Marsupials (Marsupialia) - an extensive group (infraclass) of mammals, which are united by a unique method of reproduction.
Marsupials were known to the indigenous peoples of America and Australia for a long time, but the rest of the world learned about their existence only in the 16th century. The first marsupial seen in Europe was the Brazilian possum. In 1500, a traveler Vincent Pinson brought it to the Spanish Queen Isabella as a gift. And only after three centuries, zoologists came to the conclusion that marsupials are not rodents that have deviated from the norm, but a separate group of mammals, which differs from placental or higher animals in their anatomy and reproduction.
Where do marsupial animals live?
Marsupials are widespread in America and dominate in Australia and the surrounding regions. Two species of couscous are found on Sulawesi (Indonesia), one on the Solomon Islands, and the other are endemic to the islands in the Banda, Arafur, Coral, Timor and Solomon seas.
Marsupials in Australia and Oceania are more diverse than their American counterparts (represented mainly by possums), and often occupy ecological niches similar to those found elsewhere in placental mammals. They use all terrestrial habitats - from deserts to rain forests and highlands.
Modern marsupials make up only about 7% of the global mammalian fauna.
Features of the structure of marsupials, photo
The appearance of modern marsupials are very diverse. It can be both slender, with long hind legs, and squat on short limbs, animals. Their sizes are from small to medium (body length from 4 to 160 cm). The hairline of all representatives is well developed. Many have a long tail, sometimes grasping.
In the photo below, the largest marsupial is the red (red) kangaroo, and the smallest is the northern marsupial.
Red Kangaroo (Macropus rufus)
Northern marsupial mouse (Planigale ingrami)
One of the structural features of the skeleton is the presence of suprapubic or marsupial bones, which protrude in front of the pelvis and help support the abdominal wall and brood pouch. A bag is a special skin device on the abdomen for carrying underdeveloped cubs in females.
Most species have a bag, except some ground ones. Sometimes a rudimentary bag is formed by folds of skin on each side of the nipple region - it protects attached cubs (for example, in a mouse-shaped possum, marten martens).
Marsupial mouse and her cubs
The deepest bags that completely cover the nipples are usually found in those species that actively jump, climb or dig. Bags that open forward are usually found in species with a small brood of 1-4 cubs. Burrowing species and species living in burrows are characterized by bags opening back (bandicoots, wombats).
Kangaroo mom and her cub in a safe haven - bag
At wombats, the bag opens back
The marsupial skull is usually with a large facial part and a small brain. Often there is a sagittal crest for fastening the temporal muscles that lift the lower jaw, and the orbit and fossa for the temporal muscles are connected, as in primitive mammals. Often there are openings in the sky between the upper molars. The back of the lower jaw is usually turned inward, in contrast to the placental.
Many species have more teeth than placental teeth. American possums have, for example, 50 of them. Usually there are 3 pre-molars and 4 molars on each side of the upper and lower jaws. Marsupials, in which 4 or more lower incisors are called multi-incisors. Two-tailed marsupials have only 2 lower incisors, usually wide and directed forward.
American possum shows its teeth
Reproduction of marsupial mammals
The main difference between marsupials from other mammals is the structure of the reproductive system.In females, the egg is lowered into the twin uterus for fertilization. Two lateral sheaths correspond to the bifid penis of the males. The egg in shape and developmental features is similar to the egg of reptiles and birds and is quite different from that of the higher animals. And if the young of placental mammals develop for quite a long time inside the body of the female (in the uterus), then the young of marsupials appear in the early stages of development. For example, a female eastern gray kangaroo weighing about 30 kg after 36 days of pregnancy gives birth to a baby weighing only about 0.8 g.
A baby is usually born through the central channel, which forms before each birth in most marsupials. In species such as kangaroos and proboscis couscous, the birth canal persists after the first birth.
Immediately after birth, the cub makes an amazing journey from the opening of the birth canal to the nipple. His forelimbs and head are more developed than the rest of the body, and the newborn climbs into the bag using the forelimbs. And although the baby is blind, he accurately determines the location of the nipple and sticks to it. The nipple enlarges and forms folds in the mouth, as a result of which the calf remains securely attached to the nipple for 1-2 months, i.e. until his jaws are fully formed so that he can open his mouth and release his nipple. All this time, the baby is protected by folds of skin that cover the area of the nipples and form a bag.
Kangaroo in mother's bag
Thus, the main growth and development of the young organism in marsupials occurs outside the uterus. During the short time that the embryo is in the uterus, it consumes nutrients transferred from the uterus through the wall of the yolk sac. In almost all marsupials, the yolk sac performs the function of the placenta. Only a bandicoot and koala develop a functional, albeit short-lived, placenta.
After fertilization in a kangaroo, the embryo develops only to the blastocyst stage, and then goes into a dormant state (this is the so-called “embryonic diapause”). A hormonal signal (prolactin), which blocks the further development of the blastocyst, comes in response to irritation of the nipple by the baby in the bag. When the growing cub leaves the bag and switches to another food, the development of the resting blastocyst resumes, another cub is born, and the cycle begins again. Fetal diapause is necessary in order to prevent the birth of the next cub at a time when the bag is still busy.
Large species of marsupial mammals (kangaroos, wombats) usually have one cub, while small species may have more. For example, dwarf possum and dwarf flying couscous can bring broods of 3-4 babies twice a year. Small insectivorous species, such as the wide-legged marsupial mouse, can bring 8-12 cubs each year.
In species with broods of several cubs, the mass of each of them is less than 0.01 g, which is significantly less than in any other mammals.
Among the marsupials, there are both terrestrial and arboreal species, and the water possum has adapted to life in the water. Most are nocturnal animals.
Koala - marsupial animal adapted to the tree lifestyle
Among marsupials there are herbivorous, predatory and omnivorous species. Some people prefer just one type of food. For example, proboscis couscous specializes in nectar and pollen. Others, for example, four-eyed possums, are very illegible in food. Their diet includes fruits, earthworms, insects, and small vertebrates.
Four types of marsupial social organization can be distinguished. In the first case, the structural unit is an individual, a portion of which partially overlaps with several other sites. Males have large sections, which include sections of several females, and mating is erratic. So live small possums, proboscis head posum.
In the second type, the structural unit is also an individual, but with limited overlapping of plots. In the male, the plot overlaps with the plots of 1-2 females, only he can mate with it.This type of social organization is characteristic of leafy tree species.
The third type is family associations that share a common, often protected, territory. Groups can consist of a monogamous couple and its offspring or a dominant male, several adult females and young animals. Groups live marsupial flying squirrels and some posums.
The fourth type is represented by large kangaroo families. With this social organization, the structural unit is a group of heterosexual individuals. Mating in such groups is erratic, and access to females is based on the size and dominance of males.
In the communication of marsupials, the main role belongs to hearing and sense of smell. So, tree species use sound signals to communicate at a distance of several hundred meters. Some, such as small sums, can tweet or squeak, while others, such as a koala, can roar.
Odor communication is carried out by passive abandonment of urine and excrement, and small species are actively labeled using the secretion of the skin glands.
Since marsupials in the bulk are active at night, their vision does not matter much.
How many marsupials live?
The life expectancy of a kangaroo in nature is about 25 years. Small marsupials live less than large species. Shorter than all eyelids of some species of predators that die at the age of 12 months. The exception is mountain couscous, which lives longer than all small mammals: a female in nature can live more than 11 years.
Suborder American marsupials (Ameridelphia)
Order Opossums (Didelphimorphia)
In total, there are 63 types of possums in 15 genera. They are found in the most diverse landscapes of America.
The appearance of possums is pretty uniform. These are small and medium sized animals that look like rats. The muzzle is elongated and pointed, eyes from small to large (in nocturnal species). Ears of different sizes, bare, thin and mobile. The tail is often long, thin and tenacious, but in some species it thickens due to fat deposits.
Colefoot Squad (Paucituberculata)
Coenoses are a separate group of primitive marsupials. This order was the richest in forms in the Oligocene and Miocene, but today it is represented by only one Caenolestidae family with three genera and five species: gray-bellied, blackish, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Chilean coleflests.
Chilean coenolest (Rhyncholestes raphanurus)
These small animals look like shrews. The muzzle is pointed, with many sensitive vibrissae; eyes are small. Coenoles live only in South America from Venezuela to Chile.
Among American marsupial cenolests are unique because they have a reduced number of incisors. The lower middle incisors are large and protrude forward.
Suborder Australian marsupials (Australidelphia)
Microbiotheria squad (Microbiotheria)
There is only one family in the squad - somniferous possums (Microbiotheriidae) with one species that lives in the cool, humid forests of southern and central Chile.
Carotid Opossum (Dromiciops gliroides)
The length of the body of the dormant opossum is not more than 12 cm, and it weighs only about 30 grams. The muzzle of the animal is short, the ears are round, and the tail is thick. In those places where he lives, the climate is often harsh, so the possum has a number of adaptations to the cold. Thick fur on the body and small, well-pubescent auricles help to avoid heat loss. In winter, when food (insects and other small invertebrates) is not enough, possums hibernate. Before hibernation, they accumulate fat, which is deposited in the tail.
The local population has many superstitions associated with this harmless animal. One of them says that the bite of the dormouse opossum is poisonous and causes seizures. Another claims that meeting him is unfortunately. They even say that some tribes utterly burned their house when they saw this animal in it.
Order Predatory marsupials (Dasyuromorphia)
Predatory marsupials are common in the rain forests and savannahs of Australia and New Guinea. Representatives of the squad can vary significantly in size. So, if the body length of some marsupial mice is not more than 8 cm, then the Tasmanian devil is 63 cm.
