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Hypovitaminosis: what is it and why is it dangerous? Hypovitaminosis diseases


Hypovitaminosis C - Hypovitaminosis C (mourn, scurvy) - animal disease resulting from a lack of ascorbic acid in the body and clinically manifested by hemorrhagic diathesis, anemia, joint swelling, ulceration on the gums, a disorder of redox processes, and a decrease in the natural resistance of the animal’s body.

Hypovitaminosis C most often affects pigs, dogs, fur-bearing animals, less often horses and, as an exception, C-hypovitaminosis can occur in cattle and lambs. Mostly young animals are sick during the stall period.

Etiology. The development of C-hypovitaminosis in animals is facilitated by their uniform protein or carbohydrate feeding, with a lack of vitamin C in the diet or with increased consumption in the body, as a result of poor absorption of vitamin C in the gastrointestinal tract, high or very low ambient temperature, physical overstrain of the animal and the disease of the animal, one or another infectious disease. Disease of young animals with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract leads to a decrease in the absorption of vitamin C in the intestine and causes the appearance of endogenous C-hypovitaminosis. In dairy calves, C-hypovitaminosis may appear when feeding them with pasteurized or boiled milk. C-hypovitaminosis of animals is promoted by diseases of the liver, gastrointestinal tract, feeding animals with poor-quality feed, and the presence of invasive and infectious diseases in animals. The synthesis of ascorbic acid in animals is significantly reduced when rancid fats, sour kitchen waste are used in diets, and when animals lack vitamins A and C and protein. The appearance of C-hypovitaminosis in animals can be promoted by the irrational use by veterinarians of antibiotics, sulfa drugs, nitrofurans and anthelmintics.

Pathogenesis. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the body of animals activates many enzymes (arginase, amylase, lipase, protease) and a number of hormones (cortin, adrenaline), takes part in redox reactions, amino acid, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, supports the normal state of the wall blood vessels. In case of a deficiency of vitamin C in the animal’s body, the colloidal state of the intercellular substance is disturbed, the permeability of the walls of the blood vessels increases, and the integrity of the skin and cartilage tissue is disturbed. With a deficiency of vitamin C in the animal’s body, the function of the reticulo-endothelial system decreases (especially the liver), the body slows down the process of antibody formation.

Clinical picture. The course of the disease is chronic. In the early days of the disease, the signs of the disease in animals are nonspecific: the owners of the animals note a decrease in appetite, weakness, general depression, lag in growth and development, pallor of visible mucous membranes.

In pigs, C-hypovitaminosis look on our website in the article "Hypovitaminosis - C in pigs."

In birds, C-hypovitaminosis see article “C-hypovitaminosis in birds”.

In dogs C-hypovitaminosis begins with symptoms of anemia and ulcerative necrotic inflammation of the oral mucosa, as a result of which the dog is difficult to chew and swallow food. On palpation of the chest and joints of the limbs, the dog reacts painfully. In a dog during a clinical examination, we note a related movement. The skeleton is softened and becomes flat. Often, C-hypovitaminosis in dogs results in complications: bronchopneumonia, pulmonary gangrene and sepsis.

In fur animals, C-hypovitaminosis accompanied by stomatitis, dry skin and subcutaneous hemorrhage, swelling of the tail is observed. Patient animals lack appetite, there is a strong thirst, sometimes paralysis of the limbs. During a clinical examination of young fur-bearing animals, we note pallor of the skin, visible mucous membranes, a symptom of anemia, while examining the oral cavity, we note that the gums are swollen, bleeding gums, and the formation of the lower jaw on the mucous membrane near the incisors of a strip of dark purple color. We register a typical symptom of C-hypovitaminosis - swelling of the legs, between the fingers and soles — the sores, the soles are visually reddened (red-footed), the tail is swollen, and the tip of the tail sometimes breaks off.

The paws swell and ulcerate in the foxes, the fur becomes grayish-white, cottony.

