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Malaria mosquito and danger to humans

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Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are internationally known as malaria mosquitoes, since many species of this genus carry malaria. They are also considered carriers of heartworm among dogs.

During the rest, mosquitoes of this genus raise the abdomen up, unlike most other mosquitoes that keep the body level.

Description

Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are internationally known as malaria mosquitoes because many species of this genus carry malaria. Learn more about the symptoms of malaria. It is also believed that these mosquitoes transmit heartworms to dogs. Anopheles mosquitoes prefer mammals, including humans, as their prey.

The body of the malaria mosquitoes is dark in color from brown to black. Their body is divided into 3 parts: head, chest, abdomen. During rest, the abdomen rises up, unlike most other mosquitoes. Females of malaria mosquitoes mate several times during their short life, and after a bloody meal they lay eggs. Despite the fact that the female lives only from a few weeks to a month, during this time she manages to lay thousands of eggs.

The female lays eggs in water one at a time, 200 at a time. Each egg floats and develops in water. It takes two to 14 days for the eggs to hatch, depending on temperature and region.

After hatching, the larvae continue to live in water, while they move in a peculiar manner. Larvae are located parallel to the surface of the water, so it is more convenient for them to eat fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms. Larvae go through 4 stages of development, after which they turn into a chrysalis.

Pupae also produce peculiar swaying movements. Such movements come out because of their comma-shaped form. Such pupae rise to the surface for breathing with the help of small tubes, but they do not eat for 1-2 days until adult mosquitoes hatch from them. The reproduction cycle of the malaria mosquito is described below.

Breeding

Female Anopheles mosquitoes can lay their eggs in various places, including fresh and salt water, in the shade and in the light. Open pools, small streams, irrigated lands, freshwater swamps, forest lakes and any places with clean, slowly moving water are suitable for them.

Fertilized females can survive the winter, they hibernate in caves, so that the breeding cycles of malaria mosquitoes in some regions can not be interrupted all year round. This kind of mosquito eggs can withstand low temperatures, but freezing usually kills them.

Spread

Where do malaria mosquitoes live? Mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus are found all over the world except Antarctica. In many places, for example, in Russia, malaria was defeated, but mosquitoes remained, so there is always a chance that malaria can reappear in these areas.

If only once a malaria mosquito bites an infected malaria, then it will infect healthy people with this disease, and every time it bites them. A traveler returning from an area endemic for malaria can become a source of infection for others. Learn more about the symptoms of malaria.

With the development of international tourism, the possibility of the appearance of previously defeated diseases is growing every year. In Russia, for example, a focus of malaria began to appear in the Moscow region. In addition, in the same way, an epidemic of malaria can erupt where it never happened. Where do malaria mosquitoes live? Everywhere. Only effective control of the number of mosquitoes will provide you with the best protection against bloodsuckers and the dangerous diseases they carry.

Interesting Facts

There are about 430 species of mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus in the world, but only 30 or 40 of them can become carriers of malaria.

Many malaria mosquitoes have become resistant to insecticides over the years of using these chemicals.

Mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus are most active shortly before dawn and immediately after night falls. At this time of day it is especially important to take measures to protect against mosquito bites.

Malaria mosquitoes can cause an outbreak of so-called “airdrome malaria”, as they can get into the luggage or into the plane itself and infect passengers.

Sir Ronald Ross, who proved that mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus carry malaria, was not only a scientist, but also a mathematician, writer, poet, editor, composer and artist.

Malaria mosquitoes are still found in areas where malaria has been defeated. Despite the fact that the malaria parasite was destroyed in these places, mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus still live there, respectively, the focus of malaria can again appear there if the only uninfected mosquito of the Anopheles genus bites a patient with malaria.

Mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus, living in areas where malaria has been defeated, can become infected with “introduced” malaria. When healthy people from these areas travel to countries endemic for malaria, they can bring the disease home. Upon the return of the infected person, a healthy mosquito can bite, and subsequently it will transfer malaria to other residents. Learn more about malaria.

