Since in nature rabbits have many enemies, and predators primarily attack weakened, sick animals, rabbits, if sick, try to hide it. Sometimes it’s difficult to notice in time that the rabbit is sick. Of course, the sooner you determine the cause of rabbit disease, the greater the chance of a favorable outcome.
You need to check the well-being of the rabbit every day. One of the indicators of a rabbit's poor health is a poor appetite or its complete absence. If you notice that the rabbit began to eat little or didn’t eat anything during the day, refuses treats, what he usually loved, he should be shown to the veterinarian as soon as possible.
Also, if you notice that the rabbit goes to the toilet a little or does not go at all, you should not postpone the visit to the veterinarian. If you notice a rabbit has loose stools (if it has a dirty butt) and this lasts more than a day, even with good appetite, most likely these are problems with the gastrointestinal tract, which in no case should be started.
When you let the rabbit out for a walk, and he sits sad, “scruffy” and does not want to leave the cage, this may also indicate that the rabbit was sick.
If you notice any wounds, scratching, peeling on the rabbit’s skin, you must bring it to the veterinarian, as this can be one of the symptoms of immune diseases, parasites, and allergies. Runny nose, sneezing, nasal discharge, wheezing are most often symptoms of colds and other diseases. To make an accurate diagnosis, you need to contact a veterinary clinic, since without analysis and a doctor’s examination you can only “guess” what could cause serious harm to the rabbit. Remember: the correct and timely diagnosis may save your pet’s life, so you should not waste time and “self-medicate”. It is worth noting just a general practitioner, as not all of them have experience in treating rabbits, but first ask if there are any rabbit treatment specialists.
Of course, it is better to have the contact information of such doctors in advance, so that in which case you do not waste time searching.
Differences between a sick rabbit and a healthy one
Not all diseases are accompanied by severe symptoms, but you can see the difference between a sick rabbit and a healthy one. And in order not to lose sight of the first signals of the disease, the animals need a systematic examination. This is done before mating, as well as before and after okrolya. After birth, rabbits are first examined daily, and then every 14 days. Most diseases and methods of their treatment are not very difficult, the main thing is to prevent the development of complications and to take measures in time.
A healthy rabbit is distinguished by its activity and good appetite. The main signs of a healthy animal:
- no discharge from the mucous membranes,
- the fur glistens
- respiration rate about 60 times per minute,
- a uniform pulse of 120-160 beats per minute,
- temperature 38.5-39.5 degrees.
If urine or feces changes, then this may indicate a disease that has begun. Normal bowel movements are black or dark brown in the form of peas. Urine should also be dark. Its shade depends on the type of feed.
Signs of an unhealthy animal
Each disease has its own distinctive signs, but there are a number of symptoms indicating disorder in the rabbit's body. If they appeared in an animal, it is necessary to urgently consult a specialist in order to avoid the spread of the disease to other individuals and to start treatment on time.
Many diseases begin with the following symptoms:
- atypical behavior
- the rabbit lies with his eyes closed
- the animal is breathing hard and often, thirsty all the time,
- hair loss
- discharge from the nose or eyes
- the appearance of formations on the body,
- the animal is paralyzed, it trembles or cramps,
- violation of the stool.
Types of Rabbit Disease
Rabbits can get sick with numerous diseases that can be divided into the following groups:
The most common are infectious diseases. They are the most dangerous because an infected animal poses a potential threat to the lives of others.
The cause of invasive diseases are parasites (helminths, ticks, etc.), which, when ingested, can spread through it, causing damage to various organs and tissues. Penetrating into the body of the animal, they lay larvae there and multiply. As a result of this, there is a mortality of the number of rabbits.
Infectious diseases develop due to the entry of microbes or viruses into the body of a rabbit, or cutaneous parasites. An ill animal often becomes a carrier of the virus and carries a danger to the rest of the herd.
Noncommunicable diseases are mainly tied with improper nutrition, in violation of maintenance requirements, and temperature conditions. These include all kinds of bruises and injuries. Noncommunicable diseases do not pose a threat to the life of other animals - a sick rabbit is not contagious.
Parasites under the microscope (Coccidosis)
The cause of this disease is the parasite coccidia, which affects the digestive tract of the animal. There are two stages of the development of the disease: the first is in the rabbit's body, the second is outside its limits, then the pathogen is a threat to the animal. Statistics show that coccidosis is the cause of rabbit death in 70% of cases. To prevent this, constant prevention and timely diagnosis are necessary.