C-hypovitaminosis leads to a large mortality of young animals.

In cattle and horses C-hypovitaminosis usually proceeds in a latent form and is clinically manifested by rapid fatigue of animals, increased heart rate and respiration, we register symptoms of anemia in cattle, and blood appears in cows in milk (blood milk). In newborn calves during a clinical examination of the oral cavity, the veterinarian notes bleeding of the gums and the formation of the lower jaw on the mucous membrane of the gums near the incisors of a strip of dark purple color (mimic border).

Pathological changes characterized by phenomena of hemorrhagic diathesis, changes in the gums and skeleton, impaired growth, and in protracted cases, the phenomena of anemia and exhaustion.

When opening a fallen animal in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, mucous membrane, in the internal organs, in the muscles, in the joints, under the periosteum, in cartilage, sometimes in the joint cavity (hemarthrosis), hemorrhages are visible. Under the influence of microflora, ulcerative necrotic foci are visible at the site of hemorrhage. For hypovitaminosis C, we find characteristic changes in the gums: their mucous membrane is swollen, friable (the gums act as pillows between the teeth) with ulcerations and purulent-necrotic foci, covered with a dirty gray coating. In some places, the gums are saturated with hemorrhagic effusion and have a dark blue or blue-black color (mournful gingivitis). The necks and roots of the teeth are exposed, the teeth are loose. In young animals, skeletal changes in the form of osteoporosis are sometimes observed. Bone plates are destroyed or disappeared, the bone marrow is atrophied and partially replaced by fibrous tissue.

Dogs have bones. They are thinned and softened. In some dogs, we find ulcerative necrotic stomatitis.

Diagnosis the veterinarian sets the C-hypovitaminosis in animals on the basis of the collected history (long-term feeding of boiled feed), characteristic clinical symptoms of the disease (hemorrhagic diathesis) and pathological changes. A laboratory study found a reduced content of ascorbic acid in blood and milk.

Differential diagnosis. During the differential diagnosis, the veterinarian must exclude ASF, CSF, swine erysipelas, K-vitamin deficiency hemorrhagic diathesis, carnivore plague, stachybotriotoxicosis, nitrofuran poisoning, ordinary ulcerative stomatitis.

Treatment. Owners of animal patients with C-hypovitaminosis, as prescribed by a veterinarian, give a special diet including feeds rich in vitamin C (green grass, vitamin hay, cabbage, rutabaga, carrots, raw milk, dandelion leaves, rose hips, wild garlic - Siberian wild onions). At the same time, sick animals are given in the form of top dressing sprouted grain, greens grown hydroponically, cattle coniferous flour, spruce branches of coniferous trees, other animals infusion of needles, nettles, rose hips. Carnivores in the diet include raw meat, fish, milk, fresh slaughter and milk waste.

As a medicinal product, ascorbic acid in powder is used inside (g): horses 0.5-3, cattle 0.5-4, small cattle, pigs 0.1-0.5, foals 0.5-1, 0, for dogs 0.03-0.1 foxes and arctic foxes 0.05-0.1, intravenously in (d): horses up to 1.5 cattle up to 2, dogs up to 0.05. Additionally, for the treatment of the disease, veterinarians use other vitamin C preparations: iron ascorbate (30% solution in ampoules) 3000mg per 10ml, sodium ascorbate (5 and 10% solution in ampoules), papyrosis (tablets) - vitamin C 50mg, vitamin P 2.5mg. In hemorrhages in animals, calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, rutin and other symptomatic drugs are used simultaneously with ascorbic acid, depending on the presence of complications.

Prevention C-hypovitaminosis in animals is based on the observance by the owners of zootechnical rules of proper nutrition and the creation of good conditions. For prophylactic purposes, vitamin C is added to feed: piglets - with a sucker 50 mg, calves -150-200 mg, foals 100-150 mg per kg. stern. For pregnant sows 1 week before farrowing, 1.0 ascorbic acid is added to the feed.

