Araucaria is the only representative of conifers among indoor plants. It attracts plant growers with its graceful branches with soft needles of dark green color, as well as unpretentiousness. The birthplace of the plant is about. Norfolk, which is located in the Pacific Ocean near Australia. Other names for this beautiful tree are Norfolk Island pine, indoor spruce. When grown indoors, the height of the variegated araucaria does not exceed 1.5 meters; during the year, it grows 1 or 2 whorls of branches.
You need a well-lit, but not sunny place. In the summer, araucaria can be taken out into the fresh air in a place protected from direct sunlight. If the spruce stands so that the light falls on it only on one side, it is advisable to turn the pot with the plant 90 ° every 10 days so that the trunk is flat and the crown is symmetrical. For large plants, the ideal option is to organize artificial lighting with a fluorescent lamp directly above the top of the spruce.
The plant needs regular watering in the summer 2 times a week, in the winter (at rest) it is enough to water 1 time in 7-10 days, while the earthen coma should not be allowed to dry out. Watering should only be well-maintained water. In no case should it be allowed to dry the earthen coma or the gulf - from them the plant can die.
Temperature, air humidity
Plant Likes a cool, humid climate. In summer, the temperature should be no more than 22, in winter - no more than 15 degrees.
It is often necessary to ventilate the room with Araucaria. If possible - take the plant to fresh air.
TIP! Do not place the plant near a battery or radiators. "Araucaria" does not tolerate heat - it quickly depletes and dies.
So that the branches do not dry out and the needles do not crumble, need to maintain high humidity in room.
Install humidifiers and spray branches with soft, warm water. Hard water can leave white plaque on the needles.
TIP! Spray Araucaria two to three times a day with warm water.
“Araucaria” does not require special care at home, but there are a number of conditions that must be observed.
Christmas tree flowers are not the same as we usually imagine flowers. Gymnosperms bloom differently. Their flowers are more reminiscent of small cones or sticking up “earrings”. Only adult plants bloom. But even with careful care at home, "Araucaria" does not bloom.
You can visually familiarize yourself with "Araucaria" in the photo below:
Transplant, used soil
No need to rush to transplant the plant immediately after purchase. "Araucaria" is very hard to tolerate transplant.
This must be done in the spring and when the roots completely braid over the lump. Usually every two to three years.
For transplant "Araucaria" use a medium sized pot and a substrate "for conifers."
You can prepare a substrate, which consists of one part of turf land, two parts of leaf, part of sand and two parts of peat.
The height of the plant depends on the volume of the pot. If you want a tall plant, transplant Araucaria into a large pot. It’s best to do a “transshipment” - this is when the lump is “rolled” into a larger pot, and the earth is added on the sides.
TIP! Do not clean the roots of the soil, otherwise the plant will die.
Planting, breeding, growing
Cultivation and reproduction of "Araucaria" is a long painstaking process. It must be propagated in the spring, for this seeds or cuttings will do. Seed germination is very poor. For sowing, you just need to use the seeds you just collected, you can not store them, so this kind of reproduction is rarely used.
Much easier is the reproduction of "Araucaria" by cuttings. To do this, cut off the apical stem, and put it in a darkened cool place for a day.
If for breeding you used the apex, and not the apical stalk, then "Araucaria" parent will stop growing up.
Next, it is necessary to clean the cut from the resin and grease it with ground charcoal. Additionally, it is possible to treat the slice with the root stimulator “Heteroauxin” or “Kornevin”.
Then insert the stalk into a container with sand and peat 1: 1, you can just in the sand, and cover with a glass jar on top. Place the container in a warm place with a temperature of at least 25 degrees.
NOTE! The root formation process may be unsuccessful if the temperature is less than 25 degrees.
During root formation, the seedling must be periodically sprayed with warm water and aired from time to time.
Be patient. The roots will appear not earlier than after two months.
The process can take up to five months, it all depends on the air temperature - the warmer, the faster the seedling takes root.
When you will see new needles on the handle, You can be congratulated on your successful rooting.
Now "Araucaria" can be transplanted into a pot with soil or substrate for conifers.
If the lower branches of Araucaria have turned yellow and withered, it probably struck her root beetle. Treat the plant with an insecticide.
The appearance of white clusters, similar to fleece pieces, indicates the defeat of the plant mealybug or aphids. Insecticide treatment will be required.
