In British cats, the color of the iris of the eye often changes - especially in older / older British cats over 6 years old. In my old British cat, by the age of 10 years old, the color of the iris from bright orange - sometimes experts in the description even fixed COOPER copper - turned yellow.
In British cats, the color of the iris of the eye often changes due to melanosis - diffuse or spotted
A careful examination of the angle of the iris with the cornea will differentiate melanosis from tumor infiltration by the presence of lipofuchsin (brown) or melanin (black).
To verify the presence or absence of deformity of the pupil, it should be examined in an expanded state.
Ophthalmic diseases of elderly cats.
Corneal ulcers and edema
The weak activity of the corneal epithelium contributes to the appearance of erosive ulcers associated with its dryness. A poorly scarring cornea can exfoliate due to poor adhesion to the underlying stroma, resembling a recurring ulcer due to corneal dystrophy. The only solution in this case is extraction of the corneal epithelium and pricking of the stroma with a very thin bent needle in order to create tissue scars conducive to the fusion of the epithelium with the stroma. Thinning of endothelial cells leads to their spreading into a thin monolayer. When the density of endothelial cells is lower than 1500 per 1 sq. Mm, corneal edema (oedema) develops, followed by the appearance of small, very painful ulcers. An effective treatment is corneal transplantation.
Degeneration of the muscle fibers of the iris
The iris can also be thinned to the formation of real holes, creating a semblance of lace. Another reason for the reduction in pupil contraction is the loss of muscle fiber elasticity: the eye can remain in a state of mydriasis and in bright conditions - simply due to the loss of the ability of the iris to contract.
Due to its onion-peel structure, the lens thickens over the years by building up tissue fibers. The lens cells that have lost activity are concentrated in its center and lead to sclerosis, which is noticeable in the grayish-white color of the center of the lens. This does not affect the clarity of vision as long as the lens maintains its transparency.
The development of cataracts - clouding of the lens - is a pathological process. An increase in the content of insoluble proteins and the formation of specific compounds cause a change in the structure of the lens, which is responsible for the occurrence of cataracts. To better distinguish between both phenomena, you should place a light source in front of your eyes.
In the case of "just sclerosis" the light will be reflected three times from the eye: the cornea, the anterior capsule of the lens and its posterior capsule (three reflection points according to the Purkin-Sanson symptom). In cataracts, the “cloudy” lens does not reflect on the posterior capsule (third point).
Ophthalmology of aging cats
Lens sclerosis: reflection of three points (Purkin's symptom - Sanson)
Drug therapy allows you to slow down or stabilize the development of sclerosis or early cataracts. With complete clouding of the lens, vision will return only a surgical operation, but only if the retina is functioning. This is confirmed by electroretinography. In a cat, the pathology of the lens is always a consequence of uveitis (inflammation of the choroid of the eyeball) with a poor prognosis, since the disease is accompanied by a dislocation of the lens due to weakness of the ligament, and then secondary glaucoma. The process ends with blindness.
White dots in the vitreous
The vitreous also undergoes age-related changes: small white dots appear in the depths of the gel. It is a star hyalosis. The points move with eye movements. With age, the vitreous liquefies and changes its structure. Sometimes a sparkling synchism (softening of tissues) is observed: crystals form in the core of the vitreous body.
Retinal degeneration depends more on pedigree predisposition than on age. This can be compared with the fact that age-related retinal spot formation in people - it develops in more than half of the elderly population, causing central vision disorder
Retinal hemorrhages in old cats occur very often and are acute. The cat has dilated pupils, in the depths of which reddish stripes lying in the plane of the eye are sometimes noticeable.
Hemorrhage is often accompanied by more or less extensive retinal detachment. These hemorrhages are associated with vascular disorders and are manifested by hemorrhagic periarterial cords ("sleeves") on the retina - they occur with high blood pressure and moderate renal failure. Often associated are cardiac hypertrophy, heart attack or angiosclerosis.