The giant marsupial marten (Dasyurus maculatu) kills its prey with a bite in the back of the head
Small species feed mainly on insects, while large ones, such as the Tasmanian devil and marten, prey on mammals, even large ones like wallaby.
Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus laniarius) can hunt lambs and bite sheep’s bones
Squad Moles (Notoryctemorphia)
The order includes 1 genus and 2 species inhabiting the southern, central and western parts of Australia. These are the only Australian mammals that have adapted to the burrowing lifestyle.
Outwardly, marsupial moles are similar to real moles, and especially to gold moles. Their body length is not more than 16 cm, and their weight is about 40 grams. Their shortened limbs resemble stumps. The bare skin at the end of the muzzle turns into a horny cover on the front of the head, which apparently helps to move through the soil. The nostrils are small holes, there are no functional eyes and auricles, and the ear holes are covered with hair. The tail is shortened, but is sometimes used as a support when digging.
Marsupial Mole (Notoryctes typhlops)
Little is known about the life of these moles in nature. They are found in central deserts in the sandy soils of riverine plains and sandy meadows. They eat small reptiles and insects. Permanent moves, like ordinary moles, are uncharacteristic for them, since the soil sags behind the animal as it moves.
Bandicoot Squad (Peramelemorphia)
Bandicuts are medium-sized animals that look like rats, only with a more elongated muzzle, and some species also have large ears.
Desert View - Rabbit Bandicoot (Macrotis lagotis)
Inhabit the most diverse landscapes of Australia and New Guinea. These are the only marsupials with a developed placenta.
Squad Bacterium marsupials (Diprotodontia)
This is the most extensive detachment of modern marsupial mammals. Includes up to 9 living families and about 140 species (koala, wombats, kangaroos, flying squirrels, ring-tailed posums, couscous, etc.)
Dog body (Trichosurus caninus) - representative of the family Climbing marsupials (Phalangeridae)
There are terrestrial and woody forms, and their appearance is so diverse that within the framework of one article it is impossible to characterize all of them - each animal deserves a separate story.
The family of coenoses - Caenolestidae Trouessart, 1898
2 subfamilies, up to 7 genera, of which modern - 2–3 genera of the nominative subfamily. Mountain (1500–4000 m) moist forests and meadows of the northwest and north of the South. America.
Genus Coenostrae northern - Caenolestes Thomas, 1895
Sometimes here include Lestoros . 3 types. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
fuliginosus Tomes, 1863 (obscurus Thomas, 1895, tatei Anthony, 1823). Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador.
caniventer Anthony, 1921. Ecuador, Peru.
convelatus Anthony, 1924. Colombia, Ecuador.
Peruvian genus colesteles - Lestoros Oehser, 1934
Previously considered as part of Caenolestes. . 1 view. C northwest south America (south of Peru).
inca Thomas, 1917 (gracilis Bublitz, 1987). Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Chilean Colefishes - Rhyncholestes Osgood, 1924
1 view. Mountain forests of the south-west South. America.
raphanurus Osgood, 1924 (continentalis Bublitz, 1987). Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Tribe Monodelphini Talice et al., 1960
Genus Opossums mouse-like - Marmosa Gray, 1821
Previously, Micoureus was also included here. Thylamys , Gracilinanus Marmo sops . 2 subgenus, about 10 species. Different types of forests (often humid tropical) of the Amazon region South. America, Brazilian Plateau, Center. America and the extreme southwest of the North. America.
Subgenus Marmosa s.str.
murina Linnaeus, 1758 (quichua Thomas, 1899, mer> moreirae Mirando-Ribeiro, 1936). Plain — low-mountain (up to 1300 m) moist tropical forests of the north of the South. America.
rubra Tate, 1931. Ecuador, Peru.
tyleriana Tate, 1931. Mountain (approx. 2000 m) forests of Venezuela.
robinsoni Bangs, 1898 (ruatanica Goldman, 1911). Far North South America, Isthmus of Panama, coastal islands.
xerophila Handley et Gordon, 1979. Plain savannah forests of the far north South. America.
mexicana Merriam, 1897. Center. America, West Sierra Madre
lepida Thomas, 1898. The South American part of the range of the genus.
canescens Allen, 1893. Moist forests of the south of the Mexican Highlands, Yucatan Peninsula, Isthmus of Panama.
Subgenus Stegomarmosa Pine, 1972
andersoni Pine, 1972. Peru.
Genus Mikurei - Micoureus Lesson, 1842
Previously considered as part of Marmosa. . 4–5 species. Tropical South and Center. America
regina Thomas, 1898 (germana Thomas, 1904, mapiriensis Tate, 1931,? phaea Thomas, 1899, rapposa Thomas, 1899).Middle belt of mountains of the eastern macro slope of the Northern and Central Andes.
demerarae Thomas, 1905 (cinerea auct., domina Thomas, 1920). The humid forests of the Amazon region and the Brazilian plateau.
alstoni Allen, 1900. Tropical Rainforest Center. America, Far North South. Americas adjacent to the east of the island.
constantiae Thomas, 1904 (limae Thomas, 1920). South of the Brazilian plateau.
Genus Opossums Patagonian - Lestodelphis Tate, 1934
1 view. Savannahs of Patagonia (south of South America).
halli Thomas, 1921. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Opossums graceful - Gracilinanus Gardner et Creighton, 1989
On Grymaeomys Burminster, 1854 (nom.praeocc.). Previously considered as part of Marmosa. . 2 sub-genera (possibly independent genera), up to 10 species. Center and East South. America.
Subgenus Gracilinanus s. str.
aceramarcae Tate, 1931. Locally in the Piedmont Forests Center. Bolivia.
agilis Burmeister, 1854 (blaseri Mirando-Ribeiro, 1936, Londoni Mirando-Ribeiro, 1936, unduaviensis Tate, 1931). Wet savannah forests of Gran Chaco.
dryas Thomas, 1898. Mountain forests of the far north South. America.
emiliae Thomas, 1909 (agricolai Moojen, 1943). East South America.
marica Thomas, 1898. Plain and mountain (up to 2000 m) forests of the far north South. America.
? microtarsus Wagner, 1842 (herhardti Mirando-Ribeiro, 1936). South of the Brazilian plateau.
ignitus Diaz et al., 2002. Piedmont forests of northern Argentina.
longicaudatus Hershkovitz, 1992 (= longicaudus auct.). Locally in the mountain forests of the Center. Colombia.
perijae Hershkovitz, 1992. North Columbia.
Subgenus Hyladelphis Voss et al., 2001
kalinowskii Hershkovitz, 1992. Mountain Forest Center. Peru and the Guiana Highlands.
Genus Opossums, Tailed - Monodelphis Burnett, 1830
In some systems, it is close to Marmosa s. str., stands out with him in a separate tribe. 2 sub-genus, up to 15 species. Forests and savannas of tropical South. America, Center. America.
Subgenus Monodelphis s.str.
brevicaudata Erxleben, 1777 (orinoci Thomas, 1899, touan Daudin, 1799). Tropical South America.
adusta Thomas, 1897. Northwest and North South. America, Center. America.
osgoodi Doutt, 1938. The Central Andes.
kunsi Pine, 1975. Bolivia.
domestica Wagner, 1842. Xerophytic forests of the Brazilian Plateau.
maraxina Thomas, 1923. O. Marajo off the northeast coast of the South. America.
americana Muller, 1776. Tropical South. America.
sorex Hensel, 1872 (henseli Thomas, 1908). South of the Brazilian plateau.
emiliae Thomas, 1912. The Amazon region.
iheringi Thomas, 1888. South of the Brazilian Plateau.
theresa Thomas, 1921. East Sout. America.
unistriata Wagner, 1842. Southeast Sout. America.
Subgenus Minuania Cabrera, 1919
rubida Thomas, 1898. Brazilian Plateau.
scalops Thomas, 1888. Brazilian Plateau.
dimidiata Wagner, 1847 (fosteri Thomas, 1924). Xerophytic forests and savannas of the southeastern part of the South. America.
The genus Tilamys - Thylamys Gray, 1843
Previously considered as part of Marmosa. . 5 types. South America south of Amazonia.
elegans Waterhouse, 1839 (tatei Handley, 1957, venusta Thomas, 1902). Central Andes.
macrura Olfers, 1818 (grisea Desmarest, 1827). Southeast Brazilian Plateau.
pallidor Thomas, 1902 (bruchi Thomas, 1921, formosa Shamel, 1930). South South America.
pusilla Desmarest, 1804 (karimii Petter, 1968). Plain and mountain (up to 3500 m) xerophytic forests and shrub savannas of the central part of the South. America.
velutinus Wagner, 1842. Southeast of the Brazilian Plateau.
Rod Opossums mouse - Marmosops Matschie, 1916
Previously considered as part of Marmosa. . 10–11 species. Northern and central regions of South. America, Center. America.
cracens Handley et Gordon, 1979. The lowland forests of Venezuela.
dorothea Thomas, 1911 (ocellata Tate, 1931, yungasensis Tate, 1931). Bolivia
noctivagus Tschudi, 1845 (leucastra Thomas, 1927, stollei Mirando-Ribeiro, 1936). Amazonia.
fuscatus Thomas, 1896 (carri Allen et Chapman, 1897). Mountain forests of the far north South. America.
incanus Lund, 1840 (scapulatus Burmeister, 1856). East South America.
invictus Goldman, 1912. Center. America
parvidens Tate, 1931. Tropical rainforests in the Amazon region.
pincheiroi Pine, 1981. Northeast Sout. America.
handleyi Pine, 1981. Colombia.
impavidus Tschudi, 1844 (caucae Thomas, 1900, ? neblina Gardner, 1990). Mountain wet forests Center. America, the western macro slope of the Andes in the northwest and west of the South. America.