If you notice falling needles, them yellowing - Perhaps the room has dry air or the plant does not have enough watering.
Lack of light manifests itself stretching the stem and blanching the needles.
Slow growth can be triggered excess calcium - Do not water your fir-tree with hard water, monitor the composition of fertilizers.
From an excess of moisture in the soil or, conversely, from drying out of a coma, branches can drop "Araucaria." After the restoration of watering, she will not be able to raise them herself. To restore its former beauty, you need to wrap a lump of plastic bag and hang the plant "upside down" for several days.
Benefit and harm
"Araucaria" is considered plant with huge energy.
It is like a power amplifier - it excites creativity, makes calm people active, active - even more active.
And it doesn’t matter where the people’s energy is directed - in the positive or negative direction.
"Araucaria" simply enhances it. Indoor spruce moisturizes the air and cleanses well its from toxic substances.
Hypertensive patients are better off refraining from acquiring Araucaria, but people with low blood pressure simply need it. Putting it in a bedroom or lounges is not recommended.
"Araucaria" not too whimsical plant. Caring for "Araucaria" is not too difficult, however, it is necessary to perform some actions that are required by most plants.
She is very beautiful and has a strong energy, capable of both improving and worsening the situation in the house. It all depends on what kind of people live with her.
Following our recommendations for plant care, you will be pleased for many years with a very beautiful exotic "Araucaria" in a pot - a home tree not only for the New Year!
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Of the 20 species of araucaria, only a part is available for cultivation in a home environment. The most popular of all species is araucaria multiforme. There is also a name - indoor spruce. This is a small tree whose crown has a pyramidal shape. The owner will be pleased with light green needles, which in the plant grow instead of leaves. Branches are covered with scales.
Araucaria in the room
You can grow some types of homemade Christmas trees in a pot (araucaria in this case will be less, but this is not critical).
Another popular name is Bunia Bunia. In nature, grows in the subtropical zone of Australia. Moreover, most of the representatives of this species are found in reserves. This species was named after the traveler from England and the naturalist D. Bidville, who presented a couple of copies of the plant to the Royal Botanic Garden. After some time, Bidville's araucaria was already brought into Europe.
Araucaria landed in a row
If you follow the description, the height of the view is up to 50 meters. The diameter of the barrel is in the region of 1.2 meters. For this reason, in the indoor environment to grow this giant will not work. Only the length of coniferous leaves reaches 10 centimeters. They are located opposite, in two rows.
This is another representative of the genus, which is unsuitable for cultivation in the room. The species is named so because it grows in Brazil. It can also be found near the border of Argentina and Paraguay. At the moment, the plant fell into the Red Book as a species that is on the verge of extinction, although in the 19th century araucaria forests occupied vast areas of 200 thousand square meters.
Big beautiful araucaria
This species is smaller than the Bidville araucaria - the maximum height is 35 meters, although there were 52-meter specimens.
Interesting! Brazilian Araucaria has a wider trunk, the maximum thickness of which is 2.5 meters.
A characteristic feature of this species is that it is indoor araucaria. Even minor climate changes can positively or negatively affect Araucaria Heterophylla. At any time of the year when growing it, the house should be cool. It is best to grow it in the fresh air, but ultimately hide the plant from direct sunlight. A specially equipped part of the balcony or a place in the garden, under other trees, is well suited.
Also, this type must be regularly watered. If the land beneath Heatherofill’s araucaria is dry, it can be bad for her. Hard watering is not recommended. Before watering, you should wait until it settles. So salts that are harmful to the tree will remain at the bottom of the container, the roots will only absorb nutrients.
Important! Heterophylls have a lifespan of up to 10 years, every four years it is necessary to transplant the plant. It should also be regularly treated for pests. If the care is irresponsible, the needles may turn yellow, and the araucaria will lose its decorative qualities.
There are a large number of other species and varieties of plants:
- Araucaria Cook. This species is unsuitable for cultivation in the middle lane. It has short branches, which together with the trunk form an angle of 90 degrees. The crown of the plant is slightly narrower near the trunk, but closer to the top it is becoming wider. Cones have a length of about 10 centimeters. Due to the awl-shaped appendage, the cones appear bristly. Coniferous leaves are soft.