High blood pressure can be primary or secondary. Secondary usually occurs due to renal failure, endocrine disorders (hyperaldosteronism, diabetes mellitus, hypercorticism, hyper- or hypothyroidism), hypercalcemia, obesity and brain diseases.
Treatment consists of taking Benazepil (Cibacene ND, Fortekor ND) no. 0.25 mg / kg in a single dose per day.
You can try to slow down retinal detachment by careful use of corticotherapy (Prednisolone, 1-2 mg / kg per day for a month, gradually reducing the dose) while taking furosemide at 4 mg / kg per day, 4-5 days a week, also for a month .
But the prognosis remains bleak, as relapses occur regularly, and without treatment blindness occurs - partial or complete.
In case of ophthalmic problems in aging British cats, drug therapy and surgical treatment usually allow maintaining the functioning of the eyeball at an acceptable level.
Last update: December 15. 2019 03:24:05 | | |
Cataract, cancer, heart: problems of old dogs
Well-groomed appearance and health of the dog "in the years" are important not only for exhibitions and neighbors of the animal owners. First of all, it matters to the owners themselves that the dog - a member of your family - be healthy, clean and vaccinated. To do this, absolutely all the recommendations of the veterinarian should be followed, timely vaccinations approved by the veterinary inspection should be followed, the rules of prevention and hygiene should be followed, deworming should be carried out two to three times a year, bathing, cutting, combing of the animal and all other hygiene procedures should be performed. It is necessary to monitor the health of your elderly pet in order to notice something toneladnom in time.
Cancer is most commonly found in older dogs. The most common diseases include breast cancer in bitches (which can be avoided by sterilizing the animal before or immediately after the first pregnancy), skin, lung, liver and lymphatic cancer. Less common are bowel cancer, the reproductive system (including dogs) and brain cancer. Pancreatic cancer is sometimes found. This disease is very difficult to diagnose. All of the above cancers are both malignant and benign. Symptoms of cancer are fairly easy to spot by the guardian of the animal. This is a dog’s lack of appetite, general weakness, enlargement and abdominal pain, chronic cough, sometimes severe weight loss, noticeable nodules and tumors on the surface of the body. All these alarming symptoms should certainly lead the dog owner to visit the veterinarian. In a hospital, after a thorough examination, a diagnosis will be made. Treatment can be either surgical (excision of a tumor), or based on chemotherapy, as well as in humans. Often, this combination is very effective, and well and correctly conducted chemotherapy does not give significant side effects. For example, dogs never lose their hair.
Among the many heart diseases in dogs, an enlarged heart, or enlargement, is most often found.
Ophthalmology of aging dogs
In a cat, the color of the iris often changes due to melanosis - diffuse or localized by spots. A careful examination of the angle of the iris with the cornea will differentiate melanosis from tumor infiltration by the presence of lipofuchsin (brown) or melanin (black). To verify the presence or absence of deformity of the pupil, it should be examined in an expanded state.
Cataract or just sclerosis? Due to its onion-peel structure, the lens thickens over the years by building up tissue fibers. The lens cells that have lost activity are concentrated in its center and lead to sclerosis, which is noticeable in the grayish-white color of the center of the lens. Such an evolution is physiological as long as the lens maintains its transparency. The development of cataracts, in other words, clouding of the lens, on the contrary, is a pathological process. An increase in the content of insoluble proteins and the formation of specific compounds cause a change in the structure of the lens, which is responsible for the occurrence of cataracts. To better distinguish between both phenomena, you should place a light source in front of your eyes. In the case of "just sclerosis" the light will be reflected three times from the eye: the cornea, the anterior capsule of the lens and its posterior capsule (three reflection points according to the Purkin-Sanson symptom). In cataracts, the “cloudy” lens does not reflect on the posterior capsule (third point). Drug therapy allows you to slow down or stabilize the development of sclerosis or early cataracts. With complete clouding of the lens, vision will return only a surgical operation, but only if the retina is functioning. This is confirmed by electroretinography.