Tribe Didelphini s.str.
Genus Common possums - D> Linnaeus, 1758
3-4 species. Forests and shrub savannas, partly anthropogenic landscapes (including cities) South. America (except the southern part), Center. America, south and center of North. America.
albiventris Lund, 1840 (? Imperfecta Mondolfi, 1984,? pernigra Allen, 1900). Low mountains of the western and northern regions of the South. America.
marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758. Center. America, Central and Northern South. America.
? aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826. Brazilian Plateau.
virginiana Kerr, 1792. C is the North American part of the range of the genus.
Four-eyed Opossums - Philander Tiedemann, 1808
On Metachirops. 2 types. Wet Forest Center. America, north and center south. America.
opossum Linnaeus, 1758 (? Mcilhennyi Gardner et Patton, 1972). Distribution - as indicated for the genus (except in the extreme south).
andersoni Osgood, 1913. Western Amazonia.
frenata Olfers, 1818. South of the Brazilian Plateau.
Genus Opossums Thick-Tailed - Lutreolina Thomas, 1910
1 view. Floodplain savannahs and gallery forests of the central part of the South. America.
crassicaudata Desmarest, 1804. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Rod Opossums water - Chironectes Illiger, 1811
1 view. Tropical and subtropical riverine humidified forests Center. America, Northern South. America.
minimus Zimmermann, 1780. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Subfamily Caluromyinae Kirsch, 1977
Sometimes it stands out in an independent family. Perhaps includes Glironiinae. 2 genera.
Rod Opossums Thick Coated - Caluromys Allen, 1900
3 types. Rainforest Center. America, north and center south. America.
derbianus Waterhouse, 1841. Center. America, Northwest South. America.
lanatus Olfers, 1818 (lanigera Desmarest, 1820). Tropical and subtropical forests South. America.
philander Linnaeus, 1758. Tropical South. America.
Rod Opossums striped - Caluromysiops Sanborn, 1951
1 view. Rainforests of the Northwest South. America.
irrupta Sanborn, 1951. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Subfamily Glironiinae Hershkovitz, 1992
Perhaps a member of Caluromyinae in the rank of tribe. 1 genus
Genus Opossums fluffy - Glironia Thomas, 1912
1 view. Rainforests of the West South. America.
venusta Thomas, 1912. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Probably a monophyletic taxon. In gradistic systems, Mi - crobiotheria and Dasyuromorphia are usually excluded from here, and they are brought closer to Didelphimorphia. 4–5 detachments, of which 1 is neotropic (“living fossil”), the rest are Australian.
Microbiotherium squad - Microbiotheria
Relationships are not entirely clear: in classical systems it usually approaches Didel phimorphia, in the newest it is considered a sister group for other Australidel phia or refers to the basal radiation of all Metatheria. 1 family. From late Cretaceous South. America, in the middle. paleogene - also Antarctica.
Family Dormant possums - Microbiotheriidae Ameghino, 1887
Previously considered as part of Didelphidae. 1 modern and at least 5 fossil genera. Distribution - as indicated for the unit.
Rod Opossums sonoid - Dromiciops Thomas, 1894
= Opossums Chiloe, Bell. 1 view. Moist mountain forests with dense undergrowth in the southwest of the South. America (including some coastal islands).
gliroides Thomas, 1894 (australis Philippi, 1893). Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Predatory marsupial squad - Dasyuromorphia
Probably a monophyletic taxon, cladistically associated with other Australian endemics, and not with South American families (with them they are sometimes united in the Marsupicarnivora group). 3 families (1 died out in historical time). From early Neogene. Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea and some adjacent islands (incl. Aru).
Marsupial Wolves - † Thylacinidae Bonaparte, 1838
3 genera, including 1 modern. From early Neogene. Tasmania, Australia (extinct in historical time).
Genus Marsupial Wolves - † Thylacinus Temminck, 1824
1 view. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
† cynocephalus Harris, 1808. Distribution - as directed for the family.
Marsupial Anteater Family - Myrmecobiidae Waterhouse, 1841
= Numbats. Perhaps the subfamily as part of Dasyuridae. 1 genus With avg. Neogene. Plain and mountain xerophytic forests and shrub savannas of the South. and Southwest. Australia
Genus Marsupial Anteaters - Myrmecobius Waterhouse, 1836
1 view. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
fasciatus Waterhouse, 1836. Distribution - as directed for the family.
Tribe Phascogalini Gill, 1872
Perhaps an independent subfamily.
Genus Marsupial rats New Guinean - Murexia Tate et Archbold, 1937
Probably refers to the basal radiation of Dasyurinae s. str., sometimes stands out in the subfamily. 5-6 species. Plain and mountain (up to 2500 m) forests of New Guinea, Normanby, Aru.
melanura Thomas, 1899. Mountain forests of New Guinea.
longicaudata Schlegel, 1866. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
naso Jentink, 1911 (? Habbema Tate et Archbold, 1937). Mountain forests of New Guinea.
wilhelmina Tate, 1947. Central part of New Guinea.
rothschildi Tate, 1938. Forest foothills of eastern New Guinea.
Genus Marsupial Rats - Phascogale Temminck, 1824
2 types. Forest areas of Australia.
tapoatafa Meyer, 1793. North., Southeast. and Southwest. Australia.
calura Gould, 1844. Sporadically in Australia.
Genus Marsupial mice - Antechinus Macleay, 1841
9–11 species. Forest areas of Australia, Tasmania.
godmani Thomas, 1923. Low-mountain tropical forests of the North-East. Australia
stuarti Macleay, 1841. East. Australia.
? adustus Thomas, 1923. North-East. Australia.
subtropicalis Van Dyck et Crowther, 2000. East. Australia
agilis Dickman et al., 1998. North. - West. Australia
flavipes Waterhouse, 1838. East. Australia.
leo Van Dyck, 1980. Mesophytic forests of the North. Australia
bellus Thomas, 1904. North. Australia
swainsoni Waterhouse, 1840. Southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
minimus Geoffroy, 1803. South. Australia
? rosamondae Ride, 1964. West. Australia.
Tribe Dasyurini s.str.
Genus Marsupial Shrews - Phascolosorex Matschie, 1916
Close to Neophascogale , sometimes stands out with him in a separate tribe. 2 types. Foothill and mountain forests of New Guinea.
dorsalis Peters et Doria, 1876. Low and high mountain forests of New Guinea.
doriae Thomas, 1886. Foothills of the western part of New Guinea.
Genus Marsupial rats Lorentz - Neophascogale Stein, 1933
1 view. Mountain forests of central New Guinea.
lorentzi Jentink, 1911.Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Marsupial mice spotted - Parantechinus Tate, 1947
2 types. Stony Deserts Southwest. and North. Australia
apicalis Gray, 1842. Southwest. Australia.
bilarni Johnson, 1954. North. Australia.
Western Australian marsupials - Dasykaluta Archer, 1982
1 view. West Australia.
rosamondae Ride, 1964. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Thick-tailed Marsupials - Pseudantechinus Tate, 1947
Up to 5 species (previously recognized 1). Rocky Desert Zap. and North. Australia
macdonnellensis Spencer, 1896 (? Mimulus Thomas, 1906). West and North. Australia.
bilarni Johnson, 1954. North. Australia.
woolleyae Kitchener et Caputi, 1988. West. Australia
ningbing Kitchener, 1988. West. Australia
roryi Cooper et al., 2000. West. Australia.
Genus Marsupial martens striped - Myoictis Gray, 1858
2 types. Rainforests of New Guinea, Aru Islands, sometimes common in human settlements.
melas Mueller, 1840. New Guinea.
wallacei Gray, 1858. Aru Island.
Genus Marsupial bipedal-tailed mice - Dasyuroides Spencer, 1896
1 view. Deserts of central Australia.
byrnei Spencer, 1896. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Marsupial comb-tailed mice - Dasycercus Peters, 1875
1 view. Sandy deserts of central Australia.
cristicauda Krefft, 1867. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Marsupial marten spotted - Dasyurus Geoffroy, 1796
6 types. Forest and open spaces of Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea.
hallucatus Gould, 1842. North. Australia.
viverrinus Shaw, 1800. Southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
geoffroii Gould, 1841. Southwest. Australia (in historical time - almost all of Australia except the central regions), the east of New Guinea.
spartacus Van Dyck, 1987. Southwest New Guinea.
albopunctatus Schlegel, 1880. Forests of New Guinea.
maculatus Kerr, 1792. East. Australia, Tasmania.
Genus Marsupial Devils - Sarcophilus Cuvier, 1837
1 view. Tasmania, in historical time, became extinct in Australia.
harrisi Boitard, 1841. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Tribe Sminthopsini s.str.
Rod Ningo - Ningaui Archer, 1975
3 types. Dry savannahs and semi-deserts of Australia.
timealeyi Archer, 1975. West. Australia.
yvonnae Kitchener et al., 1983. Zap. and South. Australia.
ridei Archer, 1975. Central Australia.
Narrow-footed marsupial mice - Sminthopsis Thomas, 1887
18–20 species divided into 7 groups. Open (usually arid) landscapes of Australia, New Guinea, nearby islands (incl. Aru).