- Araucaria narrow-leaved. A very tall tree (50 meters), which was previously actively used by builders from different countries. If grown in a room, the highest height does not exceed three meters. Leaflets 50 mm long, have a linear-lanceolate shape. Narrow-leaved Araucaria is a good raw material for creating accessories, musical instruments, as well as in construction works. It makes good paper.
- Chilean Araucaria. This plant can be found in Chile and in the west of Argentina. The trunk can be even higher than other types of araucaria, up to 600 centimeters. In coverage, it is one and a half meters. The bark of the plant is thick, the texture is cracked. Usually the lower branches touch the ground and die. Lateral - gather in whorls. Such branches in old plants with a trunk form an angle of 90 degrees, when the araucaria grow old, they begin to hang down a bit. Leaf blades are stiff enough and can prick. The seeds of the plant are edible.
It can be seen that many of the species are unsuitable for growing at home, while others are suitable for cultivation exclusively in the subtropical zone. The height of some in the natural environment is several tens of meters, if home araucaria is not more than several meters.
Interesting! Many indoor varieties can be grown in the garden or transplanted into the garden for the summer of Araucaria.
Araucaria is very picky about growing conditions. Home care for it is a difficult undertaking. Many features must be considered, such as lighting, temperature, humidity, watering and fertilizer. The Araukariyev family has a decent number of representatives; in general, recommendations for plant care are as follows.
Araucaria loves bright light. Without it, she languishes. Like many ornamental plants, it must be protected from direct sunlight. In the warm season, you can keep araucaria on the street, but find a place that scatters sunlight and protects the plant from rain or hail.
Ideally, find a place where light will fall on the bush from two sides. In this case, the plant will develop well, otherwise you will have to deploy araucaria 90 degrees every week.
It is advisable to keep indoor araucaria cool. The recommended value of the thermometer is not more than 20 degrees. It is undesirable for the temperature to be lower than 10 degrees at night. It is important that in winter the temperature in the room where the araucaria flower grows (indoor spruce) does not exceed 15 degrees. Therefore, it is important to create the right conditions on the balcony, since the batteries often heat up to 25 and above degrees in the room.
Araucaria is also whimsical to humidity. Room care at home for it requires moistening the leaves and the stem with a spray gun. Before this, the water is infused for 24 hours or more. Water temperature - 20-25 degrees. It is especially necessary to moisten the plant in winter, because at this time they include batteries and heaters that dry the air.
Soil and top dressing
A seedling or an adult plant must be fertilized twice a month with an interval of 15 days. For this, types of fertilizer with a reduced amount of calcium are used. It is also advisable to use mullein infusion for top dressing. Then the plant will bloom for a long time and not dry.
Beautiful tall araucaria
Fact! The ideal soil mixture for araucaria (to transplant or propagate this interesting plant) is the land, which includes peat, sand, leaf and turf soil in the proportions of 1: 2: 1: 2.
Transplantation is carried out in spring or early summer. Without urgent need, you should not do it. It is necessary to wait until the root system becomes so large that it ceases to fit into the pot, or until the bush grows well, since the tree does not tolerate the transplant. It is not recommended to do this procedure more than once every three years.
Gardeners are interested in how reproduction is carried out in araucaria. There are several ways: vegetative and using seeds. Reproduction using the first method is more difficult, because the seed must be fresh. Therefore, the more popular method is cuttings. It is necessary to cut several cuttings, remove resinous juice from the cut, and treat this place with charcoal. Then they are lowered into the soil, then they are waiting for rooting.
Thus, araucaria is a very interesting conifer, some species of which can be used for the garden.
Since araucaria does not tolerate transplantation, it is recommended to produce it no more than once every 4-5 years by transferring an earthen coma into a larger pot. Between transplants, the topsoil in the pot can be replaced with fresh soil. The soil for araucaria should consist of equal parts: leaf land, turf land, peat land and sand. You can use purchased soil for conifers.
Dishes for planting plants should be wide, with a large layer of drainage.
Araucaria in a transport pot
The plant is propagated by cuttings cut from the tops of branches in early spring. The cuttings are wilted for a day in the shade, then the sections are cleaned of resin and treated with heteroauxin to stimulate root formation. Cuttings are planted in a mixture of sand and peat (1: 1) or simply in the sand. Top they are covered with a jar, maintain a temperature of about 24-26 ° C. Cuttings should be regularly ventilated and sprayed. They take root only after 2 months. After the root is well rooted, it is transplanted into a soil mixture suitable for an adult plant.