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Malaria mosquito: spoiled insect appearance

To quickly figure out a dangerous pest, you need to know what a malaria mosquito of the anopheles genus looks like. The pest is classified as a dipteran. Their body is oval. Case length reaches 9–10 mm. The distinctive features of the structure include rather long legs, as well as a small head. There is a small coating on the wings, which scientists call the flake.

The malaria mosquito has a kind of maxillofacial apparatus, which includes tubes with jaw nail files, as well as a long proboscis. With the help of nail jaws, a malarial mosquito or anopheles violates the integrity of the cover and lowers the proboscis into the formed hole. Through the proboscis, blood enters the body of the malaria mosquito.

Life cycle

The life cycle of a malarial and common mosquito is similar. Scientists identify important stages of development:

  • Eggs laid by a malaria mosquito.
  • Larva of a mosquito.
  • Malaria mosquito pupae.
  • Stage of imago.

The stages of eggs, larvae, and pupae occur only in stagnant water or polluted water bodies. Often the larvae of a malaria mosquito are found in containers that are located on the territory of a summer cottage or near a country house. The duration of these stages is 1-2 weeks. The term of development of the anopheles mosquito is reduced if the water temperature is about 25-30 degrees. How long an insect lives in the adult stage depends on the conditions and habitat. Scientists identify many factors that influence development.

Evolution

Ancestors Drosophila and mosquitoes diverged 260 million years ago. In kulitsinovy ​​and Anopheles treasures of mosquitoes diverged from 120 million years ago and 150 million years ago. Old and New World Anopheles species subsequently diverged between 80 million years ago and 95 million years ago. Anopheles darlingi diverged from African and Asian carriers of malaria

100 million years ago. IN Anopheles gambiae and funestus anopheles treasures diverged between 80 million years ago and 36 million years ago. The molecular study of several genes in seven species provides additional support for the expansion of this genus during the Cretaceous.

Anopheles genome, 230-284 million base pairs (MBP), comparable in size to that of Drosophila , but significantly less than those in the other kulitsinovy ​​genome (528 MBP-1.9 GBP). Like most kulitsinovyh species, the diploid genome with six chromosomes.

Only fossils of this genus are known. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dominicanusZavortink & Poinaru contained in Dominican amber from the late Eocene (40.4 million years ago to 33.9 million years ago) and Anopheles rottensisStatz contained in German amber from the Late Oligocene (28.4 million years ago to 23 million years ago).

Taxonomy

Kind Anopheles Meigen (almost spread worldwide) belongs to the subfamily Anophelinae along with the other two genera: Bironella Theobald (Australia only) and Chagasia Cruz (Neotropic). The taxonomy remains incompletely resolved. Classification into species is based on morphological characteristics - the wing of the spot, the head of the anatomy, the larvae and pupae of the anatomy, the structure of chromosomes, and more recently, the DNA sequence.

The genus is subdivided into seven subgenera, based mainly on the number and position of specialized setae on the gonocoxites of these male genital organs. The system of subgenera originated with the work of Christophers, who in 1915 described three subgenera: Anopheles (widespread), Myzomyia (later renamed Cellia ) (Old World) and Nyssorhynchus (Neotropic). Nyssorhynchus was first described as Lavernia from Frederick Vincent Theobald. Frederick Wallace Edwards in 1932 added a subgenus Stethomyia (Neotropic distribution). Kerteszia was also described by Edwards in 1932, but was then recognized as a subgroup of Nyssorhynchus . He was elevated to a subgenus status, Komp in 1937, and he is also in the Neotropical. Two additional subgenera have since been recognized: Baimaia (only in Southeast Asia) by Harbach and other in 2005 and Lophopodomyia (Neotropic) by Antunes in 1937.

The two main groups within the genus Anopheles uses: one educated Cellia and Anopheles subgenus and second by Kerteszia , Lophopodomyia and Nyssorhynchus . Subgenus Stethomyia is an outlier in relation to these two taxa. In the second group, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus appears to be the sister of taxa.