In a cat, lens pathologists are always a consequence of uveitis (inflammation of the choroid of the eyeball) with a poor prognosis, since the disease is accompanied by a dislocation of the lens due to weakness of the ligament, and then secondary glaucoma. The process ends with blindness.
White dots in the vitreous. The vitreous also undergoes age-related changes: small white dots appear in the depths of the gel. It is a star hyalosis. The points move with eye movements. With age, the vitreous liquefies and changes its structure. Sometimes a sparkling synchism (softening of tissues) is observed: crystals form in the core of the vitreous body.
Retinal degeneration depends more on pedigree predisposition than on age. This can be compared with the fact that age-related retinal spot formation in humans (it develops in more than half of the elderly population, causing central vision disorder) remains unstudied in our domestic predators, since such spots do not form in dogs.
Retinal hemorrhage. Retinal hemorrhages in old cats occur very often and are acute. The cat has dilated pupils, in the depths of which reddish stripes lying in the plane of the eye are sometimes noticeable. Hemarrhagia is often accompanied by more or less extensive retinal detachment. These hemorrhages associated with vascular disorders and manifested by hemorrhagic periarterial cords ("sleeves") on the retina occur with high blood pressure with moderate renal failure. Often, heart hypertrophy is also detected, sometimes a heart attack or angiosclerosis. High blood pressure can be primary or secondary. Secondary usually occurs due to renal failure, endocrine disorders (hyperaldosteronism, diabetes mellitus, hypercorticism, hyper or hypothyroidism), hypercalcemia, obesity and brain diseases. Treatment consists of taking Benazepil (Cibacene, Fortekor) at 0.25 mg / kg in a single dose per day. You can try to slow down retinal detachment by careful use of corticotherapy (Prednisilone 1-2 mg / kg per day for a month, gradually reducing the dose) while taking furosemide at 4 mg / kg per day, 4-5 days per week, also for a month.
But the prognosis remains bleak, as relapses occur regularly, and without treatment, as a rule, blindness occurs - partial or complete.
Ophthalmology of aging dogs and cats is a particularly rich material. Drug therapy and surgical treatment usually allow the functioning of the eyeball to an acceptable level.
The author - Anais le Treguilly - has been practicing in Paris for 17 years. She is engaged in homeopathy and is the editor of several professional and popular science magazines.
Anais le Treguine, Friend Magazine 1997 - 9
Caring for an old dog
Older dogs are generally complacent, less energetic, less curious and more calm. They are forgetful, like to sleep, adhere to their habits and irritable. Poor tolerance of a change of scenery and hospitalization. In such cases, the dogs eat poorly, are restless, bark a lot and practically do not rest, and this is very bad at their age. With the necessary treatment, they need increased attention on your part, a mandatory presence during medical manipulations, which acts on them soothingly and protects against stress. Be sure to visit and care for the dog 1 to 2 times a day, this is much better than leaving it to its own devices.
With a decrease in activity and loss of muscle tone, the neck and torso of an old dog become more awkward and look skinny, especially the hips and shoulders. The abdomen falls (sags), the back becomes saddle-shaped, elbows turn around. Muscle tremors may occur.
Old dogs need regular exercise. The lack of daily walks in dogs after 8 years adversely affects the functions of systems and organs. Walks increase muscle tone and strength, maintain joint flexibility, prevent obesity and maintain good spirits. During exercise, the dog should not be tired. If the dog leads a sedentary lifestyle or is obese, begin with short walks, which gradually increase as the condition recovers.
Most older dogs suffer from osteoarthritis. Stiffness in the joints leads to their deformation and weakness, stiffness in the cold, moist soil or on a cement coating. Therefore, their place should be located in a warm and dry room. Dogs suffering from arthritis, especially large and wet, should sleep on soft bedding, and dogs of the Toy group can be covered for the night if necessary.