Cutting off the cuttings from the top of the plant, we must remember that in this case the growth of the uterine plant will be impaired and it will lose its regular shape. Cuttings from branches take root, but can give the plant an irregular shape.
The plant belongs to the genus of evergreen conifers from the Araukariyev family. In nature, these are real giants, centenarians with a flat top.
Found fossil cones of Araucaria confirm the age of about 220 million years. Often it is called chilean pine, the sacred tree of Pehuen among the Mapuci Indians, who eat cone seeds for food.
Norfolk residents call a tree norfolde pine. They successfully sell seeds, supporting the economy. Coat of arms, the flag of the island among the Pacific Ocean is decorated with its branches. In Europe, the tree became famous since 1843.
He was brought by the English scientist Bidville for the Royal Botanic Garden. Araucaria bidwillii (Araucaria bidwillii) is considered the first species of plants that conquered Europe. Now several types of araucaria intended for growing a house are well studied.
Variegated (Araucaria heterophylla)
Sometimes called Araucaria tall (A. excelsa), Norfolk pine.
The first years of life on the tree are awl-shaped needles that stretch upward.
Over time, scaly leaves form in their place, changing the appearance of the tree.
In tubs, the plant reaches 1.5 m. There is a variety of plants with gray needles, dense distribution of branches. Almost like a blue spruce. Branches grow horizontally, creating a neat pyramid.
In the open soil of tropical conditions, the tree grows to 80 meters high. The thickness of the trunk is about 2 m. The life span of the Araucaria tree variegated is hundreds of years.
Narrow-leaved, Brazilian (Araucaria angustifolia)
In nature, Araucaria is Brazilian or narrow-leaved in Brazil, in the north of Argentina, in Paraguay.
Now the tree is listed in the Red Book as an endangered species.
Horizontal branches rise up, forming an umbrella-shaped crown.
The shoots on the branches are collected in tassels, whorls. For this, the narrow-leaved Araucaria is called the Candelabrum tree.
It is decorated with a thick, soft needles of a dark green hue. The plant belongs to the dioecious type. The size of the cones on female trees is 20 cm in diameter. They are formed only in the wild.
Chilean Araucaria araucana
Chilean Araucaria is a large tree with low hanging branches, rigid scaly needles, growing in a spiral. Thick, resinous bark. Chilean Araucaria is considered one of the most stable species, allowing a decrease in temperature.
The plant is popular among the alleys of parks, gardens of Europe. Large seeds are used in the preparation of various dishes.
Column-shaped, Cook (Araucaria columnaris)
A tree is widespread in the subtropics of the islands of distant New Caledonia. The pyramidal tree is formed of small horizontal branches growing perpendicular to the trunk, which looks like a column.
Bristled cones reach a length of about 10 cm. Thickets of Araucaria trees are columnar-like similar to ancient stone columns.
Hanstein (Araucaria hunsteinii)
Most often used for pot growing. Areas of New Guinea are called homeland. In nature, Araucaria Hanstein is considered the tallest. The thickness of the trunk reaches 3 m. The scaly needles have a length of 15 cm, and the length of the cones can be 25 cm.
Araucaria Cunningham is otherwise called white, engaging pine - it was actively used in cooperage. Grows in East Australia, it was first seen in Moreton Bay. Now it is a popular potted tree, very often it is araucaria bonsai.
The technology of maintaining a plant at home has features. Attention, care, proper care for him should appear along with the brought tree.
After a successful relocation, a new tier of branches appears on the tree annually. So that they form a symmetrical figure, you need to rotate the plant weekly. A lump of earth should never dry out. Otherwise, the lower branches will dry up, fall off.
This video briefly describes the main points for caring for home araucaria:
Below are the main requirements for the quality development of Araucaria.
The first European known to have seen the island of Norfolk was captain James Cook. In 1774, during his second trip to the South Pacific in the HMS resolutions Cook noted the presence of large forests of tall, straight trees that would seem suitable for use as masts and yards for sailing ships. However, when the island was occupied in 1788 by prisoners transported from the UK, it was discovered that the Norfolk island pine was not stable enough for these purposes and industry was abandoned.