Group of species " crassicaudata »
crassicaudata Gould, 1844. Desert Center. and South. Australia
Group of species " macroura »
bindi Van Dyck et al., 1994. Savannahs North-East. Australia
butleri Archer, 1979. North. Australia.
douglasi Archer, 1979. Savannahs North-East. Australia
macroura Gould, 1845. Australian open drylands.
virginiae Tarragon, 1847. North. Australia, south and southeast of New Guinea, Aru Island.
Group of species " granulipes »
granulipes Troughton, 1932. South - West. Australia.
Group of species " griseoventer »
aitkeni Kitchener et al., 1984. O. Kangaroo off the south coast of Australia.
griseoventer Kitchener et al., 1984 (? Boullangerensis Crowtheret al., 1999). Southwest Australia.
Group of species " longicaudata »
longicaudata Spencer, 1909. East. and Center. Australia.
Group of species " murina »
archeri Van Dyck, 1986. Savannahs on the South Coast of New Guinea.
dolichura Kitchener et al., 1984. Dry savannahs of the Southwest. and South. Australia
gilberti Kitchener et al., 1984. Dry savannahs of the Southwest. and South. Australia
leucopus Gray, 1842. Southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
murina Waterhouse, 1838. Southeast. and North-East. Australia.
? fuliginosus Gould, 1852. Southwest. Australia.
Group of species " psammophila »
hirtipes Thomas, 1898. Desert and Semi-Desert Center. and West. Australia
ooldea Troughton, 1965. South. Australia
psammophila Spencer, 1895. Sandy Desert Center. and South. Australia
youngsoni McKenzie et Archer, 1982. North-West. Australia.
Genus Marsupial jerboas - Antechinomys Krefft, 1867
1 view. Open arid spaces of Australia.
laniger Gould, 1856. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Triba Planigalini Archer, 1982
Genus Marsupials flat-headed mice - Planigale Troughton, 1928
5-6 species. Forest areas, savannahs, semi-deserts of Australia and New Guinea.
Group of species " maculata »
maculata Gould, 1851 (? Sinualis Thomas, 1926). Forest areas and savannas of the North. and East. Australia
Group of species " ingrami »
ingrami Thomas, 1906. Savannah Sev. Australia
tenuirostris Troughton, 1928. Savannahs and shrubs in the interior of East. Australia
gilesi Aitken, 1972. The semi-desert of the interior of the East. Australia
novaeguineae Tate et Archbold, 1941. Foothill forests of the south and east of New Guinea.
Marsupial Moles Family - Notoryctidae Ogilby, 1892
1 genus Desert Center. and West. Australia
Genus Marsupial Moles - Notoryctes Stirling, 1891
2 types. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
typhlops Stirling, 1889. Rec. Australia.
caurinus Thomas, 1920. Center. Australia.
Probably a monophyletic taxon, includes 2 orders.
Bandicoot Squad - Peramelemorphia
= Peramelina. Sister group for Diprotodontia. The prenatal groups are not clear: 2–4 families of different composition stand out (previously united in 1). From early Neogene.Different types of forests and open spaces of Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, adjacent islands (including the southeastern part of the Malay arch.).
Rendezvous number 14 Marsupials
Rendezvous No. 14 Marsupials At the beginning of the Cretaceous, about 140 million years ago, the intermediate No. 14, our ancestor of the approximately 80 millionth generation, vegetated in the shadow of dinosaurs. At that time, South America, Antarctica, Australia, Africa and the Hindustan began to break away from the south.
DATE 14. TOTAL
DATE 14. TOTAL Now we reached the beginning of the Cretaceous, 140 million years ago, when Copredok 14, our ancestor of the approximately 80 millionth generation, lived in the shadow of dinosaurs. As stated in the “Ivory Bird Tale”, South America, Antarctica, Australia, Africa, and India,
Marsupials with and without bags
Marsupials with bags and without them That's it! It turns out that they live in the world, and such are “crazy-marsupial” marsupials. An excellent example is the goose-eaters, in local terms - the numbats. There are only two types of them - ordinary and red. Both are residents of South and Southwest Australia, both, by the way, are almost
Rendezvous number 14 Marsupials
Rendezvous No. 14 Marsupials At the beginning of the Cretaceous, about 140 million years ago, the intermediate No. 14, our ancestor of the approximately 80 millionth generation, vegetated in the shadow of dinosaurs. At that time, South America, Antarctica, Australia, Africa and the Hindustan began to break away from the south.
Rabbit Bandicoot Family - Thylacomyidae Bensley, 1903
Sometimes combined with Peramelidae. 1 genus Deserts and semi-deserts of Australia.
Rhode Rabbit Bandicoots - Macrotis Reid, 1837
On Thylacomys Owen, 1838.2 species. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
lagotis Reid, 1837. Distribution — as indicated for the family.
? † leucura Thomas, 1887. Central Australia (possibly extinct).
Subfamily Peramelinae s. str.
In one of the systems, it approaches Thylacomyidae. 2 genera.
Rod Bandicuts Short-Nosed - Isoodon Desmarest, 1817
This genus was previously called Thylacis. , which is unlawful from the point of view of the Code. 3-4 species. Shrubbery and grassy floodplains in Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea.
macrourus Gould, 1842. North. and East. Australia, south and southeast of New Guinea.
obesulus Shaw, 1797 (nauticus Thomas, 1922, peninsulae Thomas, 1922). South Australia, Tasmania.
auratus Ramsay, 1887 (? Barrowensis Thomas, 1901, arnhemensis Lyne et Mort, 1981). North and Center. Australia.
Clan Longicoot Bandicoots - Perameles Geoffroy, 1804
On Thylacis Illiger, 1811.4 species. Open spaces of Australia, Tasmania.
nasuta Geoffroy, 1804. East. Australia.
gunnii Gray, 1838. Savannah Southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
bougainvillei Quoy et Gaimard, 1824 (fasciata Gray, 1841). West and South. Australia
eremiana Spencer, 1897. Sandy Desert Center. Australia
Subfamily Peroryctinae Groves et Flannery, 1990
Sometimes considered as a family, including also Echymiperi nae. 1 genus
New Guinean Bandicoots - Peroryctes Thomas, 1906
2 species (previously included some species of Microperoryctes ) Low-mountain (up to 2000 m) rainforests of New Guinea.
raffrayanus Milne-Edwards, 1878. New Guinea.
broadbenti Ramsay, 1879. East of New Guinea.
Subfamily Echymiperinae McKenna et Bell, 1998
Close to Peroryctinae, in some systems integrates with it. 2 genera.
Genus Mouse-shaped Bandicoots - Microperoryctes Stein, 1932
3 species (some previously included in Peroryctes ) Mountain forests of New Guinea.
longicauda Peters et Doria, 1876. New Guinea.
murina Stein, 1932. West of New Guinea.
papuensis Laurie, 1952. East of New Guinea.
Prickly Bandicoots - Echymipera Lesson, 1842
5 types. Forest Regions of New Guinea, North. Australia, arch. Bismarck, Aru Island, Kai.
clara Stein, 1932. Low-mountain forests of the north of New Guinea.
echinista Menzies, 1990. Foothills and mountains of central New Guinea.
kalubu Fischer, 1829. New Guinea and arch. Bismarck.
rufescens Peters et Doria, 1875. New Guinea, Aru Island, Kai, Sev. Australia (Cape York).
davidi Flannery, 1990. O. Kirivina off the southwest coast of New Guinea.
Rod Bandicoots Seram - Rhynchomeles Thomas, 1920
1 view. Primary rainforests on about. Ceram (Moluccas).
prattorum Thomas, 1920. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Wombat Family - Vombatidae Burnett, 1830
= Phascolomyidae Goldfuss, 1820. 2 modern and 4 fossil genera. From early Neogene. Forest and open spaces South. and East. Australia, Tasmania.
Rod Wombats Shorthair - Vombatus Geoffroy, 1803
1 view. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
ursinus Shaw, 1800 (hirsutus Perry, 1810). Southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
Rod Wombats long-haired - Lasiorhinus Gray, 1863
2 types. East - South Australia.
latifrons Owen, 1845. South. Australia.
krefftii Owen, 1873 (barnardi Longman, 1939). East and southeast. Australia.
Koalov Family - Phascolarctidae Owen, 1839
In classical systems it is included in Phalangeridae. 4 fossils and 1 modern genera. From early Neogene. Eucalyptus forests in eastern Australia.
Koala Rod - Phascolarctos Blainville, 1816
= Marsupial bears. 1 view. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
cinereus Goldfuse, 1817. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
Possum Mountain Family - Burramyidae Broom, 1898
Previously considered as part of Phalangeridae. 2 genera. From late paleogene. Forest territories of Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea.
Sort Possum genus - Cercartetus Gloger, 1841
On Cercaertus auct., Eudromicia Mjoberg, 1916.4 species. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
lepidus Thomas, 1888. Southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
caudatus Milne-Edwards, 1877 (macrura Mjoberg, 1916). Rainforests North-East Australia, the middle belt of the mountains of New Guinea.
concinnus Gould, 1845. Southwest. and South. Australia.
nanus Desmarest, 1818. Southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
Rod Possum Mountain - Burramys Broom, 1896
1 view. Shrub savannas and mountain woodlands Southeast. Australia
parvus Broom, 1896. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
The Couscous Family - Phalangeridae Thomas, 1888
In classical systems, this includes all (or most) Pha langeriformes, as well as Phascolarcti dae, which are currently accepted in the volume of 4–6 genera, which are grouped into 2 subfamilies. With avg. paleogene. Different types of forests in Australia, New Guinea, Tasmania, Solomon Islands, arch. Bismarck, southeast Malay arch.