Hypodynamia with osteoarthritis leads to the appearance of muscle pain. It is impossible to stop the development of arthritis, but analgesics, such as aspirin (given with food), reduce pain, which allows the dog to lead a more active lifestyle.
The hair of old dogs easily gets stuck in tangles, the skin becomes dry, covered with dandruff, which is caused by reduced activity of the sebaceous glands. Often small tumors appear on the skin. The paw pads become thick, hypertrophic and crack. Due to the loss of body flexibility, older dogs find it difficult to keep the anal area and genitals clean. Careful skin and hair care and bathing maintain a healthy appearance and are the prevention of ectoparasites and skin diseases.
By age, there is a gradual hearing loss that is not treatable. With age, there is a decrease in visual acuity. Often there is senile (senile) cataract. In some dogs after 8 years, decreased vision is associated with clouding of the lens. However, it can be caused by retinal disease or other eye disorders.
Surgical removal of cataracts is performed on poorly moving dogs with loss of visual acuity.If the dog’s hearing is not affected, they are well oriented on the ground, even if they are blind.
Developing with age, diseases of the teeth and gums prevent the dog from eating. With timely and properly started treatment, the dog’s condition and appetite do not suffer. Teething teeth are removed. If the dog can’t chew on dry food, moisten it 20 minutes before eating, use industrial canned food for old dogs.
In older dogs, urination disorders are often observed. Increased urination is noted with age, which is associated with a violation of the reverse absorption of primary urine and the concentration of kidney metabolic products. To compensate for this condition, the dog is forced to drink a lot. Often a dog with kidney failure is forced to urinate at home, especially at night. Therefore, it is necessary to walk it more often: morning, evening and night.
Cardiomyopathy is another known condition associated with aging processes. Heart disease develops long before the first clinical symptoms of heart failure appear. Early signs of heart failure: lethargy and weight loss, apathy and indifference to others, muscle weakness, shortness of breath, cough, mainly at night, after training or agitation.
Older dogs do not tolerate training and emotional stress. Their heart, liver, kidneys and metabolism often can not cope with increased stress, and acute decompensation may occur.
Avoid cooling the animal. If the dog is wet, it should be wrapped with a dry towel and placed in a warm room. The old dog does not tolerate heat. Changing water and feed is undesirable for older dogs. Any changes in the mode are introduced gradually.
5 years, 9 months ago Comments 0
- excessive or abnormal lacrimation,
- unusual neoplasms in or around the gas,
- white spots or opacities in the eye,
- recesses on the surface of the eye,
- Iris trembling.
Epiphora (lacrimation). Excessive lacrimation is especially characteristic of small dogs. Tears leave dark smudges in the eye area and on the sides of the muzzle, while the skin may become inflamed or become infected. Lacrimation can have a variety of causes, such as pain in the eyes or impaired tear flow. Elimination of the source of lacrimation leads to recovery, this also includes treatment of the inflammatory process with the use of antibiotics and washing the nasolacrimal canal.
Distichiasis (extra eyelashes). Some dogs are born with extra or incorrectly placed eyelashes that grow along the inner edge of the upper eyelids. If these eyelashes rub the cornea, eye irritation develops. This irritation may be minor until the dog has matured. These extra eyelashes are often removed surgically.
Enpropion (inversion of the century). A condition in which the eyelid (usually the lower one) is wrapped to the eye, as a rule, is a birth defect.
Wrapped eyelashes rub against the cornea of the eye, annoying him. Lachrymation may occur, infection may join, and corneal cancer may even develop. Plastic surgery is required.
Ectropion (eversion of the century). The opposite state of enpropion. the edge of the lower eyelid turns outward from the eyeball. Ectropion is commonly found in dogs with freely hanging muzzle skin. It is caused by hereditary factors, trauma or loss of muscle tone in old dogs. Eyes not adequately protected by a saggy eyelid are sensitive to irritation. To restore the eyelids to the right place can be reconstructive surgery.