The content of the article

  • Causes of Hypovitaminosis
  • Symptoms of Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin A Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin B1 Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin B2 Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin B3 Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin B6 Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin B12 Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin C Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin D Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin E Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin PP Hypovitaminosis
  • Vitamin K Hypovitaminosis
  • Prevention and treatment of hypovitaminosis

Vitamins are a group of substances that play an extremely important role in the life of the body, they directly or indirectly participate in the synthesis of proteins, amino acids and other elements, in the metabolism and breakdown of compounds, the activity of muscle fibers, nerve cells and other tissues and organs. The lack of such substances can lead to serious disorders and disturbances in the body. However, the most common symptoms of vitamin deficiency are frequent infectious diseases (including acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory viral infections), worsening of the skin, hair and nail plates, dermatitis, bleeding of the mucous membranes (gums, nose), rickets, muscle disorders, depression, memory loss, and poor health.

Speaking about the lack of vitamins, doctors often use two terms: “hypovitaminosis” and “vitamin deficiency”. This creates confusion: many people, not knowing the exact meaning of these concepts, use them incorrectly. In most cases, it is precisely about hypovitaminosis - that is, a lack of vitamin, and not its complete absence (vitamin deficiency). Complete vitamin deficiency is a relatively rare phenomenon, while many suffer from varying degrees of hypovitaminosis in various periods of life.

Causes of Hypovitaminosis

Vitamin deficiency may be due to one or more of these causes:

  • Lack of vitamin in the diet, unbalanced diet
  • The destruction of nutrients in food containing them due to violations of storage conditions or as a result of temperature or other cooking
  • The action of antagonist substances that are contained in certain products and lead to the destruction of vitamins, the violation of their absorption, increase the human need for vitamin (in particular, egg protein makes it difficult to assimilate biotin).

Hypovitaminosis can also be caused by endogenous (internal causes). These include, first of all, various disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to disruption of the absorption and assimilation of vitamins. Often, insufficient assimilation of vitamins is caused by dysbiosis - a violation of the intestinal microflora, which often accompanies prolonged use of antibiotics, chemotherapy for tuberculosis, and oncological diseases. Microflora is involved in the synthesis of certain vitamins that occurs inside the body, its condition deteriorates, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in it, as well as helminthic and other parasitic invasions lead to a sharp reduction in vitamin reserves in the body.

Other common causes of vitamin deficiency include genetically determined defects in enzyme systems and transport functions that ensure the absorption and distribution of vitamins. Taking certain medications can also cause hypovitaminosis.

In a separate group, it is necessary to single out the reasons that are associated not with a lack of vitamin in food or a violation of its absorption, but with an increase in a person's need for this substance. Such reasons may be pregnancy and feeding, periods of increased physical and mental stress, intense growth in adolescence and childhood, and other factors.

Symptoms of Hypovitaminosis

Manifestations of vitamin deficiency can be very diverse, but most often in patients with this diagnosis one or more of these symptoms are observed:

  • Peeling, dryness, roughness of the skin, cracking, dandruff, brittle nails.
  • The appearance of oily sheen on the skin, peeling of nasolabial folds, wings of the nose and nose, eyelid skin, neck (especially behind the ears).
  • Compaction and cracking of the skin of the joints (mainly elbow and knee).
  • Hemorrhages on the surface of the skin, loss of the natural color of the mucous membranes, bleeding of the mucous membrane of the gums, and oral cavity.
  • The appearance of general weakness, fatigue, apathy, a pronounced deterioration of the emotional background, sleep and mood disturbances, and disorders of intellectual activity.
  • The appearance of a jam, cracks in the corners of the mouth, dry skin of the lips, the formation of ulcerations and grayish-yellow crusts in the corners of the lips.
  • The appearance of many small nodules on the skin of the hips, elbows and knees, buttocks, severe dry skin in these areas.
  • Decreased visual acuity, worsened color perception, worsened night vision up to the development of "night blindness".
  • The appearance on the nails of transverse grooves, pits, discoloration of the nail bed or plate.
  • Sensitization of the skin and tooth enamel.
  • Decreased sexual desire, erectile dysfunction.
  • Gastrointestinal disorders, digestive disorders.