The number of species currently recognized in subgenera is given here in parentheses: Anopheles (206 species), Baimaia (1), Cellia (216), Kerteszia (12), Lophopodomyia (6), Nyssorhynchus (34) and Stethomyia (5) ,

Taxonomic units between subgenus and species are not currently recognized as official zoological names. In practice, a number of taxonomic levels have been introduced. More subgenus ( Anopheles , Cellia and Nyssorhynchus ) were divided into sections and series, which, in turn, were divided into groups and subgroups. Below a subgroup, but above the species level, is a species complex. Taxonomic levels above the species complex can be distinguished by morphological characters. The species within the species complex are either morphologically identical or very similar and can only be reliably separated by microscopic examination of chromosomes or DNA sequencing. The classification continues to be revised.

Subgenus Nyssorhynchus was divided into three sections: Albimanus (19 species) Argyritarsis (11 species) and Myzorhynchella (4 types). Argyritarsis section was divided into Albitarsis and Argyritarsis groups.

Anopheles the group was divided by Edwards into four series: Anopheles ( around the world), Myzorhynchus (Palearctic, Eastern, Australasian and Afrotropical), Cycloleppteron (Neotropic) and Lophoscelomyia (Oriental), and two groups, Arribalzagia (Neotropic) and Christya (afrotropic). Raid and the Knight (1961) modified this classification and therefore subdivided the subgenus Anopheles into two sections, Angusticorn and Laticorn and six episodes. The Arribalzagia and Christya groups were considered series. Laticorn Section includes Arribalzagia (24 species) Christya and Myzorhynchus series. Angusticorn section includes member Anopheles , Cycloleppteron and Lophoscelomyia series.

All species are known to carry the lie of human malaria inside either Myzorhynchus or Anopheles series.

Stages of life

Like all mosquitoes, anophelines go through four stages of their life cycle: egg, larva, pupa and imago. The first three stages are water and together for the last time 5-14 days, depending on the type and temperature of the environment. Adult stage when the female Anopheles mosquito acts as malaria vector. Adult females can live up to a month (or more in captivity), but most likely do not live more than two weeks in nature.

Adult females lay 50-200 eggs in their oviposition. The eggs are quite small (approximately 0.5 × 0.2 mm). Eggs are laid individually and directly on the water. They are unique in that they have floats on both sides. Eggs are not resistant to drying and hatch for 2-3 days, although hatching can take up to 2-3 weeks in cold climates.

Larvae

The mosquito larva has a well-developed head with brushes in the mouth used for feeding, a large chest and nine segments of the abdomen. She has no legs. Unlike other mosquitoes, then Anopheles the larva lacks a breathing siphon, so it positions itself so that its body is parallel to the surface of the water. In contrast, a feeding larva of a nonanopheline mosquito species attaches to the surface of the water with its back siphon, with its body pointing down.

Larvae breathe through spiracles located on the eighth abdominal segment, so they must come to the surface often. Larvae spend most of their time eating algae, bacteria, and other microorganisms in the surface microslum. They dive below the surface only when they break. Larvae swim either in convulsive movements of the whole body or through movements with brushes in their mouths.

Larvae develop through four stages, or ages, after which they turn into a pupa. At the end of each age, the larvae molt, dropping their exoskeleton, or skin, to provide further growth. The first stage of the larva is about 1 mm in length, the larvae of the fourth stage are usually 5-8 mm in length.

The process from egg laying to the appearance of adults depends on temperature, with a minimum time of seven days.

Larvae are found in a wide range of habitats, but most species prefer clean, unpolluted water. Larvae Anopheles mosquitoes are found in freshwater or sea swamps, mangrove swamps, rice fields, grassy ditches, along the edges of streams and rivers, and small, temporary rain pools. Many species prefer vegetation. Others prefer habitats with no one. Some species are found in open, sunny, lit pools, while others are found only in shaded breeding areas in forests. Several species are bred in tree hollows or leaf axils of some plants.