The disease can develop in two forms: hepatic and intestinal. In the first embodiment, the disease can last about 50 days, during which the animal has diarrhea and it loses weight. The intestinal form is fleeting - in 10 days the rabbit dies.
During the incubation period (2-3 days), rodent observed jaundice, feces has blood impurities. The age of a sick animal may vary, but the most vulnerable 2 to 4-month-old rabbits. Diagnosis of the disease is possible only after analysis of feces for the presence of the pathogen.
Coccidosis can be treated in several ways. You can give the animal a solution of iodine: an adult 100 g of a 0.01% solution per day from the 25th day of pregnancy, then the volume is increased to 200 g per day of a 0.02% solution. Courses of 10 days each. Rabbits are treated in the same way, only the volume of the solution should be 2 times less. The second method is treatment with an aqueous solution of sulfa drugs. Give the rabbit a solution 2 times a day for 5 days.
In more detail about this disease, we talked about coccidiosis in rabbits, for reference go to the following link http://kroliki-prosto.ru/kokcidioz-u-krolikov.html
Cysticercosis-affected rabbit liver
The disease is caused by cestode larvae. It affects the liver and its complication is peritonitis. The percentage of extinction of rabbits from cysticercosis is very high, especially among young animals. The cestode larva becomes a mature parasite in the dog's body, and the rabbit becomes an intermediate carrier.
The sick animal is lethargic and lacks appetite. Gradually, the body becomes weaker and the rabbit dies. When you open it, you can see the affected liver. Multiple vesicles are visible on the abdomen. You can diagnose the disease using an allergen injected under the skin.
Unfortunately, there is no cure for cysticercosis. It is only necessary to take preventive measures to prevent the spread of the pathogen. If the dead rabbit shows affected organs with cestodes, then the corpse is destroyed. Dogs cannot be kept in rabbit households except guard dogs. Keep stray dogs out of the area. As a chemical prophylaxis, 10% mebenvet granulate is added to animal feed for 30-40 days.
Dead rabbit from pasteurellosis
This disease very quickly affects the entire population if there is a sick animal in the herd. The age of the sick can be any. But the source of infection can be not only a sick rabbit, but also contaminated food and care items. Carriers of pasteurellosis are birds and rodents.
When the rabbit gets sick, he has a sharp increase in temperature to 41-42 degrees. Their condition is oppressed, rapid breathing. This disease is fleeting - after 1-3 days the body temperature drops to 33 degrees and the rabbit dies. This disease may also have a chronic form in which purulent rhinitis appears.
At autopsy in a sick animal, numerous hemorrhages of all internal organs are noted. The spleen is significantly enlarged, and there may be dead spots on the liver.
They treat pasteurellosis with antibiotics - biomycin, chloramphenicol, etc. As a prophylaxis, rabbits are vaccinated.
The skins of sick animals are disinfected, and their entrails are disposed of. Meat can be eaten when thoroughly checked.
You can learn more about this disease from the article pasteurellosis in rabbits.
One of the most dangerous diseases of rabbits. It happens in 2 forms: nodular and edematous. The first form is characterized by the appearance of small nodules that grow to the size of a pea and shower the body. The edematous form manifests itself in the form of small edema, which connects with time into one large edema.
All these formations are called mixes. The most common places they appear are the head, anus and genitals. Another characteristic symptom is inflammation of the lining of the eye. The animal acquires an ugly appearance and dies after 7-10 days. There is no cure for this disease. At the first signals of myxomatosis, a veterinary service should be notified. A sick animal is subject to liquidation, and the clothes of a person who had contact with him are disinfected. Cal should be buried to a depth of not less than a meter.
Myxomatosis in rabbits is one of the most dangerous diseases, so rabbits should be vaccinated against myxomatosis in a timely manner.
This disease has an acute and chronic form. The infected rabbit has a high temperature, rapid pulse and breathing, his eyelids swell. There is also swelling of the abdomen and the space under the jaw. The chronic form is also characterized by dryness and fragility of some areas of the fur cover. Yellowness appears on the mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth.
The causative agent of the disease is the helminth of the trematode Fasclola hepatica. To diagnose the presence of the pathogen, a laboratory analysis of feces is performed.
If the area where the rabbits live is considered unfavorable in terms of the spread of this parasite, then the animals should not use water from a pond or lake. Hay collected from infected areas can be eaten six months after mowing.
The liver infected with fascioliasis is boiled to disinfect, or disposed of in a cattle burial ground.