Subfamily Ailuropinae Flannery et al., 1987
Rod Couscous Bear - Ailurops Wagler, 1830
Apparently occupies the most isolated position in the family, previously included in Phalanger . 1 view. Plain and low-mountain (up to 1800 m) forests on the islands of Sulawesi, Talaud (south of the Philippines).
ursinus Temminck, 1824. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Subfamily Phalangerinae s. str.
In some systems it is divided into 2 tribes (the Tricho group occupies a separate position surus - Wylda ).
Genus Couscous ordinary - Phalanger Storr, 1780
In the most fractional systems with Spilocuscus stands out in a separate tribe. Composition and boundaries are not clear: previously included Ailurops Spilocuscus , Strigocuscus . 10-12 species. The distribution is almost the same as indicated for the family.
orientalis Pallas, 1766. North of New Guinea, Timor Islands, Seram (Moluccas), Solomon Islands, arch. Bismarck, North-East Australia (Cape York).
intercastellanus Thomas, 1895 (mimicus Thomas, 1922). Mountain and foothill forests of southeast New Guinea, arch. Louisiade.
vestitus Milne-Edwards, 1877 (interpositus Stein, 1933, permixtio Menzies et Pernetta, 1986). Forests of the middle belt of the mountains of central and western parts of New Guinea.
carmelitae Thomas, 1898. Mountain forests of the center and east of New Guinea.
gymnotis Peters et Doria, 1875. New Guinea, Aru Island, Timor and the small islands between them.
sericeus Thomas, 1907. Mountain forests of the Middle Range of New Guinea.
lullulae Thomas, 1896. O. Woodlark off the east coast of New Guinea.
matanim Flannery, 1987. Highlands of Central New Guinea.
alexandrae Flannery et Boeadi, 1995. West of New Guinea.
ornatus Gray, 1860 (? Matabiru Flannery et Boeadi, 1995). North part of the Moluccas.
rothschildi Thomas, 1898. O. Big Ob (Moluccas).
Genus Couscous Spotted - Spilocuscus Gray, 1862
Closest to Phalanger previously considered in its composition. 4 types. Low mountain forests of New Guinea, Northwest Australia (Cape York), the southern sector of the Moluccas.
maculatus Desmarest, 1818 (? Kraemeri Schwarz, 1910). Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
papuensis Desmarest, 1822. O. Waigeo off the west coast of New Guinea.
rufoniger Zimara, 1937. Low-mountain primary forests of the north-west of New Guinea.
Sulawesian Couscous - Strigocuscus Gray, 1862
Previously considered as part of Phalanger , cladistically, perhaps closer to Trichosurus . 2 types. Sulawesi, Peleng, Sulu, some islands between them.
celebensis Gray, 1858. O. Sulawesi and the small islands adjacent to the east (up to the Ob).
pelengensis Tate, 1945. Peleng Island, Sulu (east of Sulawesi).
Couscous-couscous genus - Trichosurus Lesson, 1828
3-4 species. Forest areas of Australia, Tasmania, are acclimatized in New Zealand.
vulpecula Kerr, 1792 (? Johnstoni Ramsay, 1888). Distribution - as indicated for the genus (except North Australia).
arnhemensis Collett, 1897. North. Australia.
caninus Ogilby, 1836. Southeast. Australia.
Genus Couscous Lepidoptera - Wyulda Alexander, 1918
Closest to Trichosurus . 1 view. Mountain forests of the Northwest Australia
squamicaudata Alexander, 1918. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Superfamily Petauroidea s.lato
Monophyletic taxon. Previously, all representatives were included in the Phalangeridae family. In the most fractional cladistic classifications, up to 3 families are recognized.
Marsupial Flying Flying Family - Petauridae Bonaparte, 1838
2 subfamilies, up to 15 genera, of which 7–10 are modern. From early Neogene. Forest areas of Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, the Moluccas, a number of adjacent islands.
Squirrel Couscous genus - Gymnobelideus McCoy, 1867
Refers to the basal radiation of the family, is close to Pseudocheirini or to Dactylopsila sometimes with petaurus . 1 view. Eucalyptus forests of South-West. Australia
leadbeateri McCoy, 1867. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Student 4 "B" grade
LAO of the city of Omsk
Head Kazantseva T.G.
- Marsupial squad
- Why do I need a bag
- Description of animals
To expand my knowledge in the field of natural sciences,
Pass this knowledge on to my friends,
Attract them to the study of the animal world.
- Tell everyone about unusual animals.
- Get to know the nature of another continent.
- To teach to protect nature.
Squad TOTAL. R are common on mainland Australia, New Guinea and the surrounding islands. About 250 species belong to this order. Among marsupials there are insectivorous, predatory and herbivorous forms. They vary greatly in size. The length of their body, including the length of the tail, can range from 10 cm (Kimberly marsupial mouse) to 3 m (large gray kangaroo). All marsupials give birth to live cubs and feed them milk.
The first characteristic feature of marsupials is the presence of so-called marsupials. Most marsupials have a bag for carrying babies, but not all of them have the same degree of development, there are species in which there is no bag. Most primitive insectivorous marsupials do not have a “finished” bag - a pocket, but only a small fold. This, for example, is the case with numerous marsupials. At a kangaroo, whose bag is more perfect, it opens forward to the head, like an apron pocket.
The second characteristic feature of marsupials is the special structure of the lower jaw, the lower (rear) ends of which are bent inward. The structure of the dental system is an important classification feature of the marsupial order. According to this criterion, the entire detachment is divided into 2 suborders: multi-cutting and double-cutting.
Why do you need a bag?
The fact is that in marsupial animals, the born cubs are almost not capable of independent life, they are underdeveloped and have microscopic dimensions. In kangaroos, the largest marsupial animal, the length of newborns does not exceed 2.5 cm, while in other animals it is even smaller - 5-7 mm. Blind and naked cubs quickly crawl into the mother's bag and attach (and often even grow) to the nipples. They are not able to suck milk on their own, so the mammary glands of marsupials have special muscles, during the reduction of which milk is injected into the pups' mouth.
There are very few cubs - 1-2, and very many - 20-24.
In this state, the cubs spend all the time until the formation is completed. But even older and second-born babies are in no hurry to leave their native bag and remain in it for up to 250 days. A kangaroo often has two or three generations of cubs in its bag, and the mother has to make considerable efforts to expel an adult parasite from the “house”.
Kangaroos are the most famous Australian animals. They are so recognizable that even a small child will distinguish this animal at first sight. Kangaroos are widespread, and they are easy to meet in tourist places and in the wild. In total, there are three species of kangaroo - eastern gray, western gray and red - and several species of kangaroo relatives - wallaby, wallara, cuoka, tree kangaroo and kangaroo rats. All kangaroos are nocturnal animals, but in special tourist parks where animals accustomed to humans live, you can meet them and even feed them at any time of the day.
This gray giant lives among the steppes,
On his stomach is his pocket - he raises children in it
He has solid growth, and he is a champion in jumping. (Kangaroo).
One of the most interesting marsupials, and covered with a large number of legends and prejudices, is the Tasmanian devil. This animal has received such a sonorous name due to its sinister reputation. For a long time it was believed that this is the most evil animal in the world.Probably, this conviction came from hunters who claimed that during the attack these animals defend themselves with incredible despair. And since the Tasmanian devil is extremely rare, once the information that came to the general public was reprinted. And only in the middle of the last century these animals were caught for zoos. Then it turned out that the Tasmanian devils are not at all as vicious as is commonly believed. But the name remains.
Another reason for the ominous nickname was the noisy behavior of these animals. Fighting for females, they howl menacingly, and even just lapping water can be heard for several kilometers.
The Tasmanian devil is a nocturnal animal, he eats carrion, insects, reptiles and in general everything that can be found. There is even a known case when this “devil” tried to drag a cat out of the house.
Koala, a furry, slow-moving animal, often mistakenly called a bear, is another well-known symbol of the green continent. This beast eats exclusively eucalyptus leaves. Surprisingly, they don’t drink a koala at all. They get all the necessary moisture from the leaves. Perhaps these animals are so lazy that even if they wanted to go to the source of water, they could not. After all, it only takes them more than 20 hours a day to sleep, and they eat the rest of the time. But koalas have very moody tastes. Of the 350 species of eucalyptus known in Australia, it limits its diet to leaves of only about a dozen species. If the eucalyptus he does not need is nearby, the koala dies of hunger, as other food does not suit him. The growth of a koala does not exceed half a meter, and the mass is usually about 10 kg. As a rule, a koala sits on the same tree until it eats all the leaves. It descends to the earth only when it passes from tree to tree. Like all marsupials, the koala is born surprisingly small: the length of a newborn baby is about 2 cm, its weight is a little more than 5 g. However, a baby can immediately get into his mother’s bag without any help, where it continuously sucks milk for 6 months. By 7-8 months, the cub moves from the bag onto the back of the mother, who patiently wears it and guards it, and when it is cold, presses it to itself and cradles it.
Koalas are very fond of being caressed. They calm down and fall asleep peacefully. Only from a year does the koala cub become independent and leave the mother. A female koala can give birth to one cub in two years, which is probably why she is very attached to her baby and protects him in every possible way. Often she, just like a person, holds the baby "in her arms", shakes. Koalas quickly become attached to humans, take root well in zoos if they are provided with the usual food.
Funny teddy bear with a big head.
In appearance, like a wake-up, such a slow
It feeds only at night on tree foliage.