Dolls

Pupa is also known as tumbler.The pupa is a delimiter-shaped when viewed from the side. The head and rib cage merge into the cephalothorax with the abdomen curving around below. Like larvae, pupae must come to the surface often to breathe, that they through a pair of breathing tubes on their cephalothoraces. After a few days, like a chrysalis, the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax splits and adult mosquitoes arise. The pupal stage lasts about 2–3 days in temperate regions.

Adults

The duration from an egg to an adult varies greatly between species, and also greatly depends on the ambient temperature. Mosquitoes can develop from an egg to an adult in just five days, but it can take 10-14 days in tropical conditions.

Like all mosquitoes, adults Anopheles species have thin bodies with three sections: head, chest and abdomen.

The chapter specializes in the acquisition of sensory information and for feeding. It contains eyes and a pair of long, multi-segmented antennae. The antennae are of great importance for detecting host odors, as well as the smells of breeding sites where females lay their eggs. The head also has an elongated forward, protruding trunk used for feeding, and two maxillary tentacles. These tentacles also carry receptors for carbon dioxide, the main attractant for locating the mosquito host.

The chest is specialized for movement. Three pairs of legs and a pair of wings are attached to the chest.

The stomach specializes in digesting food and developing eggs. This segmented body part expands significantly when a woman takes food in the blood. Blood is digested over time, serving as a source of protein for the production of eggs that gradually fill the stomach.

Anopheles mosquitoes can be distinguished from other mosquitoes by palps, which are as long as the trunk, and by the presence of discrete blocks of black and white scales on the wings. Adults can also be identified by their typical non-working position: men and women resting with their bellies stick out in the air, and not parallel to the surface on which they rest.

Adult mosquitoes usually mate within a few days after exiting the pupa. In most species of males, large flocks form, usually around twilight, and females fly in a swarm to mate.

Males live about a week, eating nectar and other sources of sugar. Women also feed on sugar sources for energy, but typically require blood to eat for egg development. After receiving a full portion of blood, the female will rest for several days until the blood is digested and the eggs develop. This process is temperature dependent, but usually takes 2-3 days in tropical conditions. After the eggs are fully developed, the female lays them and resumes the host-search.

The cycle repeats until the female dies. While females can live longer than a month in captivity, most of them do not live longer than one for two weeks in nature. Their life expectancy depends on temperature, humidity, as well as their ability to successfully receive blood food, while avoiding the body's defenses.

In a study at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, researchers found that female mosquitoes carrying malaria parasites are much more attracted to human breathing and odors than uninfected mosquitoes. Laboratory-infected infected research team Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with Plasmodium parasites, leaving the control group uninfected. Then the tests were carried out in two groups in order to record their attraction to human odors. Female mosquitoes are especially drawn to foot odors, and one test showed infected mosquitoes landing and biting prospectively many times. The team suggests that the parasite improves the smell of mosquitoes. It can also reduce its risk appetite.

Habitat

Although malaria is currently limited to tropical areas, the most commonly known regions of sub-Saharan Africa are many Anopheles species live in colder latitudes (see this map from the CDC). Indeed, malaria outbreaks in the past occurred in colder climates, for example, during the construction of the Rideau Canal in Canada during the 1820s. Since, Plasmodium parasite (not Anopheles mosquitoes) was expelled from the first countries of the world.

The CDC warns, however, that " Anopheles that can transmit malaria are found not only in areas endemic for malaria, but also in areas where malaria has been eradicated. The latter areas are thus constantly at risk of re-illness.

Susceptibility to transmit disease

Some species are poor carriers of malaria, as parasites do not develop well (or even) in them. There are also differences within species. In the laboratory, you can select strains A. gambiae which are refractory to parasite malaria infection. These refractory strains have an immune response that encapsulates and kills the parasite after they are invaded by a mosquito of the gastric wall. Scientists are studying the genetic mechanism of this reaction. Genetically modified mosquitoes immune to malaria may possibly replace wild mosquitoes, thereby limiting or eliminating the transmission of malaria.