"Cherry-like eye" (adenoma of the third century). The lacrimal gland on the inner surface of the third century in some dogs may fall out so that it becomes visible in the inner corner of the dog’s eye as a red, cherry-like formation. If it is poorly expressed, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed, but in most cases surgical intervention is required.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the lining of the lining of the eyelids and covering part of the eyeball. As a result, the eye swells, discharge appears. If they are transparent and watery, then the cause is an allergy, a foreign body, or a physical irritant, such as a gust of wind. If the discharge is thick, yellowish or pus-like, this indicates a bacterial infection. Conjunctivitis is treated by eliminating its cause and prescribing antibiotics for the eyes.
Glaucoma occurs with increased intraocular pressure, which destroys the tissues inside the eye, in particular, the retina and optic nerve, which leads to complete or partial loss of vision (this can happen suddenly or gradually). Glaucoma can be congenital. It may be associated with other eye diseases or eye injury. Such a dog has a squint or meaningless expression, eyes are enlarged, with a cloudy or opaque cornea, they hurt and watery. The pupils are dilated and do not respond well to light. Glaucoma requires the immediate assistance of a veterinarian or surgeon.
Corneal ulcer. The formation of an ulcer on the cornea often leads to clouding of the affected part of the eye or to a noticeable retraction on the surface of the cornea. There is also a liquid, watery discharge, passing over time into purulent. The eye hurts and often the dog keeps it closed. In most cases, the disease develops after a small scratch made by a cat or a foreign body, or as a result of exposure to a cornea of an irritant. for example, eyelashes wrapped inward. It is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid serious complications.
Keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea. The cornea gradually loses its transparency, becomes cloudy, and eventually becomes whitish-milk or relatively cloudy. Eyelids may look swollen, strabismus develops. Watery or purulent discharge from the eyes is observed. If keratitis is not treated, this can lead to partial or complete blindness. As soon as you notice clouding of the cornea, immediately take the dog to the veterinarian.
In German dogs, one of the forms of keratitis is often found - pannus. A pinkish-bodily film may appear on both eyes due to vessels growing in the cornea. In this case, eyes can watery, and the eyelids become inflamed. Pannus usually affects dogs older than two years. For treatment, medications and surgical agents are used, but no lasting recovery is observed.
Dry keratitis. Insufficient secretion of tears can lead to overdrying and damage to the cornea. The cause of this may be a lacrimal gland disease or a side effect after taking certain medications. Treatment consists in the frequent introduction of a lubricating solution (artificial tears), which replaces the fluid that washes the outer surface of the eye, or in surgery.
Cataracts are called clouding of the lens located inside the eye. Most often, cataracts are observed in older and diabetic dogs. Hereditary cataracts are observed at any age. The disease leads to loss of vision to one degree or another. In the case of complete blindness, good, functional vision can be returned using surgical removal of the affected lens.
Dislocation of the lens. The displacement of the lens occurs with glaucoma or in connection with the hereditary weakness of the tissues that hold the lens in place. A sign of such a displacement is the flutter of the iris. The lens can enter other areas of the eyeball. Surgical removal of the lens may be necessary.
Progressive retinal atrophy (PAS) is a genetic disease in which retinal cells gradually die, resulting in loss of vision. PAS is observed in many breeds, but manifests itself and develops in different ways. For example, Irish setters go blind by the age of 8-12 months, and miniature poodles retain their vision up to 5-6 years. The first sign of this disease is loss of night vision (night blindness, or hemeralopia). Dogs can behave differently, especially in low light situations. PAS develops over months or years and leads to blindness. There is no cure for this disease.