And in the afternoon he does not want to eat, and sleeps in thick foliage. (Koala).
But the most amazing marsupials are undoubtedly possums. After all, they do not inhabit Australia, but both Americas - North and South. In prehistoric times, placental mammals from North America spread to the south, displacing marsupials, and only possums did not die out, and even went north. Opossums are one of the most primitive marsupials. All of them are predators or insectivores, and usually occupy the niche of insectivorous animals, which are few in Central and South America. It is curious that if you frighten the possum, it “dies” - it falls without moving, foamy saliva comes out of your mouth, your eyes go glassy, and the paranal glands emit an unpleasant putrefactive odor. A rare predator will want to eat such prey.
Marsupials have ceded most of the planet to higher mammals, which have turned out to be more intelligent and fit. But fortunately for us, there are still places on Earth that allow us to see what our distant ancestors were millions of years ago. Who knows, if evolution took a different path, now we could also carry children in bags.
Popular encyclopedia for children “Everything about everything” A. Likum volume 2,3,5,6.
There are two subclasses of mammals - first animals and real animals. The first group includes single pass. They differ from the second ones in that they lay their eggs, however, the cubs hatched from them are fed with milk. Real animals are divided into two superorders - marsupials and placental mammals.
The former differ from the latter in that, during pregnancy, the female does not form a placenta - a temporary organ that provides a link between the mother and daughter. But such animals have a bag that is designed to carry a baby that is born incapable of independent life. This squad includes only one squad - Marsupials. And all other orders belong to the placental, such as artiodactyls, pinnipeds, carnivores, primates, bats, etc.
Marsupials in an ambiguous position. According to some systems, this group of organisms is a detachment, and according to others - an infraclass. For example, take a koala. According to one of the options, its place in the classification looks like this:
- Domain - Eukaryotes.
- Kingdom - Animals.
- Type - Chordates.
- Subtype - Vertebrates.
- Class - Mammals.
- Squad - Marsupials.
- Family - Wombat.
According to another option - like this:
- Domain - Eukaryotes.
- Kingdom - Animals.
- Type - Chordates.
- Subtype - Vertebrates.
- Class - Mammals.
- Infraclass - Marsupials.
- Squad - Two-tartars marsupials.
- Suborder - Wombat.
- Family - Koalov.
Squad of small tubercles (Paucituberculata)
Detachment low tuberous (Paucituberculata) was the richest forms in oligocene and miocene, but now represented by only one family coeno. Since insectivores appeared in South America relatively recently when, where? possums and rat-shaped possums traditionally occupied the same ecological niche here.
Chilean possum (bell)
Chilean possum, bell (Dromiciops gliroides) - the only modern type of detachment Microbiotheria. Representatives of a different kind, Microbiotheriumwere found in the late oligocene and miocene. Microbioteriids are interesting in their relationship with other marsupials of the New World and Australia. The evolutionary connections between them and marsupials in Australia can shed light on the biogeographic history of the infraclass as a whole, since microbiotherides closer to Australian marsupials than to American possums. Hypothetically, microbioteriids are either a relic of the early marsupials, or the result of the reintroduction of species from Australia to South America.
Chilean possum is a small animal, the size of a little larger than a mouse. The length of his body is 83-130 mm, tail 90-132 mm, weight from 17 to 31 g. He has a short silky coat. The color is gray-brown. The last two thirds of the tail are dark brown. The muzzle is light gray with black rings around the eyes. There are light gray spots on the shoulders and sides. The ears are small, rounded. The bag of females is well developed, pubescent with light brown fur, 4 nipples.
It is limited in its distribution by the cool mountain forests of the south of Chile and Argentina (between 36 and 43 ° S), also found on Fr. Chiloe. Chilean possums prefer areas where Chilean bamboo (Chusquea) grows. They feed on caterpillars and insect larvae, less often plant food. Usually live on trees in nests with a diameter of approx. 20 cm. Nests are built from twigs, bamboo leaves, grass and moss. The lifestyle is mostly nocturnal. In the cold season they quickly gain fat, which is deposited in the tail, and hibernate. The bell multiplies in the spring, the female brings 1–4 cubs. After leaving the bag, they remain in the nest, and during night searches for food they move on the back of their mother. They reach puberty in the second year of life.
Local residents consider the appearance of this animal in the house a bad omen, there are cases when the houses where the bell ran into were burned.
Triba Hemibelideini Kirsch et al., 1997
Lemus couscous genus - Hemibelideus Collett, 1884
Previously considered as part of Pseudocheirus. . 1 view. Forests of the Northwest Av Australia.
lemuroides Collett, 1884. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Giant Couscous genus - Petauro> Thomas, 1888
On Schoinobates Lesson, 1842.1 view. Forest territories of Vost. Australia
volans Kerr, 1792. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Tribe Pseudocheirini s. str.
Australian Ringed Couscous - Pseudocheirus Ogilby, 1837
1 species (4–5 were previously isolated). Sclerophytic forests and shrub savannas Vost. and Southwest. Australia, Tasmania.
peregrinus Boddaert, 1785 (convoluter Schinz, 1821, occ> rub> victoriae Matschie, 1915). Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Couscous genus New-Guinea ring-tailed - Pseudochirulus Matschie, 1915
Previously included in Pseudocheirus . 7-8 species. Mountain and foothill forests and savannah red-wheels of New Guinea, Australia.
canescens Waterhouse, 1846. Middle belt of the mountains of New Guinea.
mayeri Rothschild et Dollman, 1932. Mountain forests of the Middle Range of New Guinea.
caroli Thomas, 1921. Middle belt of mountains in western New Guinea.
herbertensis Collett, 1884 (? Cinereus Tate, 1945). Rainforests North-East Australia
schlegeli Jentink, 1884. West of New Guinea.
forbesi Thomas, 1887 (? larvatus Forster et Rothschild, 1911). Center and east of New Guinea.
Cliff Couscous - Petropseudes Thomas, 1923
Previously considered as part of Pseudocheirus. . 1 view. Rocky sections in the lowland and foothill forests of the North. Australia
dahli Collett, 1895. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Tribe Pseudochiropsini Kirsch et al., 1997
Brilliant Couscous - Pseudochirops Matschie, 1915
Previously included in Pseudocheirus . 4–5 species. Mountain forests of New Guinea, North. Australia
cupreus Thomas, 1897. Alpine forests of the Middle Range of New Guinea.
albertisii Peters, 1874. Mountain forests in the north and west of New Guinea.
? coronatus Thomas, 1897. Foothill forests of western New Guinea.
corinnae Thomas, 1897. Mountain forests of the Middle Range of New Guinea.
archeri Collett, 1884. Tropical forests of the North-East. Australia
Characterization of marsupial mammals
Most of the species of this order are endemic, that is, they live only in a particular area. Most often it is Australia. Almost all marsupial mammals of the planet live on this continent. Most marsupials are listed in the Red Book.
Also, representatives of this inhabit New Guinea and are found in South and North America. Marsupial mammals are divided into nine families: Opossum, Bandicut, Predatory marsupials, Colefoot, Possum, Kangaroo, Wombat, The oldest and most primitive of the families of this order are Opossum, all other animals of this group originated from them. Let's take a closer look at each family and its representatives.
Marsupials outside of Australia
The oldest family is Opossumovy. Animals belonging to this group are one of the few marsupials that live outside of Australia.
They are common in America. This family includes marsupial mammals such as smoky, oriental, brownie, velvet, American possums. These are small animals, about 10 cm long, with a long tail and thick hair. They are mainly nocturnal, eat insects and a variety of fruits. These animals are good at pretending to be dead in case of danger. Also outside Australia, some species of kangaroos live on the territory, for example, wallaby.
Representatives of the order Marsupials living in Australia
These include most of the animals in this group. The most famous of these are mammals of the Kangaroo family. Representatives such as the big red kangaroo, the bear kangaroo, the long-eared kangaroo, the western gray kangaroo, etc. belong to it. These are large animals with a large tail, which serves as additional support for them. These mammals have underdeveloped forepaws, but strong hind legs, which allows them to move by jumping long distances. The main diet of kangaroos consists of plants. Cubs of these animals are born only three centimeters in length, the gestational age of the female is only about 30 days (up to 40, depending on the species). In addition, kangaroo rats belong to this family. No less common in Australia are wombats. These are small animals, the muzzle of which is somewhat reminiscent of a bear, but their teeth are almost the same as those of rodents.
Wombats feed on the roots of various plants, all kinds of fruits and seeds. Their forepaws have large claws, which allows them to dig soil more efficiently, because wombats are one of the animals that spend most of their life in burrows underground. Marsupial moles are also characterized by similar behavior - these are small animals eating beetle larvae and seeds. They also differ in that they do not have a constant body temperature.
The most famous of these are koalas. They are on the verge of extinction, since the only product they eat is eucalyptus leaves, and not all - of the 800 species of this plant, only 100 are eaten with koalas. Also, the ring-tailed kangaroo, northern long-haired wombat, marten marten and others are listed in the Red Book. .
Tribe Dactylopsilini Kirsch, 1977
May also include Gymnobelideus .
Genus Striped Couscous - Dactylopsila Gray, 1858
2 subgenus, 4 species. Tropical mountain forests of New Guinea and nearby islands (incl. Aru), North-East. Australia
Subgenus Dactylopsila s. str.
trivirgata Gray, 1858. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
tatei Laurie, 1952. O. Ferguson off the west coast of New Guinea.
megalura Rothschild et Dollman, 1932. Highlands of central New Guinea.