Malaria transmission and control

Understanding Biology and Behavior Anopheles mosquitoes can help understand how malaria is transmitted, and can also help develop appropriate management strategies. Factors affecting the mosquito's target for transmission of malaria include its innate predisposition to Plasmodium , the choice of the owner and his durability. Factors to consider when designing a management program include the susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides and the preferred feeding and resting location of adult mosquitoes.

December 21, 2007, in a study published in PLoS, pathogens found hemolytic C-type lectin CEL-III from Cucumaria echinata found in a sea cucumber in the Bay of Bengal, a violation of the development of a malaria parasite when transgenic production A. stephensi This can potentially be used to fight malaria by spreading genetically modified mosquitoes that are immune to parasites, although numerous scientific and ethical problems must be overcome before such a management strategy can be implemented.

Preferred Blood Food Sources

One important behavioral factor is the degree to which Anopheles The species prefers to feed on humans (anthropophily) or animals such as cattle or birds (zoophily). Anthropophilia Anopheles more likely to transmit malaria parasites from one person to another. Most malaria mosquitoes are not exclusively anthropophilia or zoophilic. However, vectors of primary malaria in Africa, A. gambiae and A. funestus , are highly anthropophilic and therefore are two of the most effective malaria vectors in the world.

After swallowing a mosquito, the plasmodium malaria must undergo development into a mosquito before they are infectious to humans. The time required for development in a mosquito (external incubation period) is from 10-21 days, depending on the type of parasite and temperature. If the mosquito does not live longer than the external incubation period, then it will not be able to transmit any malaria parasites.

It is not possible to directly measure the life span of mosquitoes in nature, but indirect estimates of daily survivability have been made for several Anopheles species. Daily Survival Estimates A. gambiae in Tanzania ranged from 0.77 to 0.84, that is, at the end of one day, between 77% and 84% would survive.

Assuming that this survivability is constantly in the adult life of a mosquito, less than 10% of the female A. gambiae to live longer than the 14-day period of external incubation. If daily survival increased to 0.9, more than 20% of mosquitoes would survive longer than the same period. Control measures that rely on insecticides (such as room spraying) can actually affect malaria transmission more through their effect on adult longevity than through their effect on adult mosquito populations.

Feeding and resting models

Most malaria mosquitoes twilight (active at dusk or at dawn) or nocturnal lifestyle (active at night). Some feed indoors (endophagic), while others feed outdoors (exophagic). After feeding, some blood mosquitoes prefer to rest indoors (endophilic), while others prefer to relax outdoors (exophilic), although this may differ at the regional level based on the local ecotype vector, and the chromosome makeup vector, as well as the type of housing and local microclimatic conditions. Bites from nocturnal, endophagic Anopheles mosquitoes can be significantly reduced by using insecticides -treated mosquito nets or by improving housing construction to prevent mosquitoes from entering (for example, window screens). Endophilic mosquitoes are easily controlled by indoor spraying of insecticides. In contrast, exophagic / exophilic vectors are best controlled by contraction of sources (destruction of breeding sites).

Intestinal flora

Since transmitting the disease through a mosquito requires ingestion of blood, the intestinal flora can affect the success of infection of a host mosquito. This aspect of the transmission of the disease has not been investigated until recently. Larvae and pupae of the intestine are largely colonized by photosynthetic cyanobacteria, while in adults, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes predominate. Blood nutrition dramatically reduces the diversity of organisms and promotes enterobacteria.

Insecticide resistance

Insecticide measure -A management (e.g. spraying insecticides indoors, mosquito nets) are the main ways to kill mosquitoes bite in the room. However, after prolonged exposure to insecticides for several generations, mosquito populations, like other insects, can develop resistance, the ability to survive contact with the insecticide. Since mosquitoes can have many generations a year, a high level of resistance can develop very quickly. The mosquito resistance of some insecticides has been reported only within a few years after the insecticides were introduced. Over 125 mosquito species have documented resistance to one or more insecticides. The evolution of insecticide resistance used in indoor spraying is one of the major barriers to the Global Malaria Eradication Campaign. The wise use of insecticides to control mosquitoes can limit the development and spread of resistance. However, the use of insecticides in agriculture is often involved as a contribution to resistance in mosquito populations. Detection of developing resistance of mosquito populations is possible, therefore a management program is also recommended to monitor this potential problem .. In Malawi and elsewhere, a shrub known as mpungabwi ( Ocimum americanum ) is used to repel mosquitoes.