Both rabbits and humans can become infected with this disease. Especially at risk are pregnant rabbits. Appearing once, this disease can befall rabbits every year for many years. Infection carriers are fleas, ticks, lice.
The causative agent can survive in soil, grain, water for several years. Breeding places are also diverse: water, milk, bodies of corpses, soil, etc. In nature, many rodents are the reservoir of listeriosis.
Basically, the disease has an acute and super-acute form. As a result of its development, up to half of the livestock herd perishes. Opening the dead animal, you can notice changes in the liver - it has a dark red color, enlarged, with scattered white necrotic nodules. Lymph nodes are also enlarged.
Diagnosing the disease of adults is not difficult. Only pregnant rabbits depart. Dead animals are cremated or buried 1 meter deep. Litter and food leftovers are also burned. The cells where sick animals lived are thoroughly disinfected. They treat only non-pregnant individuals with antibiotics. But the result is ineffective, and the rabbit that is being treated remains a source of infection dangerous for others. Therefore, the best prevention is the destruction of the animal.
Only a veterinarian can detect this disease. It does not always have clear signs, and in many ways is similar to staphylococcosis. When tularemia proceeds in a latent form, it is impossible to notice external signs.
First, the inflammatory process spreads to the lymph nodes, on which abscesses appear over time, subsequently they can burst. As a rule, sick animals die. But those who survive tularemia develop a strong immunity.
The causative agent of the disease can be identified only as a result of bacteriological analysis of the material. When opening a dead animal, one can observe an increase in various glands (pelvic, cervical, axillary, lymph nodes) that are filled with blood. The tissues around the glands are swollen. The spleen, liver, lungs, belly are covered with small pustules.
In order to prevent disease, it is necessary to follow the rules of sanitation. Regularly destroy mice and rats on the farm, fight blood-sucking insects. Be sure to use protective clothing and disinfect hands. Only open animals with gloves. If the farm has animals suffering from tularemia, then a 20-day quarantine is required. It is also necessary to isolate rabbits, which have only a suspicion of the disease. Corpses and skins of deceased individuals are disposed of.
With rhinitis, the rabbit develops a serous flow from the nose, then mucus. He often sneezes and scratches his nose.
The animal is treated with furacilin 1% mixed penicillin (20,000 units per 1 mg). Instill the mixture 2 times a day. You can use econovocillin as a treatment by diluting the drug with boiled water 1: 2 or with a solution of NaCl. Buried in the nostrils of 5-6 drops.
Read about this disease in more detail in the article infectious rhinitis in rabbits, in it you are the main symptoms, causes and treatment methods.
The main factors causing the disease are drafts, sudden changes in temperature, high humidity. Diagnose it is not difficult:
- lack of appetite,
- high temperature (up to 42 degrees),
- wheezing when breathing
- discharge from the nostrils.
In the presence of these signs, the animal is placed in comfortable conditions without drafts with optimal humidity and temperature. Give him intensive food and antibiotic treatment. Give him as much drink as possible.
Often the cause of poisoning is poisonous herbs falling into the grass for food. Symptoms of poisoning include diarrhea, vomiting, and excessive salivation. Often the coordination of the body is disturbed. Read about how to properly feed rabbits.
First you should change the feed and give the rabbit a lot to drink. Make rice or oat broth. They have an absorbent property.
The best prevention is comfortable living conditions. The floor must be slatted so that the waste does not accumulate and there is good air circulation. To prevent parasites from multiplying around the cage, you need to remove the straw in time. Remove residual food and water so that bacteria do not multiply there. They should always be fresh. Regularly disinfect the premises where animals live.
Inspection of adults and young rabbits should be regular. This makes it possible to notice the signs of the disease in time and fight it effectively. First of all, symptoms appear on the mucous membranes, so they are given special attention.
After weaning, the baby rabbits are weakened by their immunity over time and they become more susceptible to disease. In order to prevent the most dangerous diseases, vaccines for rabbits have been developed. The most common vaccinations: from HBV and from myxomatosis. The first is done mainly from the age of 1.5 months. The immunity lasts 6-9 months, then revaccination is necessary. Today, complex vaccines have been developed that protect the animal from several diseases simultaneously.
You need to be vaccinated by following some rules. Adhere to the timing of vaccination, purchase the vaccine in safe places, monitor its expiration date. The animal must be absolutely healthy before vaccination. There is no sense in vaccinating against this ailment for a sick rabbit - it will be ineffective.