In infants, a deficiency of certain vitamins causes increased sweating (hyperhidrosis), the formation of bald patches and bald spots on the scalp, developmental and growth disorders, the formation of dry brown crusts in the area behind the ears, and delayed teething.

Some types of vitamin deficiency lead to the development of specific diseases. For example, as a result of a lack of vitamin PP and certain types of proteins, pellagra occurs - a disease characterized by a combination of three main symptoms: diarrhea, dermatitis and dementia (blurred consciousness). In addition to these symptoms, pellagra can cause photodermatosis, baldness and other skin diseases and disorders, insomnia and weakness, increased aggressiveness, loss of sensation or complete paralysis of limbs and peripheral nerves.

Vitamin A Hypovitaminosis

The most common reason for the development of this disorder is a violation of the absorption and absorption of fats, which occurs in various diseases of the intestine and pancreas. Hypovitaminosis caused by insufficient vitamin A content in foods consumed by the patient for food is somewhat less common.

Lack of retinol often leads to symptoms of the skin and mucous membranes. Dry skin, the formation of scales and flaking, dermatitis and other skin diseases accompany this hypovitaminosis along with the tendency in children to develop stomatitis (inflammation of the oral mucosa).

Vitamin A plays an important role in the visual act, affecting not only the general visual acuity and color perception, but also the process of adapting vision to darkness. With a lack of this element, daytime and twilight vision worsens, conjunctivitis often develops. In severe cases of the disorder, corneal perforation, keratomalacia, and blindness may develop.

Finally, one of the frequent consequences of a lack of vitamin A in the body is a violation of the digestive system. In addition, immunity is reduced, as a result of which frequent infectious and inflammatory diseases are observed in patients: gastritis and colitis, acute respiratory infections, urinary tract infections.

Vitamin B1 Hypovitaminosis

A sufficient amount of thiamine (vitamin B1) ceases to enter the body due to various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the need for this substance increases during gestation and breastfeeding. In those regions where carbohydrate food predominates and there is an excessive consumption of grain processing products, this type of hypovitaminosis is more common. The unpleasant symptoms that arise in this case are associated with a violation of the processes of carbohydrate oxidation, the occurrence of an excessive amount of underoxidized products, and a violation of the synthesis of acetylcholine.

In the early stages of hypovitaminosis, patients suffer from constipation, nausea and loss of appetite, as well as other digestive disorders. Headaches, memory impairment and irritability are frequent manifestations of the nervous system, along with impaired peripheral sensitivity, crawling sensations, and the development of neuralgia. The weakness of the heart muscle is characteristic, manifested by tachycardia even with minor loads.

Vitamin B2 Hypovitaminosis

Riboflavin is an extremely important vitamin for the body, which is found in large quantities in animal products, such as meat, dairy products, eggs, and even in some types of plant foods, fruits and vegetables. With a lack of vitamin B2, many metabolic and energy exchange processes in the body are disrupted, and the immune status is reduced.

Inflammation of the tissues of the tongue and the shell of the oral cavity (glossitis and stomatitis), cracking of the lips, eczema-like skin defects, conjunctivitis and photophobia are the primary signs of riboflavin deficiency. At the same time, persistent visual impairment often develops, and development and growth processes are disturbed in children.

With this type of hypovitaminosis, the mucous membrane of the oral cavity becomes grayish, and the tongue, on the contrary, acquires a bright red hue. The surface of the tongue becomes smooth due to degeneration of the papillae.