Eradication

With a significant number of cases of malaria affecting people around the world in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where millions of children die from this infectious disease, elimination is returning to the global health agenda.

Although malaria has existed since ancient times, it was possible to eradicate it in Europe, North America, the Caribbean and parts of Asia and southern Central America during the first regional screening campaigns in the late 1940s. However, the same results have not been achieved in sub-Saharan Africa.

Although the World Health Organization has adopted an official policy on the control and eradication of the malaria parasite since 1955, only recently, after the Gates Malaria forum in October 2007, did key organizations start a discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of rethinking elimination as a goal for malaria control.

Obviously, the cost of preventing malaria is much less than curing the disease in the long run. However, eliminating mosquitoes is not an easy task. For the effective prevention of malaria, some conditions must be met, for example, favorable conditions in the country, data collection on the disease, targeted technical approaches to the problem, leadership, general government support, sufficient financial resources, public involvement, and qualified specialists from various areas, as well as adequate implementation.

The wide range of strategies needed to achieve the eradication of malaria, from simple steps to complex strategies that cannot be implemented with current tools.

Although mosquito control is an important component of a malaria control strategy, eliminating malaria in the area does not require eliminating all Anopheles mosquitoes. For example, in North America and Europe, although the vector malaria mosquitoes are still present, the parasite has been eliminated. Some socio-economic improvements (for example, houses with shielded windows, air conditioning), once combined with efforts to reduce the vector and effective treatment, lead to the elimination of malaria without the complete elimination of the vectors. Some important mosquito control measures that must be followed are: to prevent egg laying, prevent the development of eggs by larvae and adults, kill adult mosquitoes, prevent adult mosquitoes from entering human habitats, prevent people from being bitten by mosquitoes and deprive them of blood food.

Research in this sense is ongoing, and research has suggested sterile mosquitoes may be the answer to eradicating malaria. This study shows, using the sterile insect method, in which sexually sterile male insects are released to destroy a pest population, there may be a solution to malaria in Africa. This method gives hope, since female mosquitoes only mate once during their lifetime, and at the same time, the insect population will decrease from sterile male mosquitoes. This is another option for consideration by local and international bodies that can be combined with other methods and means to achieve the eradication of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.

Parasites

Microsporidia of infection of aquatic stages of insects, a group that includes a mosquito and a black fly and crustacean appear in the form of various treasures from those that infect terrestrial insects and fish. Two different life cycles are in this group. In the first type, the parasite is transmitted orally and is relatively non-specific. Secondly, while again the oral route is the usual route of infection, the parasite enters the already infected intermediate host. Infection of insects of larval form is often tissue-specific, and usually includes body fat. Vertical transmission (transovarially) It is also known what happens.

Little phylogenetic studies of these parasites have been done, and their relationship to their mosquito hosts has not yet been determined. One study found Parathelohania the earliest diverging birth in this group.

Parasite wolbachia the bacterium has also been studied for use as a means of control.

How to distinguish a regular mosquito from a malaria

It is quite difficult for ordinary citizens to distinguish between a common mosquito and malaria. But scientists identify several signs of this variety, which should be familiarized with:

  • Malarial species and non-malarial mosquitoes differ in leg length. Unlike ordinary squeak, Anopheles has longer hind legs.
  • The back of the malaria mosquito in the photos that are presented on the network is slightly raised. Piskuny move parallel to the surface.
  • The wings are covered with scales and dark spots.
  • A mustache is centered near the tubular lip. They are present in ordinary scribbles, but their length is much shorter.
  • The medical value of mosquitoes is the transfer of certain infectious diseases and allergens.

Having studied the images in books and on specialized portals, you can identify all the differences present. The malaria pest also differs in that it performs a kind of dance before the bite.