A rabbit is no less than a person susceptible to many dangerous diseases. Therefore, in order for the animal to benefit, it requires careful care and attention. At the slightest sign of a change in his behavior or appearance, measures must be taken.
Common signs of animal disease
Despite the variety of diseases, there are common characteristic symptoms indicating that the eared handsome is not all right. And although, according to these first signs, it is not possible for a layman to make a correct diagnosis, but it is possible (and necessary!) To seek help from a veterinarian.
This will allow you not to miss the time and start treating the disease at the very beginning, when the chances of success are much higher.
These signs that you must definitely respond to include:
- lethargy of an animal or motor hyperactivity uncharacteristic of a rabbit,
- lack of appetite or irrepressible thirst,
- frequent constipation or, conversely, loose stools,
- heavy breathing, mucous discharge from the nasopharynx,
- painful appearance, dull color or even hair loss,
- fear of the light
- the appearance of abscesses or ulcers in the eyes, nose, ears and paws,
- stiffness of movements or even complete paralysis.
If the rabbit is healthy, he behaves calmly, eats well and moves a lot. Breathing is light, free, nose and eyes, with the exception of pregnant females, remain dry. Do not be scared if, by measuring the temperature with the eared pointer, you will see a 38.5 - 39.5 ° indicator on the thermometer - this is normal temperature for rabbits.
Classification of diseases and their description
All rabbit diseases are divided into 3 types: non-infectious, infectious and invasive.
Non-communicable diseases include:
- bacterial infection of the paws (subdermatitis),
- mechanical injuries
- various allergic reactions
- gastrointestinal problems.
The group of infectious diseases are:
- infectious rhinitis and some others.
Invasive diseases are:
It should be noted that timely vaccination of the rabbit population avoids the appearance of many dangerous infectious diseases.
These diseases, although they pose a serious danger to the health, and sometimes even to the life of a sick animal, do not affect other animals, and therefore, in general, are relatively safe for the rabbit herd.
Having noticed the signs of the disease at an early stage, they can be successfully combated. If they missed the onset of the disease and delayed treatment, then even if the eared eel can be saved, its immunity weakened by the disease will inevitably affect health in the future - at least poor weight gain.
Gastrointestinal diseases are, first of all, food poisoning and all kinds of indigestion associated with them.
They are characterized by such symptoms:
- problems with bowel movements (constipation or loose stools),
- the appearance on the feces of mucus,
- swollen belly
- complete lack of appetite, while saliva constantly flows from the company,
- the movements of the diseased animal become lethargic and erratic.
If you find such symptoms in an eared pet: you need to thoroughly clean and disinfect the cage, drinkers and feeders, as well as change the feed, water and litter. Moreover, the feed needs to be replaced with a new, better one. This can be done even before visiting the veterinarian - there will definitely be no harm from this to the rabbit, only benefit.
The treatment itself should be carried out only with the approval of the veterinarian. Most often, to normalize the stool with liquid diarrhea in rabbits, the water in the drinker is replaced with a pre-prepared and chilled decoction of oat or rice grains.
If the animal is tormented by constipation, then laxatives are added to the water.
With severe bloating in the rabbit's abdomen, you need to hold it without food for 15-18 hours. And it is absolutely necessary to “drive” the poisoned animal, i.e. will make sure that it moves for several hours a lot and intensively.
Poisoning problems with the gastrointestinal tract in most cases are more typical for adults. Young rabbits under the age of two months, the main ration of which is mother’s milk, are very rarely faced with gastrointestinal tract problems - only in those rare cases when an adult feed is “overeating” due to a shortage of milk.
If an outdoor rabbit cage is not equipped with a sufficiently long visor that protects it from hot sunlight, the animal may become a victim of heat stroke.
It appears as follows:
- the animal becomes lethargic, gets tired quickly,
- the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth become inflamed and redden,
- the animal breathes with difficulty
- impaired coordination of movements,
- spontaneous twitching of the legs (convulsions) is possible.
To help the animal that received the heat stroke recover faster, you need to place it for 30-45 minutes. somewhere in the shade of a draft, covering his head and back with a wet rag.
Under natural conditions, rabbits live in burrows. Locked in a cage, they cannot hide deep into the ground from frost. If the cage is not insulated or not insulated enough, frostbite is threatened to rabbits.
Its symptoms are:
- the ears are down, the rabbit stops moving them,
- frost-bitten skin dies off,
- swelling on the eyelids and ears
- skin vesicles with a colorless liquid inside may appear on frost-bitten areas.