In the late 1950s, a trial batch of Norfolk pine logs was shipped to plywood manufacturers in Sydney, Australia, hoping to develop an export timber industry on Norfolk Island. Although plywood companies reported excellent results, the industry was recognized as an unsustainable Norfolk Island Advisory Council, which decided to order local timber production. Wood is good for turning and, along with the similar Cook pine, is widely used by Hawaii artisans.
It is a slowly growing tree, reaching a height of 50-65 m, with straight vertical trunks and symmetrical branches, even in the conditions of an incessant coastal wind, which can distort most other species. With a straight trunk, it radiates its branches almost horizontally or slightly beveled, in an amount of five, forming floors, the plane of each floor is an ideal pentagon. If stored indoors, the tree remains smaller. The gray-brown bark falls off on a small scale. With more or less horizontal, sometimes hanging branches, and the branch is 6:56 in normal revolutions.
Young leaves are soft and awl-shaped, 1-1.5 cm long, about 1 mm thick at the base on young trees, and concave, 5-10 mm long and alternately 2-4 mm wide on old trees. The thickest, largest, like leaves on a cone-forming branch are at the top of the crown. These cones are squat globose, 10-12 cm long and 12-14 cm in diameter, and take about 18 months to mature. They disintegrate at maturity in order to release a nut like edible seeds. Seeds have a length of 2.5 to 3 cm and a diameter of approximately 1.2 cm with wide wings. There are four cotyledons present. It is a dioecious tree (male and female flowers in various plants), although it can also be monoecious.
Scientific name heterophylla (“Different leaves”) comes from a change in leaves between young and adult plants.
The characteristic appearance of this tree, with its widely spaced branches and symmetrical triangular sketches, made it a popular cultivated species, either in the form of a separate tree or in avenues. When the tree reaches maturity, the shape may become less symmetrical. Although endemic, the implication of the species is called Norfolk Island Pine , is now widely distributed over the coastal regions of the world in the Mediterranean and humid subtropical climatic regions due to its exotic, pleasant appearance and rather wide climatic adaptability.
Like their eponymously native Norfolk Island, these conifers are planted in abundance, like ornamental trees in all coastal areas of Australia, Brazil, Chile, New Zealand, Peru, Portugal, the Dominican Republic, South Africa, India, Spain, Greece and coastal areas from the United States, such as southern California and the east and west coasts of Florida, Puerto Rico and Hawaii, as well as the northwesternmost coast of Mexico. Many of the Norfolk Island Pines that grow in Hawaii, including their descendants used as potted ornamental plants in the continental United States, are actually Cook Pines, two species embarrassed by the introduction.
It grows well in deep sand, as long as it receives reliable water when young. This, and its tolerance for salt and wind, makes it ideal for coastal situations. Indoors, the plant needs a bright, cool place for good growth. In summer, it should not be exposed to the scorching sun, the temperature should not exceed 18 degrees Celsius. In winter, the plant needs a bright number, which should be at least 5 to 10 degrees Celsius.
Young trees are often grown as houseplants in areas where winters are too cold for them to grow outside (they will not, for example, survive outdoors in most of North America or Europe), and are sometimes used as a Christmas tree. It will not survive in places subject to prolonged cold. However, there are several instances of growing outdoors in the subtropical gardens of the Tresco Abbey Gardens on the Isles of Scilly, in the United Kingdom. Which is probably the northernmost example of an outdoor growing young tree on Valentine's Island on the southwest coast of Ireland. The tendency for potted seedlings to develop a sterile appearance can be helped when growing them in clots. In northern climates, they can be left outdoors during the summer to promote fuller growth.
A large number of Norfolk Island pines are produced in South Florida for the indoor plants industry. Most of them were shipped to grocery stores, discount retailers and garden centers in November. Many of them are sprayed with a light coating of green paint before selling to increase their eye appeal, although this can weaken or even kill the plant if it cannot photosynthesize adequately. In some areas in the southern deserts of the United States and subtropical Florida, pine trees are banned from landing on Norfolk Island because they can be struck by lightning and fall.
Survival of the species is not threatened at all by trading indoor plants as it is grown for potted plants. However, native, natural stands A. heterophylla have always been limited and have been greatly reduced since captain Cook's time. Agriculture, poor land management and the introduction of invasive species have reduced the population of the original three islands significantly. The main remaining stands are now located within the Norfolk Island National Park and are therefore under some control.