Diet or what is the danger of a malaria mosquito

Blood is consumed only by females of the malaria mosquito. This must be considered when figuring out whether or not an insect bites. At the same time, large and adult individuals bite. As for the males, they consume only the nectar of flowers. After mosquitoes carrying dangerous malaria were born, they find a mate and mate. Egg laying requires a certain amount of protein. Therefore, the females transmitting the infection are fed with human blood to obtain protein. Within 1-3 days after choosing a place and laying eggs, insects consume only nectar and juice. After that, places for breeding are again selected, and eggs are also laid. Knowing what a female bitten human eats, it is easier to prevent infection.

Where does the malaria mosquito live?

Many people are interested in where the malaria mosquito lives and lives. Scientists note that carrying malaria and eating mosquitoes live in many states. The only exception is areas in which the temperature drops below +5 degrees. To lay eggs, insects use ponds that are shallow in depth.

Pests, which are from the genus Anofeles, choose water bodies in which the simplest microorganisms live and there are useful substances. In water from eggs appear larvae and pupae. Only adults are selected from the water. After all, adults are fully prepared for independent existence. When looking for places where pests are found, it is necessary to pay attention to shallow water bodies. Masonry found in the swamp. After all, there are a lot of food in the swamp.

Are there malaria mosquitoes in Russia

Finding out where the pests live, people are interested in whether they are on the territory of our country.The first malaria mosquito in Russia was spotted long ago. Today in various regions of Russia there are more than 10 types of blood-sucking pests. Moreover, most insects live in Kazan, as well as in the Republic of Tatarstan. In the Amur region, a twin of the pest is found, which was called Anopheles messeae. In this case, the spread of the incidence of the same (through the proboscis, which is in contact with the human blood vessels). Scientists are still figuring out whether there are other types of malaria mosquitoes in Russia. Research in this direction is ongoing.

Danger to life from human health

Scientists are studying the relationship between malarial plasmodium and the type of mosquito. To understand everything, it is necessary to study the spread of the disease. From how accurately a person will know what malaria and other mosquitoes are dangerous, it will depend on whether he performs the right actions.

Specialists with great care find out what is dangerous and harmful malaria mosquitoes. After all, they carry and spread not only malaria, but also other infectious diseases. Every year, people die from a mosquito bite. At the same time, blood-sucking insects of the genus Anofeles carry tropical malaria, which develops quite quickly. From this it is clear what is dangerous malaria mosquito.

Anopheles is also dangerous for humans because it transfers encephalitis and tropical fever through the proboscis. Sometimes an insect bite causes a disease associated with the penetration of filamentous worms into the human body. A bitten person may experience problems such as blockage of blood vessels or accumulation of lymph. Those limbs in which the worms fall are rapidly increasing in size. It is difficult to cope with such an infectious disease. To do this, you need to identify a virus or microbe that causes infection.

Bite Symptoms

Among all the symptoms of bites of a malarial mosquito, fever is distinguished. It occurs even if a small amount of parasites has entered the human body. Medical scientists distinguish four forms of malaria:

  • Three days. Such a disease lasts for 1-3 years. In this case, the symptoms periodically recur and intensify. Therefore, it is necessary to know in advance what if a malaria mosquito has bitten and what will happen if there is no activity.
  • Oval. Its duration reaches 3 weeks. But there have been cases when malaria developed within 3 years. Major seizures occur in the evening.
  • Four day. In this case, seizures occur every 2 days.
  • Tropical. The duration of the disease is 6-12 months. To understand whether this type of disease is dangerous, it is necessary to study statistics. After all, residents of the city also encountered him.

Each form has its own characteristics. In total, three periods of the disease are distinguished:

  1. Latent. The disease is most acute. A person has a headache, there is fever and chills. There are more serious manifestations.
  2. Second. The main symptoms include elevated body temperature, cramps and increased heart rate. Gradually, the temperature decreases, and sweat is released more abundantly. Convulsions provoke disturbances in the functioning of all organs. The number of such attacks can reach 10-15 times. After this, the symptoms become less pronounced.
  3. Relapse.