Subgenus Dactylonax Thomas, 1910
palpator Milne-Edwards, 1888. Lower belt of the mountains of the Middle Ridge in New Guinea.
Triba Petaurini s.str.
Rod Marsupial Flying - Petaurus Shaw, 1791
5-6 species. Mountain and foothill forests of Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, Moluccas, arch. Aru, a number of adjacent islands.
breviceps Waterhouse, 1839. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
? biacensis Ulmer, 1940. O. Biak off the southeast coast of New Guinea.
abidi Ziegler, 1981. Foothills of Northern New Guinea.
norfolcensis Kerr, 1792. East. Australia.
? gracilis De Vis, 1883. North-East. Australia.
australis Shaw, 1791. Eucalyptus forests East. and southeast. Australia
Dwarf Marsupial Flying family - Acrobatidae Aplin, 1987
Previously considered as part of Phalangeridae. 2 genera. From late Neogene. Forest territories of Vost. Australia, New Guinea.
Genus Couscous feather-tailed - Distoechurus Peters, 1874
1 view. Forests (also common in gardens) of New Guinea.
pennatus Peters, 1874. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Genus Dwarf Marsupial Flying - Acrobates Desmarest, 1818
1 view. Eucalyptus forests East. Australia
pygmaeus Shaw, 1793. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Musk Kangaroo Family - Hypsiprymnodontidae Collett, 1877
Often considered as part of Macropodidae. The sister group for the rest is Macro podi - formes, and on this basis is considered a family. 1 genus With avg. Neogene. Rain tropical forests and tall grassy floodplains of the North-West. Australia
Musk Kangaroo Rod - Hypsiprymnodon Ramsay, 1876
1 view. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
moschatus Ramsay, 1876. Distribution - as indicated for the family.
Kangaroo Family - Macropodidae Gray, 1821
2 modern subfamilies (in the most fractional systems are considered as families), 14–15 genera (another 2 subfamilies and more than 20 genera are in a fossil state). From late paleogene. Plain and mountain forests, shrub savannas, semi-deserts of Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, adjacent islands, arch. Bismarck and Aru.
Subfamily Potoroinae Gray, 1821
Sometimes considered a family including Hypsiprymnodon. 4 genera.
Rod Potoru - Potorous Desmarest, 1804
On Potoroops Matschie, 1916. 3-4 species (1 extinction in historical time). Shrub savannas and light forests South. Australia, Tasmania.
tridactylus Kerr, 1792 (apicalis Gould, 1851,? gilberti Gould, 1841). South and southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
longipes Seebeck et Johnston, 1980. Eucalyptus light forests Southeast. Australia
† platyops Gould, 1844. Southwest. Australia.
Short Kangaroo Rhode - Bettongia Gray, 1837
3 types. Open spaces of Australia, Tasmania.
penicillata Gray, 1837 (tropica Wakefield, 1967). South (in historical time also North-East.) Australia.
gaimardi Desmarest, 1822 (cuniculus Ogilby, 1838). Southeast. Australia, Tasmania.
lesueur Quoy et Gaimard, 1824. West, Center. and South. Australia.
Rat Kangaroo Rat - Aepyprymnus Garrod, 1875
1 view. Woodlands Zap. Australia
rufescens Gray, 1837. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Kangaroo clan gologrudi - Caloprymnus Thomas, 1888
1 view. Desert Center. Australia
campestris Gould, 1843. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Tribe Macropodini s.str.
Kangaroo claw-tailed genus - Onychogalea Gray, 1841
3 types. Mountain park forests of Australia.
unguifera Gould, 1841. North. Australia.
lunata Gould, 1841. Center. and Southwest. Australia.
fraenata Gould, 1841. East. and southeast. Australia.
Kangaroo clan hare - Lagorchestes Gould, 1841
3-4 species.Grassy and shrubby savannas, light forests, semi-deserts of Australia.
conspicillatus Gould, 1842. Savannahs and woodlands of northern Australia.
hirsutus Gould, 1844. Semi-desert Center. and Southwest. Australia
? asomatus Finlayson, 1943. Semi-desert Center. Australia
leporides Gould, 1841. Southeast. Australia.
Kangaroo genus Short-tailed - Setonix Lesson, 1842
1 view. Open spaces Southwest. Australia
brachyurus Quoy et Gaimard, 1830. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
Rod Filanders - Thylogale Gray, 1837
6–7 species (some became extinct in historical time). From rainforests to subalpics in Australia and the surrounding islands, Tasmania, New Guinea, arch. Bismarck and Aru.
† billardieri Desmarest, 1822. Forests Southeast. Australia, Tasmania and adjacent islands.
thetis Lesson, 1828. Tropical forests East. Australia
stigmatica Gould, 1860. Rainforests East. Australia, south of New Guinea.
bruni Schreber, 1778. Piedmont and mountain forests of the south-east of New Guinea, arch. Bismarck, Aru.
? browni Ramsay, 1887 (? Lanatus Thomas, 1922). Piedmont and mountain sparse forests of the north and northeast of New Guinea.
calabyi Flannery, 1992. Subalpics of eastern New Guinea.
† chrystenseni Hope, 1981. Subalpica of western New Guinea.
Rhode Wallaby Rocky - Petrogale Gray, 1837
On Peradorcas Thomas, 1904. Up to 15 species (previously combined in 6–7). Rocky sections of the lower and middle zones of the mountains of Australia, brought to the Hawaiian Islands.
Group of species " xanthopus »
xanthopus Gray, 1855. Inland South. Australia
persephone Maynes, 1982. North-East. Australia.
rothschildi Thomas, 1904. West. Australia.
Group of species " penicillata »
lateralis Gould, 1842 (? Purpureicollis Le Souef, 1924). Center. and Southwest. Australia
penicillata Gray, 1827 (? Herberti Thomas, 1926). East and southeast. Australia, brought to Hawaii.
godmani Thomas, 1923. North-East. Australia.
sharmani Eldredge et Close, 1992. East. Australia.
inornata Gould, 1842. North-East. Australia.
? assimilis Ramsay, 1877. The coast of the North-East. Australia, adjacent islands.
coensis Eldredge et Close, 1992. Locally in the North-East. Australia
mareeba Eldredge et Close, 1992. Rocky areas among mountain mesophytic forests of the North-East. Australia
Group of species " brachyotis »
brachyotis Gould, 1841. North. Australia.
burbidgei Kitchener et Sanson, 1978. North-West. Australia.
concinna Gould, 1842. North. Australia.
Wood Kangaroo genus - Dendrolagus Mueller, 1840
10-12 species. Forest Regions of New Guinea, North-East Australia
bennettianus De Vis, 1887. Tropical plain and mountain forests of the North-East. Australia
inustus Mueller, 1840. Northern foothill areas of New Guinea.
ursinus Temminck, 1836. Coastal areas of northwest New Guinea.
lumholtzi Collett, 1884. Coastal forest areas of the North-East. Australia
matschiei Forster et Rothschild, 1907. Northeastern Foothills of New Guinea.
? spadix Troughton et Le Souef, 1936. Southeast of New Guinea.
goodfellowi Thomas, 1908. North and East of New Guinea.
? pulcherrimus Flannery, 1993. Mountain rainforests of northern New Guinea.
mbaiso Flannery et al., 1995. Highlands of the West of New Guinea.
dorianus Ramsay, 1883 (? Stellarum Flannery et Seri, 1990). New Guinea .
scottae Flannery et Seri, 1990. Northern Foothills of New Guinea.
Kangaroo genus shrubby - Dorcopsis Schlegel et Muller, 1845
2 subgenera (sometimes considered as childbirth), 6 species. Piedmont and mountain forests of New Guinea and adjacent islands.
Subgenus Dorcopsulus Matschie, 1916
vanheurni Thomas, 1922. Mountain forests of the central regions and east of New Guinea.
macleayi Miklouho-Maclay, 1885. East of New Guinea.
Subgenus Dorcopsis s.str.
muelleri Lesson, 1827 (veterum auct.). West of New Guinea, a number of adjacent islands (incl. Aru).
atrata Van Deusen, 1957. O. Gudenough off the west coast of New Guinea.
luctuosa D ’Albertis, 1874. Foothills and coasts of south and east of New Guinea.
hageni Heller, 1897. Foothills and mountains of the north of New Guinea.
Gigantic Kangaroo genus - Macropus Shaw, 1790
On Protemnodon Gistel, 1848. 3 subgenus (sometimes regarded as genera), 12–15 species. Forests, shrubby and grassy savannahs of Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea and adjacent islands, 1 species is acclimatized in England.
Subgenus Notamacropus Dawson et Flannery, 1985
eugenii Desmarest, 1817. South. and Southwest. Australia.
parma Waterhouse, 1846. Coastal areas East. Australia
agilis Gould, 1842. Coastal areas of the North. and North-East. Australia, south of New Guinea.
rufogriseus Desmarest, 1817. East. and southeast. Australia, Tasmania, acclimatized in England.
dorsalis Gray, 1837. East. Australia.
parryi Bennett, 1835. East. Australia.
irma Jourdan, 1837. Southwest. Australia
greyi Waterhouse, 1846. South Australia (possibly extinct).
Subgenus Macropus s.str.
giganteus Shaw, 1790. Eastern Australia.
fuliginosus Desmarest, 1817. Southern Australia.
Subgenus Osphranter Gould 1842
robustus Gould, 1841. Everywhere in Australia (excluding rainforests).
antilopinus Gould, 1842. North. Australia.
bernardus Rothschild, 1904. North. Australia
rufus Desmarest, 1822. Everywhere in Australia (except north and east).