If you notice similar symptoms in an animal, you need to immediately transfer it to heat and drink it with warm water. After the animal dries and warms up, the ears should be greased with pork fat, and the vesicles on the skin should be carefully opened, the liquid released from them and disinfected.
Dead skin should be carefully treated with iodine or alcohol and bandaged with a bandage. And always, before returning the animal to the cage, it should be carefully insulated.
The source of allergies in rabbits can be dust, dirt, drafts, dampness and its faithful companion - mold, harmful fumes and many other reasons.
Visible allergy manifestations in rabbits are:
- mucous membranes of the nose and eyes become inflamed, turn red,
- the animal often sneezes, eyes watery, colorless mucus flows from the nose,
- breathing quickens
- body temperature may rise
- genitals change color.
Having noticed such symptoms, it is better to immediately place the animal in another, more comfortable cage. The new home should be clean and warm.
The diet of a sick rabbit should be reviewed, making it more diverse and nutritious. A couple of weeks you need to add vitamin supplements to the animal’s food or drink, and if the veterinarian gives the go-ahead, then inject a course of antibiotics.
Disorders in the digestive tract
Domestic rabbits often suffer from digestive problems. In adults, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract usually result in:
- poor-quality feed (rotten, ripe),
- high content in the diet of legumes,
- an overabundance of fresh fruits and vegetables,
- unsanitary conditions.
Regarding rabbits, when transferring babies up to 1.5 months of age to roughage (with a lack of milk in the mother), there is a high risk of ulcers in the gastrointestinal mucosa, the development of inflammation.
The presence of gastrointestinal pathology can be determined by the following symptoms:
- softened feces or diarrhea, often with mucus or blood impurities,
- lack of bowel movements
- loss of appetite,
- apathy, decreased activity.
Depending on the problem, the following treatment methods are used:
|Constipation||The animal is given inside 1.5 tsp. castor oil, the abdomen is rubbed with a 5% salt solution (1 tsp per 100 ml of water), warm soapy water is used as an enema. After the procedures, the rabbit is released to run. If defecation has occurred, the animal can be offered carrots, oat broth|
|Bloating||Inside give 5 ml of a 10% solution of ichthyol, do a gentle massage of the abdomen, and then let it out for a walk|
|Diarrhea||Adults are given activated charcoal (1 tablet per 10 kg of live weight), synthomycin (0.1 g 1-2 times a day) and 2 tsp. decoction of oak bark. Exclude juicy feed from the diet. To treat diarrhea in young animals, 1 tablet of synthomycin is dissolved in 2 liters of water and 2 teaspoons of rabbits are fed. 2 times a day|
If there are digestive problems, the animal is shown a hungry diet, but not longer than 12-20 hours. Then the soft food is offered to the rabbit in small quantities: mixed feed brewed with boiling water, boiled potatoes.
What are the signs of a sick rabbit?
First of all, a healthy animal leads an active lifestyle. He has no appetite problems. Nose and ears in healthy rabbits without secretions. The coat is smooth and even. The signs of the disease can be judged by feces and urine. Usually rabbit feces are dark, the shape resembles peas. As a rule, urine also has a dark color. But depending on the feeding, it can change. For example, after carrots turn orange.
As for the sick rabbit, his behavior is different from healthy. He is lethargic, sits with virtually no movement or even lies with his eyes closed, breathing heavily. Depending on the disease of the rabbit, excessive hair loss, sores on the skin can serve as a sign. From the nose and ears there are discharge, in appearance resembling pus.
In intestinal disorders, the rabbit’s stomach is often swollen. This is often the case with large quantities of fodder beets and leads to death.
Diseases of non-viral etiology
The following pathologies include non-infectious or, as they are also called, non-infectious diseases of the rabbit:
- digestive disorders - rabbits have a weak stomach, quickly and painfully reacting to any product that can cause gastrointestinal upset and even lead to death,
- mechanical effects (frostbite, shock, draft, dust, injuries and others),
Causes and signs
Details of each disease in the table below.
|Non-communicable rabbit diseases|
|Gastrointestinal Disorders||Poor, rude or forbidden food, unsanitary conditions||Softened, liquid feces or its complete absence, bloating, depression, loss of appetite|
|Diseases due to mechanical stress||Frostbite - exposure to low temperatures||Bubbles on the skin with liquid contents, swelling of the ears|
|Heat and sunstroke - placing cells under direct sunlight and indoors without airing||Lethargy, lack of movement, redness of the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyelids and nose, rapid breathing|
|Dust, drafts, plant pollen, gaseous substances - pleurisy, rhinitis, bronchitis can develop||Sneezing, sniffling or wheezing while breathing, fever, discharge from the nasal passages|
|Injuries - damage is caused by broken cells, many animals in a small area||Swelling at the site of injury, bleeding, rupture of the skin|
|Subdermatitis (plantar dermatitis)||The floor of the cells made of laths, combined with weak pubescence of the feet and overweight rabbits||Wounds on the feet, with severe damage - bleeding. The rabbit does not get on its feet, often lies, eats little|
Diseases of rabbits, photos and descriptions of which are presented above, are treatable if you start it in a timely manner.