Dislocation of the eyeball. As a result of a serious injury, the eyeball may fall out of orbit, which is most common in dogs with large, bulging eyes. The loss of the eyeball requires emergency specialist assistance in order to maintain vision, the eye needs to be urgently inserted into place. Call your veterinarian immediately, and in the meantime, constantly moisturize your eye with water and, if necessary, take anti-shock measures. Do not try to put your eyes in place by force, it can swell even more, which will aggravate the situation. If you cannot get to the veterinarian within an hour, lubricate the eyeball with olive or mineral oil and carefully pull the eyelids outward over the eyeball. Try to put your eyes in place without any effort.
Cataract in dogs
It is worth saying that cataract is considered one of the most common eye diseases in many dogs. What is this disease? Recall that the lens focuses the beam, which passes through it to the retina, the image from which will be transmitted to the brain. When the lens cells will be destroyed, the formation of cataracts. Moreover, the lens begins to become cloudy, the light stops reaching the retina, and, ultimately, this can lead to very bad consequences, namely blindness of the pet.
Ophthalmic manifestations of systemic hypertension in cats
One more photo
The authors): L.A. Solomakhina, Chief Doctor of the Voronezh Veterinary Complex “Cat M @ Troskin”, member of RSVO and ESVO / L. Solomakhina, DVM, Chief doctor, Member of the RSVO and of the ESVO, Voronezh Veterinary Complex “Cat M @ troskyn”
Journal: №5 - 2015
Keywords: ophthalmic manifestations, systemic hypertension, cats
Key words: ocular manifestations, systemic hypertension, cats
Abbreviations: CRF - chronic renal failure, CHF - chronic heart failure, blood pressure - arterial hypertension, CCC - cardiovascular system, PCG - anterior chamber of the eye, optic nerve disc - optic nerve disc, central nervous system - central nervous system
Systemic hypertension occurs in both dogs and cats. The most common arterial hypertension in cats, because this species has a relatively high predisposition to the development of chronic renal failure. Eye lesions in systemic hypertension include retinal edema and optic nerve disc disease, sinuous retinal blood vessels, and preretinal, intraretinal, subretinal hemorrhages. Secondary retinal degeneration, probably due to ischemia and / or inflammation, is a frequent continuation of the disease. (Fig. 16). Animals with systemic hypertension may come with complaints of acute blindness (with fixed, dilated pupils) caused by bullous retinal detachment due to subretinal effusion (Fig. 13).
Systemic hypertension occurs in both dogs and cats. It is more common in cats because this species has a relatively higher incidence of chronic kidney disease. The ocular lesions in systemic hypertension include retinal and papillary edema, tortuous retinal blood vessels, and preretinal, intraretinal and subretinal hemorrhage. Secondary retinal degeneration, probably due to ischemia and / or inflammation, is a common sequel (Fig. 16). Animals with systemic hypertension may be presented with a complaint of acute blindness (with fixed, dilated pupils) caused by bullous retinal detachment due to subretinal effusion (Fig. 13).
Arterial (systemic) hypertension occurs in cats and dogs, but is most common in cats. This is due to the high incidence of chronic renal failure in this species. In cats, primary and secondary systemic hypertension is possible.
Cats from 5 to 20 years are more prone to this disease, but more often it occurs at the age of 8-10 years.
Causes of Secondary Systemic Hypertension
- Chronic and acute kidney disease. According to statistics, 19-65% of cats with chronic renal failure have hypertension. The causes of hypertension are most often diseases such as chronic interstitial nephritis, amyloidosis, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, renal dysplasia,
- Hyperthyroidism (87% of cats),
- Hyperadrenocorticism (60% of dogs),
- Pheochromocytoma (50% of dogs),
- Primary hyperaldosteronism (dogs),
- Obesity (hyperlipidemia), described as a risk factor for dogs (77% males),
- Chronic anemia, polycythemia, fever, arteriovenous fistula,
- Foods high in salt.