Vitamin B3 Hypovitaminosis

In children who need to increase the amount of vitamin B3 in the body, growth retardation and weight gain are observed. All patients with a relatively long vitamin deficiency are characterized by the development of a number of disorders caused by a disorder in the nervous system: such as weakness, apathy, and a worsening of the emotional state. Sensitivity of nerves is disturbed, paresthesia occurs, in particular, burning sensation in the feet. There are numerous disorders of the digestive and respiratory systems, and the level of blood pressure decreases.

Vitamin B6 Hypovitaminosis

Lack of pyridoxine is most often caused by dysbiosis and malfunctioning of the digestive tract, as well as genetic defects and allergic diseases. Vitamin B6 is extremely important for metabolism.

The basis of the symptoms are skin defects and diseases, disorders of the emotional and intellectual sphere, conjunctivitis. A decrease in immunity, the development of hypochromic anemia and growth retardation are also characteristic of this type of vitamin deficiency.

Vitamin C Hypovitaminosis

The need for vitamin C increases in pregnant and lactating women, in adolescents during the period of active growth and physical development, during stress and physical exertion.

Vitamin C deficiency has a negative effect on the state of blood vessels and the immune system. Patients often experience nosebleeds, bleeding gums, and the degree of permeability of the walls of blood vessels.

Vitamin D Hypovitaminosis

A lack of vitamin D, along with some other factors, leads to the development of a specific disease - rickets. Most often, rickets develops in early childhood and is accompanied by a violation in the processes of bone formation, the occurrence of numerous disorders of the internal organs.

The rapid growth of the body in childhood leads to an increased need for vitamin D. Lack of vitamin can be caused not only by its insufficient content in food, but also by a violation of its synthesis in the skin - for example, due to insufficient frequent exposure to the sun.

At the beginning of the disease in children, sleep disturbances, sweating, anxiety and weakening of muscle tone are observed. At later stages, due to a violation of the processes of bone formation, the shape of the skull and chest can change (flattening of the nape and intercostal joints). Together with the deterioration of muscle tone, this leads to a delay in the development or disorder of motor and static functions.

Vitamin E Hypovitaminosis

Tocopherol is an important element that affects the activity of cell membranes, the course of oxidative processes. It is extremely important for maintaining the elasticity and volume of the skin, wrinkles and scars are much more often formed in people suffering from a lack of this vitamin.

The risk group includes children born prematurely, children with intrauterine growth retardation.

The most characteristic clinical manifestations of this disorder are muscle weakness, their loss of normal muscle tone, and anemia. In severe cases, vitamin E hypovitaminosis leads to muscular dystrophy.

Vitamin PP Hypovitaminosis

Violation of the processes of oxidation and recovery, metabolism, and the functions of the endocrine glands are frequent consequences of a lack of nicotinic acid, also called vitamin PP. Most often, this disorder occurs with a violation of the diet, in particular - the absence of a sufficient number of fresh vegetables and eggs. A severe lack of vitamin PP (pellagra) is accompanied by diarrhea, impaired consciousness, skin irritation (dermatitis). It should be noted that during periods of active growth and serious physical and psychological stress, the need for vitamin increases.

Vitamin K Hypovitaminosis

In addition to common causes, vitamin K deficiency is often found in patients suffering from various liver diseases. Salicylates and drugs from the group of anticoagulants are antagonists of vitamin K, their long-term use leads to a decrease in the level of vitamin K.

Manifestations of vitamin K deficiency may include bleeding: gastric, nasal, intestinal, as well as intradermal and subcutaneous hemorrhages, bleeding from the urinary tract, the development of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

Prevention and treatment of hypovitaminosis

The basis for the prevention and treatment of hypovitaminosis is dietary correction to increase the proportion of products containing the necessary substances (most often animal products), as well as the elimination of diseases and disorders that impede the absorption, absorption of vitamins, as well as the implementation of their functions in the body. Most often in such cases we are talking about the treatment of dysbiosis and other disorders in the gastrointestinal tract.