With gastrointestinal disorders, the following therapeutic measures are used:
- Fasting for 12–20 hours. You can then give soft feed in small quantities. For example, pour boiled water over feed and let it brew.
- With diarrhea, the rabbit needs an enema. Castor oil or soapy water of small concentration is suitable for this.
- With diarrhea, 0.1 g of synthomycin should be given orally 1-2 times a day, diluted in a small amount of water.
- When bloating, the rabbit needs to be given a solution of ichthyol (10%) in a volume of 8 ml.
What to do in case of frostbite in a rabbit? If they are insignificant, you don’t have to do anything special. It is enough to warm the animal by moving it to a warm place. If frostbite is more significant and its symptoms are visible to the naked eye, the blister must be opened to let the liquid come out of it. Then the wound is treated with zinc or iodine ointment. If frostbite has resulted in necrosis of the tissues, you will have to remove them. The wound is lubricated with iodine, and a tight dressing is attached to the damaged area.
During heat or sunstroke, the rabbit is transferred to a cool place. Compresses should be applied to the legs and head (moisten a rag in cold water) with a frequency of 5 minutes.
If a rabbit gets sick as a result of exposure to draft, it will help heat, vitamins and clean air. When dust, harmful gases or other substances get into the respiratory tract, furatsilin is introduced into the nose (4 drops in each nostril). When the lesion is severe, an antibacterial drug is used.
The treatment of a rabbit for injuries depends on the type and extent of the lesion. In case of injury, a cold compress is applied to the damaged area. If the wound is open and bleeding has begun, it must first be stopped and then treated with iodine.
With plantar dermatitis, the rabbit's feet are lubricated with zinc or lead ointment. Wounds are treated with iodine. If foci have formed with pus, Vishnevsky ointment is applied.
Diseases of viral etiology
If diseases of a non-viral etiology can be prevented (in fact, the person is to blame for them), then no one is safe from infection.
To date, vaccines have been developed against dangerous infectious diseases that occur in rabbits.
The following rabbit diseases are known (photo and description below), which are capable of being transmitted from one individual to another:
- myxomatosis (diseases of the eyes and other parts of the body),
- rabbit hemorrhagic disease,
This disease affects adult fattened individuals if the bottom of the cage is made of metal mesh or a wooden lattice. Such bottoms are convenient because the urine and feces of animals do not accumulate on the bottom, but fall down, and the cell always remains dry and clean.
But animals have to move along the ribbed surface all the time. For young animals, this is not so scary, but adult rabbits, whose weight is much larger, can injure paws on the wire or the corners of the rails of a wooden lattice.
It is possible to understand that the rabbit “picked up” pododermatitis by examining its legs - in sick animals, their lower part loses its hair, “goes bald”. Subsequently, purulent wounds can form on bald places.
Sick animals become lethargic, move little, and hardly eat. To avoid pododermatitis, “comfort zones” should be arranged at the bottom of rabbit cages — special floorings made of wood on which animals can lie down and rest their paws.
You can try to cure pododermatitis by treating lesions that appear on the legs with ointments that include zinc or lead.If it has already reached abscesses, it is necessary to carefully open, clean from pus, disinfect with iodine solution and treat with tetracycline ointment.
But the best way out, considering that pododermatitis is a disease of fattened rabbits, to send a sick animal to slaughter - so it will not have time to lose weight due to illness and loss of appetite.
Animals can get various scratches, bruises and even fractures if they are kept several in tight cages, where they are literally forced to jump over each other's heads. To avoid such injuries is quite simple - you just need to provide the rabbits with spacious cages, and ideally - resettle them in separate "apartments".
The identification of such injuries is often difficult because they are hidden by thick hair. Meanwhile, one should not neglect such injuries - through them, an infection can enter the animal's body.