The diagnosis of arterial hypertension requires a measurement of systolic blood pressure, ideally a measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure is necessary. It must be remembered that in shy and aggressive animals, blood pressure can be erroneously high. In this case, adaptation of the animal and several repeated measurements are necessary. In cats, systolic pressure is greater than 160-170 mmHg. and diastolic pressure in excess of 100 mm Hg considered elevated. That is, blood pressure above 180/100 mm Hg considered abnormally high. Values above 200/110 mm Hg. Art. accompanied by characteristic clinical manifestations, including hypertensive retinopathy.
Blood Pressure Meters
- Veterinary Doppler 811. Frequency - from 8 MHz to 9.7 MHz. Doppler is designed to measure systolic pressure in cats and dogs.
- Doppler Veterinary Vet Dop BF1. Frequency 9.4 MHz, focused sensor, convenient for fixing the limb and sensor with one hand. The kit includes a sphygmomanometer, headphones, an English manual and video instruction, five cuffs 25x6, 21x5, 17x4, 14x3 and 11x2.5 (length and width are indicated in cm).
- Veterinary tonometer PetMa (oscillographic method). Designed to measure systolic and diastolic pressure, heart rate. Measurement range: 30-260 mmHg, accuracy: +/- 2 mmHg, heart rate: 40 to 220 bpm. 7 cuffs up to 5 cm wide are included in the package.
Target organs in hypertension
Hypertension is the most common disease of aging cats, in which the eyes, kidneys, heart (CVS), and the central nervous system suffer.
Hypertensive kidney damage:
- Progression of renal failure,
- An increase in creatinine in 65% of cats with hypertension and ophthalmic manifestations.
- Checking the level of serum creatinine and urea,
Causes of Cataracts in Cats
Often, cataracts in cats can develop as a secondary disease due to an infectious disease or uveitis. Among the reasons for the development of uveitis are parasites, or injuries, and this significantly changes the options for the diagnosis and the planned treatment of cataracts.
To systematize and better identify the reason why a cat has cataracts, you need to refer to the classification.
Cataracts are usually classified either by the time of onset (in which case they distinguish between congenital, acquired, age-related cataracts), or by the place where the lens is clouded (capsular, cortical or nuclear), or by manifestation (primary or secondary).
More often this type of disease is found in dogs, and for cats it is less characteristic. Transmission occurs in a hereditary manner in an autosomal dominant manner. Physiological changes occur due to the introduction of hereditary forms with various deviations, and they strongly affect the fetus, its development.
In addition, cataracts are sometimes accompanied by various concomitant problems with the eyes, for example, glaucoma, optic nerve dystrophy, as well as hypoplasia, retinal colombi.
With senile cataract, clouding of the lens develops subcapsularly from the nucleus. Accordingly, cortical, nuclear and subcapsular cataracts are formed.The process of cortical type cataract formation consists in the primary clouding of the central part of the lens cortex. With regard to vision in this case, phenomena such as flies and smoke appear, however, visual acuity does not fall due to the fact that the central part of the pupil remains transparent.
It develops more often due to the following reasons:
- penetrating eye injury
- non-penetrating eye injury
- infectious diseases
- bacterial diseases
- lens luxation, that is, its displacement into the anterior chamber of the eye or into the vitreous,
- chronic uveitis due to the development of autoimmune diseases.
Cataract Symptoms in Cats
For different stages of development of senile cataract in cats, their symptoms are characteristic.
There are 4 degrees (stages) of senile cataract type:
- Initial degree: some patients do not complain about anything, and some have the above symptoms, such as flies, haze. The very first symptom, a sign of the initial stage, is the development of hydration of the lens. The identification of such a deviation is possible only with the help of special studies, namely biomicroscopy and focal illumination. On average, this stage lasts 2-3 years, and in some patients - generally for decades.