Modern pharmaceutical companies produce a wide range of mono- and multivitamin preparations in various forms. The use of such drugs is often used as an additional preventive or therapeutic measure in the treatment of hypovitaminosis. Moreover, in most cases, preference should be given to multivitamin complexes, since a lack of one vitamin is relatively rare. In the most severe cases, an injection of vitamins may be prescribed.

Also, the treatment of hypovitaminosis usually includes a whole range of symptomatic therapy measures to eliminate the most unpleasant and difficult to tolerate manifestations of vitamin deficiency. These include the use of antipyretic, analgesic drugs, the use of cosmetics and medicines to eliminate external symptoms (primarily skin). For these purposes, we recommend the use of care products La Cree.

Clinical researches

A clinical study proves the high efficiency, safety and tolerability of products of La-Cree TM for daily skin care for a child with mild and moderate atopic dermatitis and during remission, accompanied by a decrease in the quality of life of patients. As a result of therapy, a decrease in the activity of the inflammatory process, a decrease in dryness, itching and peeling, were noted.

All Atoderm products were developed with the participation of Denis Vladimirovich Zaslavsky, professor of dermatovenereology at St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, and the chief specialist in dermatovenereology and cosmetology at the Russian Ministry of Health in the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation.

Brand funds are recommended by the Union of Pediatricians of Russia.

Consumer Reviews

Alya Nikolaeva about La-Cree dry skin cream (irecommend.ru)

“The first time I bought this cream was for a child (there was very dry skin on the arms and legs), but then the need for the cream disappeared and it just dusted on the shelf. But then my night cream ended (as always abruptly), with a purchase of a new one I held out and as a result I had to rummage through the old stocks, in the hope of at least finding something. here I came across a forgotten tube of La Cree. It was winter (the weather is windy, but there are no frosts), I read and decided that it was just right. My skin is combination, it requires hydration. There are already wrinkles and small creases near the eyes.

In general, without thinking twice, I smeared it on his face.

The cream in the tube, which is good, does not come in contact with air and does not need to be taken out of the jar.

The color is white, the texture is dense. It smells like a baby cream from distant childhood, but it does not bother me. Cost-effective, enough for a long time.

Despite the fact that the cream is dense, it lays down well enough and spreads easily. It was absorbed for a long time, but since I used it as a night one, it was not critical.

In the morning I was pleasantly surprised, my face was moisturized, no creases on the skin formed overnight, and in the future those that were already smaller. The face is fresh, not swollen. Photo some time after using the cream (slightly smoothed the hall).

Being delighted with such an effect, I tried to use it during the day, but it was not very convenient, yet the cream is heavy.

I am using the second tube for the first time, I am very pleased, of the latest acquisitions - this is the most successful.

Sold in a pharmacy, is inexpensive.

Cream recommended from birth. Although generally not positioned as natural. The first 3 lines in the composition are water, liquid paraffin (mineral oil), an emulsifier. All natural components come later, respectively, their concentration is not more than 3%, which is written there. So, if you are exclusively for natural cosmetics - this is not your option. But the cream really works. ”

Tanost about La Cree shampoo-foam (otzovik.com)

“When my eldest son was born, then his whole head under his hair was covered with a crust. In the maternity hospital, they assured me that nothing special needs to be done, just wash your hair periodically, and the crust will eventually come off. My son is now 2.5 years old, but this problem has not practically disappeared. I bought a special softening gel, smeared it with olive oil, but to no avail. And here about four months ago, a pharmacist friend advised me to take La Cree shampoo foam from birth.

We use shampoo in about a day. I really liked its composition: licorice extract, glycerin, olive oil, castor oil, violet extract, salicylic acid, jojoba oil, wheat proteins, rosewood oil.

A bottle with a dispenser, which is very economical and convenient.