If you still managed to identify the injured area, it must be cleaned of wool and disinfected with iodine or alcohol. If hematomas or tumors are detected, the damaged area is wrapped with wet tissue to reduce the tumor.
Infectious and invasive diseases
These diseases are very dangerous, since many of them still have no effective treatment in the arsenal of rabbit breeders.
In some cases, the herd death rate in the herd can be up to 98%, so many owners prefer not to treat, but immediately slaughter and dispose of sick animals, trying in this way to protect other individuals in the herd from infection.
A cruel, but justified measure, especially when you consider that pure-bred animals are more susceptible to infectious and invasive diseases.
Infectious diseases are caused by harmful viruses and bacteria. Helminths, ticks and other parasites entering the body of the animal become a source of invasive infection.
The source of infection with this disease is coccidia - unicellular organisms that enter the body of the animal through feces and affect the cells of the liver and intestines.
Rabbits are most susceptible to coccidiosis at the age of 2-3 months, during the period of intensive transition from mother's milk to adult food.
Coccidiosis is of two forms: intestinal and hepatic. With the intestinal form, the animal dies in 8-10 days, and it is almost impossible to cure it. The liver form is longer - the animal is sick for up to 50 days.
Symptoms of animal lesions with coccidiosis are:
- bloated belly
- loose stools
- complete disregard for food,
- lethargy, long periods of immobility of the animal,
- convulsive twitching of the legs, tipping the head.
Coccidiosis can be tried to cure. For treatment, a 0.02% iodine solution is used, giving it to an adult animal 2 times a day for 10 days.
Rabbits and pregnant females (starting from the 25th day of pregnancy) reduce the dose by half. You can also use sulfanilamide-containing preparations for treatment by preparing an aqueous solution from them and giving it to rabbits 2 times a day. The course of such treatment is 5 days.
But these measures do not save the livestock from a large mortality - in 70% of cases of the death of eared animals, the cause is precisely coccidiosis. And the animals that survived after it become carriers of this dangerous infection for life.
Therefore, it is easier and more effective to fight coccidiosis with the help of prophylactic agents. To prevent its occurrence, it is necessary to regularly clean and disinfect animal cells, avoiding the accumulation of feces in them.
Other common diseases
Rabbits are gentle animals, so they need to be protected from stress, drafts, direct sunlight, adhere to the optimal temperature regime.
In the absence of cell insulation in the cold, elevated temperature and humidity in animal habitats, and the presence of drafts in animals, the following problems may arise:
|Pathological condition||Symptoms||Treatment methods|
|Frostbite of ears||Swelling of the ears |
· The appearance of bubbles with a clear liquid,
· Necrosis of the skin
|It is necessary to transfer the animal to a warm room and treat the frostbitten areas with melted fat (goose, pork, rabbit).|
With severe swelling, 1% camphor or iodide ointment is used.
If there are vesicles, then they should be opened, and lubricate the resulting wounds with zinc ointment.
In the presence of dead sites, the wounds are lubricated with iodine and a tight gauze dressing is applied.
|Heatstroke||· The animal lies on its stomach or side, |
Refusal of food,
|Immediately move the rabbit to a cool place. |
Cover your head and legs with a damp towel dipped in cool water
|Respiratory inflammation||Transparent or unclear discharge from the nose, |
Increased body temperature
|The animal is transferred to heat, drafts and other harmful factors are excluded, and food quality is monitored. |
In the presence of rhinitis, 3-5 drops of a 1% solution of furatsilin are instilled into the nose.
|Mechanical damage||Wounds, scratches, |
|Open lesions are treated with antiseptics, a cold compress is applied to the swelling|
Rabbit Viral Hemorrhagic Disease (HBVC)
The virus that causes the disease is highly contagious, and therefore quickly spreads between animals. Infectious are not only infected individuals, but also their skins, waste products. The transmission of the virus occurs by airborne droplets, as well as through inventory, feed, waste water, etc.
Adult animals weighing 3-3.5 kg are most susceptible to the disease. Pathological changes occur primarily in the liver, proceed rapidly and are almost asymptomatic. Mortality from HBV reaches 90%. Recovering individuals remain carriers of the infection, therefore, also subject to destruction.
Treatment and prevention
There is no cure for hemorrhagic disease, so rabbit breeders should take care of timely vaccination of animals.
If an outbreak of hepatitis B virus occurs on the farm, sick and suspicious animals are killed, carcasses are burned. Their habitats are thoroughly disinfected. Disinfection is also subject to equipment, clothing and the surrounding area.
