha, beta and gamma particles) are released. All of them are capable of causing irreparable harm to living creatures, since when they enter the body, these elements damage its cells and contribute to the development of cancer.
Sources of pollution can be:
- precipitation falling in areas where nuclear tests are carried out,
- wastewater discharged into a reservoir by nuclear enterprises.
- ships operating using nuclear reactors (in case of an accident).
The main inorganic elements that worsen the quality of water in water bodies are compounds of toxic chemical elements. These include toxic compounds of metals, alkalis, salts. As a result of the ingress of these substances into water, its composition changes; it becomes unsuitable for consumption by living organisms.
The main source of pollution is wastewater of large enterprises, factories, mines. Some inorganic pollutants enhance their negative properties when in an acidic environment. So, acidic wastewater coming from a coal mine carries aluminum, copper, zinc in concentrations that are very dangerous for living organisms.
Every day, a huge amount of water from sewage flows into reservoirs.
Such water contains a mass of pollutants. These are particles of detergents, small residues of food and household waste, feces. These substances in the process of their decomposition give life to numerous pathogenic microorganisms.
Getting them into the human body can provoke a number of serious diseases, such as dysentery, typhoid fever.
From large cities, such drains flow into rivers, then seas and the ocean.
Synthetic fertilizers used by humans contain many harmful substances, such as nitrates and phosphates. If they get into the reservoir, it provokes the excessive growth of a specific blue-green algae. Growing to a huge size, it prevents the development of other plants in a pond, while the alga itself cannot serve as food for living organisms that live in the water. All this leads to the disappearance of life in the reservoir and its waterlogging.
How to solve the problem of water pollution
Of course, there are solutions to this problem.
It is known that most of the polluting elements enter water bodies together with the wastewater of large enterprises. Water treatment is one way to solve the problem of water pollution. Owners of enterprises should attend to the installation of high-quality treatment facilities. The presence of such devices, of course, is not able to completely stop the release of toxic substances, but significantly reduce their concentration.
Also, household filters will help to combat the pollution of drinking water, which will clean it in the house.
The person himself must take care of the purity of fresh water. Following a few simple rules will greatly reduce water pollution:
- It is necessary to use tap water economically.
- Avoid household waste in the sewer system.
- If possible, clean up nearby ponds and beaches.
- Do not use synthetic fertilizers. Organic household waste, mowed grass, fallen leaves or compost are best suited as fertilizers.
- Dispose of discarded garbage.
Despite the fact that the problem of water pollution is currently reaching alarming proportions, it is quite possible to solve it. To do this, each person must make some efforts to be more careful with nature.
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