The foam is very soft and delicate with the "no tears" formula.

After four months, we did not have a trace of the unfortunate crust, after the head dried out the flakes that remained on my hair, I just combed it with a comb. We still use La Cree shampoo. ”

Vitamin A (Retinol)

The correct chemical name for vitamin A - retinol. It is found in animal products. The carotene pigment (orange) present in carrots, and similar pigments called carotene, which are often found in plants, can be converted to vitamin A during digestion. The structure of carotenes and vitamin A is particularly well adapted for absorbing light, both in plants in the form of carotenes and in animals in which vitamin A is converted into a light-absorbing retinal molecule. Three groups of animals that have eyes (mollusks, arthropods and vertebrates) use retinal as the light-absorbing part of the photoreceptor molecules. Light causes quite large changes in the retinal structure, sufficient to generate a nerve impulse.

In addition to this, vitamin A plays an important role in maintaining the normal condition of the skin and other epithelial (superficial) tissues, and for young children it is required for normal growth.

Hypovitaminosis A.

Vitamin A deficiency leads to disruption of dark adaptation (in other words, disrupts the work of sticks that respond to light intensity). At first, the so-called "night blindness" occurs when a person does not see at dusk. This condition develops in conditions of a lack of retinal rods. Ultimately, the sticks are destroyed. At the same time, dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea (xerophthalmia, xeros - dry, ophthalmos - the eye), and their functions are violated. Ulcers (keratomalacation) appear on the cornea and, as a consequence, blindness.

With vitamin A deficiency in children their growth slows down. Prolonged deficiency of this vitamin can lead to death. A similar picture is still characteristic of some developing countries, where blindness often occurs in children due to a lack of vitamin A. About 3 million children under the age of 10 in these countries are blind for this reason. In humans, vitamin A is stored in the liver, in which, subject to a complete diet, there is an approximately two-year supply of it. On the recommendation of British nutritionists, the average daily intake of this vitamin should be two times the body's need for it.

Hypervitaminosis A

Rare cases of poisoning resulting from admission are known. excess vitamin A. This usually happens with prolonged use of vitamin preparations. Hypervitaminosis A appears in brittle bones, hair loss, double vision, vomiting, and other complications. Taking a large amount (more than 3300 mcg per day) of vitamin A during pregnancy can lead to birth defects in children. In the United Kingdom, pregnant women are not recommended to take vitamins containing vitamin A without consulting a doctor.

Daily regular intake should not exceed 6000 mcg for adolescents, 7500 mcg for adult women and 9000 mcg for adult men.

Hypovitaminosis K

Hypovitaminosis K The cause of the disease is a lack of vitamin K.In this case, a violation of redox processes, blood coagulation, etc. occurs. Birds weaken, their appetite worsens, their skin becomes dry, and their mucous membranes

Hypovitaminosis A

Hypovitaminosis A Vitamin A is soluble in fats, it is necessary for pigeons to increase the resistance of the epithelium of the mucous membranes, cornea of ​​the eye, upper respiratory tract and intestines. It regulates the metabolism and growth of poultry; during the growth of pigeons it accumulates in the liver.

Hypovitaminosis D

Hypovitaminosis D Vitamin D (calciumferol) also belongs to the group of fat-soluble vitamins. It can form in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet rays. Vitamin D is abundant in fish oil and liver, and in the liver of fish, depending on the species, fluctuations in vitamin D may

Hypovitaminosis E

Hypovitaminosis E Vitamin E (tocopherol) is fat soluble. It has high activity and is necessary for the metabolism of fats, affects the formation of muscles and their function, promotes the formation of normal full-fledged eggs, increases resistance to

Hypovitaminosis K

Hypovitaminosis K Vitamin K was first discovered in alfalfa flour; in subsequent years, it was possible to obtain it synthetically. In nature, vitamin K occurs in various forms: found in the green leaves of plants, produced by bacteria.