You will find a detailed description of preventive and quarantine measures in the article “Hemorrhagic rabbit disease” on our website.
Mokrets is most often observed in young animals aged 3 weeks to 3 months. If the disease is mild, then the rabbits recover on the 12th day. Otherwise, death occurs after a week.
Stomatitis is accompanied by profuse salivation, the appearance of white plaque (sometimes with sores) in the tongue, which acquires a grayish-red hue. Animals become lethargic. Despite maintaining an appetite, they can’t eat and drink normally, sometimes they begin to vilify. The hair on the lower jaw falls out, the skin becomes inflamed.
If, after the first symptoms are detected, treatment is started immediately, then after 2-3 days the therapy gives a positive result.
The oral cavity is treated twice a day with a 2% aqueous solution of copper sulfate. Many rabbit breeders advise using streptocide: grind 150 mg (half a tablet) into powder and put it in the animal’s mouth, repeat the procedure after 10 hours. In advanced cases, combine both methods.
If biting midges is found, treatment is necessary not only for patients, but also for healthy individuals who are given orally 1/3 tablets (100 mg) of streptocide. During the treatment period, it is important to pay special attention to the nutrition of animals, transferring them to soft feed.
If after recovery the disease does not return within 2 weeks, the rabbit is considered healthy. Its meat can be used as food. It should be noted that sick rabbits are used exclusively for commercial purposes, their breeding is prohibited.
The most dangerous rabbit diseases are described by an experienced farmer in the following video:
Loving husband and caring father. A versatile person who is interested in literally everything. Gardening topics are no exception. I am always happy to discover something new and share it with other people. It is of the opinion that nature is the second home for every person, therefore it should be treated with respect.
Found a mistake? Select the text with the mouse and press:
Both humus and compost are rightfully the basis of organic farming. Their presence in the soil significantly increases the yield and improves the taste of vegetables and fruits. They are very similar in properties and appearance, but they should not be confused. Humus - rotted manure or bird droppings. Compost - rotted organic residues of various origins (spoiled food from the kitchen, tops, weeds, thin branches). Humus is considered a better fertilizer, compost is more affordable.
One of the most convenient methods to prepare a grown crop of vegetables, fruits and berries is freezing. Some believe that freezing leads to a loss of nutritional and beneficial properties of plant foods. As a result of the studies, scientists found that there is practically no decrease in nutritional value during freezing.
In little Denmark, any piece of land is a very expensive pleasure. Therefore, local gardeners adapted to grow fresh vegetables in buckets, large bags, foam crates filled with a special earthen mixture. Such agrotechnical methods allow you to get a crop even at home.
It is necessary to collect medicinal flowers and inflorescences at the very beginning of the flowering period, when the content of nutrients in them is as high as possible. The flowers should be torn by hands, breaking off the crude pedicels. Dried collected flowers and herbs, sprinkling with a thin layer, in a cool room at natural temperature without direct sunlight.
In Australia, scientists began experiments on cloning several grape varieties that grow in cold regions. Climate warming, which is predicted for the next 50 years, will lead to their disappearance. Australian varieties have excellent characteristics for winemaking and are not susceptible to diseases common in Europe and America.
Compost - rotted organic residues of various origins. How to make? Everything is stacked in a pile, pit or large box: kitchen residues, tops of garden crops, weeds cut to flowering, thin branches. All this is interbedded with phosphate rock, sometimes straw, earth or peat. (Some summer residents add special composting accelerators.) Cover with a film. In the process of overheating, a bunch of periodically tedious or pierced for the influx of fresh air. Usually compost "ripens" 2 years, but with modern additives it can be ready in one summer season.
The homeland of pepper is America, but the main breeding work for the cultivation of sweet varieties was carried out, in particular, by Ferenc Horvath (Hungary) in the 1920s. XX century in Europe, mainly in the Balkans. Pepper came to Russia from Bulgaria, therefore it got its usual name - “Bulgarian”.
Tomatoes have no natural protection against late blight. If late blight attacks, any tomatoes die (and potatoes too), no matter what is said in the description of varieties ("varieties resistant to late blight" is just a marketing ploy).
Humus - rotted manure or bird droppings. They prepare it this way: manure is piled up in a pile or pile, interbedded with sawdust, peat and garden soil. Burt is covered with a film to stabilize temperature and humidity (this is necessary to increase the activity of microorganisms). Fertilizer "ripens" within 2-5 years - depending on the external conditions and the composition of the feedstock. The output is a loose homogeneous mass with a pleasant smell of fresh earth.