- Immature degree: the process of hydration of the crystalline lens continues to intensify, turbidity develops on almost its entire cortex. Based on this, it is not difficult to understand why the main complaint in this period of the development of the disease is reduced visual acuity. Subjective vision is maintained. In addition, an increase in the lens, its swelling, and a subsequent decrease in the depth of the anterior chamber of the eye are noted.
- Mature degree: the crystalline body gradually begins to lose water, and the turbidity itself takes on a dirty gray color. The usual complaints at this stage of the development of the disease are the disappearance, and a complete, even objective vision. Only light perception can remain, and the projection of light is preserved correctly.
- Overripe: very dangerous and can lead to uveitis, glaucoma, photophobia, redness of the sclera, clouding of the cornea.
All these problems sometimes lead to absolute loss of vision.
Diagnosis of cataracts in cats
When diagnosing cataracts, the following factors are necessary:
- a dark room so that there is as little light as possible
- 10x slit lamp
- Veterinary ophthalmologist.
Diagnosis of cataracts is carried out to identify the causes of its occurrence and determine the methods of treatment.
Cataract Treatment in Cats
If cataract has developed as a primary disease, and there are no other concomitant eye diseases, then the treatment will be to remove the lens - phacoemulsification.
Some cases may require urgent eye surgery for the following types of cataracts:
- lens lux
- lens capsule injury
- swelling cataract.
If cataract has developed as a secondary disease due to previous illnesses, then it is necessary to determine the disease and conduct treatment procedures. After that, the diseased eye is examined to determine vision. If, after an initial examination, the doctor makes sure that there is vision, then he appoints a second examination after a while. If vision is absent for some reason, then cataract treatment is not required, but it is possible that after some time the eye will have to be removed.
To treat cataracts, it is necessary to eliminate the clouding of the lens.
In world practice, there are no drugs that could translate the opaque lens proteins into transparent, so we can not affect the development of cataracts or the slowdown of its development.
Photoemulsification refers to microsurgical treatment of cataracts. In this case, the direct destruction of the lens nucleus will be carried out on the principle of a “breaker,” for which a phono tip is used. The phono tip is a special needle that makes oscillatory and reciprocating vibrations, the frequency of which exceeds 20,000 times per second.
Extracapsular cataract extraction methods were previously used for the same purpose, but phacoemulsification significantly wins compared to them because it allows the lens nucleus not only to fragment, but also to aspirate it through an extremely small incision, measuring only 2.2 mm. At the same time, the advantages of the method include less surgically induced astigmatism, a small number of postoperative complications, there is also no need to suture, and the patient rehabilitation time is noticeably reduced. In order to be able to carry out this manipulation, the presence of microsurgical instruments and a device - phacoemulsifier is required.
To provide sufficient access directly to the lens nucleus, small incisions are made in the limb region, 2 or 3. The main incision is 2.2 mm wide, and the width of the additional incision or sections is only 1.2 mm. Then the anterior lens capsule is carefully removed. For this purpose, the tip of the phacoemulsifier, which resembles a small needle, is inserted directly into the cavity of the eye, and the lens core is divided into separate fragments.
This tool has a special fluid exchange system that is connected directly to the pump. It allows both the aspiration of the lens masses and the mechanical action to destroy the lens nucleus at the same time. At the same time, it is necessary to stabilize the pressure inside the eye, which is done using a sterile isotonic solution. Manipulations that make it possible to divide the core into many separate fragments are carried out through other sections. Subsequently, dense fragments of the cortical layers of the lens can be removed using the aspiration method, when their additional mechanical destruction is not required.
At the end of the operation, an intraocular lens is implanted in the capsular bag. This intraocular lens is inserted through the main incision using the injector when folded. As a rule, the profile at the incision is self-sealing, due to which the surgeon resorts to suturing the cornea extremely rarely. The lens is not placed in all cases, which is usually discussed before the surgical treatment of cataracts.
The author of the article:
Mamedkuliev Andrey Konstantinovich