Rod Wallaby - Wallabia Trouessart, 1905
Previously included in Macropus . 1 view. Forest regions Vost. Australia, adjacent islands.
bicolor Desmarest, 1804. Distribution - as indicated for the genus.
The largest and smallest animals of the order Marsupials
The largest mammal in this group is the large gray kangaroo, and the smallest is the Posum honey badger, which feeds on plant pollen. The largest marsupial animal lives in South and Western Australia. Its weight can reach fifty kilograms, and height - a little more than a meter.
The smallest marsupial mammal - Acrobates pygmaeus - lives only in Australia. Its weight rarely exceeds fifteen grams. This animal has a long tongue, it is needed in order to make it easier to get pollen and nectar from plants. Also, one of the smallest marsupial animals can be called a marsupial mouse, whose weight is also about ten grams.
I was looking for pictures of marsupial animals with cubs in a bag and came across an article about this squad. I read and learned so much new for myself. I didn’t think that their cubs are so small, and then they crawl into the bag themselves
Here is the article source www.floranimal.ru
Mammals / Marsupials /
Mammalia / Marsupiala /
The order TOTAL (Marsupiala), with the exception of American possums and coenoboids, is common on the mainland of Australia, New Guinea and the nearby islands. About 250 species belong to this order. Among marsupials there are insectivorous, predatory and herbivorous forms. They vary greatly in size. The length of their body, including the length of the tail, can range from 10 cm (Kimberly marsupial mouse) to 3 m (large gray kangaroo). Marsupials are more complexly organized animals than monotremes. Their body temperature is higher (on average - 36 °). All marsupials give birth to live cubs and feed them milk. However, compared with higher mammals, they have many ancient, primitive structural features that sharply distinguish them from other animals.
The first characteristic feature of marsupials is the presence of so-called marsupials (special pelvic bones, which are developed in both females and males). Most marsupials have a bag for carrying babies, but not all of them have the same degree of development, there are species in which there is no bag. Most primitive insectivorous marsupials do not have a “finished” bag - a pocket, but only a small fold that limits the milky field. So, for example, this is the case with numerous marsupial mice, or mice. The yellow-footed marsupial mouse - one of the most archaic marsupials - has only a slight skin lift, like a border around the milky field, the fat-tailed marsupial mouse close to it has two lateral folds of skin that grow slightly after the birth of the cubs, and finally, the crumb mouse there is already something like a bag opening back to the tail. At a kangaroo, whose bag is more perfect, it opens forward to the head, like an apron pocket.
The second characteristic feature of marsupials is the special structure of the lower jaw, the lower (rear) ends of which are bent inward. The cortical bone in marsupials is fused with a scapula, as in higher mammals, this distinguishes them from monotremes. The structure of the dental system is an important classification feature of the marsupial order. According to this criterion, the entire detachment is divided into 2 suborders: multi-cutting and double-cutting. The number of incisors is especially large in primitive insectivorous and predatory forms, having 5 incisors in each half of the jaw and 4 incisors in the bottom. In herbivorous forms, on the contrary, no more than one incisor on each side of the lower jaw, their fangs are absent or underdeveloped, and molars are with blunt tubercles. The structure of the mammary glands of the marsupials is characteristic, they have nipples to which newly born cubs are attached. The ducts of the mammary glands open at the edge of the nipples, like in monkeys and in humans, and not into the internal reservoir, as in most mammals.
However, the main difference between marsupials from all other mammals is the features of their reproduction. The process of reproduction of marsupials, the monitoring of which is very complicated, has only recently been clarified to the end.The young in the mother’s bag are at first so small and underdeveloped that the first observers asked a question: would they be born directly in the bag? F. Pelsart, the Dutch navigator, in 1629 for the first time described a marsupial animal. He, like many later naturalists, thought that cubs in marsupials were born directly in the bag, “from the nipples”, according to these ideas, the cub grows on the nipple, like an apple on a tree branch. It seemed unbelievable that a half-formed embryo inertly hanging on the nipple could climb into the bag itself if it was born outside of it. However, already in 1806, zoologist Barton, who studied the North American possum, found that a newborn can move around his mother’s body, climb into a bag and attach to a nipple. For Australian marsupials, this was confirmed in 1830 by the Collie surgeon. Despite these observations, the famous English anatomist R. Owen in 1833 returned to the already expressed idea that the mother carries the newborn in her bag. According to Owen, she picks up the cub with her lips and, holding the hole in her bag with her paws, puts it inside. Owen’s authority has fixed this incorrect point of view in science for more than half a century. The embryo in marsupials begins to develop in the uterus. However, it is almost not connected with the walls of the uterus and to a large extent is only a “yolk sac”, the contents of which are rapidly depleted. Long before the embryo is fully formed, it already has nothing to eat, and its “premature” birth becomes a necessity. Pregnancy of marsupials is very short, especially in primitive forms (for example, in an opossum or in marsupial cats from 8 to 14 days, in a koala it reaches 35, and in a kangaroo - 38 - 40 days). The newborn is very small. Its size does not exceed 25 mm for a large gray kangaroo - the largest representative of the order, for primitive insectivores and predators it is even smaller - about 7 mm. The weight of the newborn is from 0.6 to 5.5 g. The degree of development of the embryo at the time of birth is somewhat different, but usually the baby is almost devoid of hair. The hind limbs are weakly developed, bent and covered with a tail. On the contrary, the mouth is wide open, and the front legs are well developed, claws are clearly visible on them. The forelimbs and mouth are organs that a newborn marsupial will primarily need. No matter how immature the marsupial cub is, it cannot be said that it is weak and devoid of energy. If you separate him from his mother, he can live about two days. Kangaroo rats and some Posums have only one cub, while koala and bandicoots sometimes give birth to twins. Most insectivorous and predatory marsupial cubs have a lot more: 6-8 and even up to 24. Usually the number of cubs corresponds to the number of mother's nipples to which they must attach. But often cubs are larger, for example, marsupials, in which 24 cubs have only three pairs of nipples. In this case, only the first 6 attached cubs can survive. There are opposite cases: in some bandicoots with 4 pairs of nipples, the number of cubs does not exceed one or two. To attach to the nipple, the newborn marsupial animal must get into the mother’s bag, where he is expected to be protected, warm and food. How does this movement happen? Let's follow it on the example of a kangaroo. A newborn kangaroo, blind and underdeveloped, very soon chooses the right direction and begins to crawl right to the bag. He moves with the help of his forelegs with claws, wriggling like a worm, and twirling his head to the sides. The space over which he crawls is covered with wool, which, on the one hand, prevents him, but, on the other, helps: he clings tightly to the coat, and it is very difficult to shake it off. Sometimes the cub is mistaken in the direction: it crawls to the mother’s thigh or chest and turns back, searches until it finds a bag, searches continuously and tirelessly. Having found a bag, he immediately gets inside, finds a nipple and attaches to it.Between the moment of birth and the time when the cub is attached to the nipple, marsupials usually spend from 5 to 30 minutes. Attached to the nipple, the calf loses all its energy, it again for a long time becomes an inert, helpless embryo. What does a mother do while her cub is looking for a bag? Does she help him in this difficult moment? Observations of this are still incomplete, and opinions are rather controversial. During the time necessary for the newborn to get to the bag, the mother occupies a special position and does not move. Kangaroos usually sit on a tail extending between their hind legs and directed forward, or lie on their side. Mother holds her head as if she were watching a baby all the time. Often she licks him - immediately after birth or while moving to the bag. Sometimes she licks her hair towards the bag, as if helping the cub to move in the right direction. If the cub gets lost and cannot find the bag for a long time, the mother begins to worry, itch and twirl, while she can injure and even kill the cub. In general, the mother is more a witness to the energetic activity of the newborn than his assistant. Initially, the nipple of marsupials has an elongated shape. When a calf is attached to it, a thickening develops at its end, apparently associated with the release of milk, this helps the calf to hold on to the nipple, which it constantly squeezes with its mouth. It is very difficult to separate it from the nipple without tearing its mouth or damaging the gland. The marsupial cub passively receives milk, the amount of which is regulated by the mother with the help of contractions of the muscles of the milky field. For example, in a koala, the mother supplies the calf with milk for 5 minutes every 2 hours. To prevent it from being choked with this stream of milk, there is a special arrangement of the respiratory tract: air passes directly from the nostrils to the lungs, since the palatine bones at this time have not yet fully formed, and the nasal cartilage continues forward to the nasal cavity. Guarded and supplied with food, the cub grows rapidly. The hind legs develop, usually becoming longer than the front, the eyes open, and after a few weeks the stillness is replaced by conscious activity. The baby begins to tear himself away from the nipple and stick his head out of the bag. At first, when he wants to get out, his mother does not let him in, which can adjust the size of the outlet of the bag. Different types of marsupials spend a different period in a bag - from several weeks to several months. The baby's stay in the bag ends as soon as he becomes able to feed not with milk, but with other food. The mother usually pre-looks for a nest or den, where at first the children live under her supervision.
There is an opinion that the order of marsupials (Marsupialia) is divided into 2 suborders: mnogoretsovye marsupials (Polyprotodontia) and double-marsupial marsupials (Diprotodontia). The former include more primitive insectivorous and carnivorous individuals, while the latter include herbivorous marsupials. An intermediate position between multi-cutter and double-cutter is occupied by a poorly studied group of coenostatic, which some zoologists consider a separate suborder. The coenolest group includes one family and three genera. These are small animals resembling American possums and are found in South America.