Since the disease takes such a long period, experts can identify it. They know what the bite of a malarial and blood-sucking mosquito looks like. This information is also presented on the network. Images and snapshots are available online and in specialized literature. If you are bitten by blood-sucking pests and there is a fever, then the help of specialists is required. And that if a malaria mosquito bitten to do, you need to know every person.

Toxic substances

  • Solfisan. In preparing the manufacturers do not use harmful components, toxins. Tools are distributed through spray guns. Consumers also use a siphon.
  • Tsifoks. The chemical composition is used to treat water bodies, residential and commercial facilities. Active substances affect adults and larvae.

Trap

  • UV trap. It produces ultraviolet radiation, which affects the nervous system. The duration of continuous work is 25-30 days. Insects cannot live in a house with ultraviolet traps.
  • Gas traps. They produce gas that causes paralysis and kills pests. Gas does not affect the condition of pets and people.

Fumigators

Such devices produce toxic components that affect the condition of insects. Only those units that have been made by trusted manufacturers should be purchased. Defective and low-quality fumigators can harm a person or a pet. Among the manufactured devices, raptor and mosquitall are distinguished, which are distinguished by their effectiveness.

Preventive actions

The main measures of prevention and prevention include:

  1. Doors and window openings are covered with mosquito nets.
  2. In nature or in the local area, special spirals are used that repel pests.
  3. Open areas of the skin are treated with sprays, ointments and gels. When selecting these substances, the compositions are taken into account. Before use, they check and consult with allergists.
  4. If a person is in the territory where such pests are found, then he should use tight clothing.

Even if you are in those areas where blood-sucking pests of the genus Anofeles live, you can avoid infection. For this, simple rules of conduct are taken into account.

Origin of view and description

Photo: Mosquito

The malarial mosquito is a dipteran insect, an obligate bloodsucker from the suborder long-barked, which is a carrier of malarial plasmodia, which are considered the most dangerous parasites for humans. The Latin name for this type of arthropod is anopheles, which translates as - harmful, useless. There are 400 varieties of Anopheles, many of them are able to tolerate malaria, as well as being the main host for a number of other dangerous parasites.

Video: Malaria mosquito

Several fossil varieties from the deposits of Oligocene and Dominican amber are known. Some historians believe that it was malaria that became the main cause of the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century. In those days, epidemics erupted in the coastal areas of Italy. The drainage of numerous swamps, the laying of new roads turned for the inhabitants of Rome almost constantly atrocious malaria. Hippocrates also described the symptoms of this disease and linked the onset of malaria epidemics with natural conditions.

Interesting fact: Malaria mosquitoes look at the world through the prism of infrared rays, therefore they are able to find warm-blooded animals, people, even in pitch darkness. In search of an object for receiving a portion of food - blood, these arthropods can fly over distances of up to 60 kilometers.

Appearance and features

Photo: What does a malaria mosquito look like?

This dangerous representative of the mosquito family has an oval-shaped body, the length of which can reach 10 mm. The eyes of a malaria mosquito are scalloped, consisting of a huge number of ommaditians. The wings of the insect are oval, strongly elongated, have many veins and two brown spots. The mosquito abdomen consists of a dozen segments, the last two of them are the outer part of the genital apparatus. Antennae and antennas located on a small head are used to touch, smell. The mosquito has three pairs of legs, ground beetles attached to the chest.

The arthropod mouth is a real stabbing tool. The lower lip of the mosquito is a thin tube that serves as a support for sharp stilettos. With the help of two pairs of jaws, the arthropod very quickly violates the integrity of the skin of the victim and absorbs blood through the tube of the lower lip. In males, in connection with the peculiarity of their nutrition, the pricking apparatus is atrophied.

Even an ordinary person, knowing some features, can visually determine - in front of him is a carrier of dangerous parasites or an ordinary mosquito-squeak.

  • in dangerous insects, the hind legs are much longer than the front ones, while in ordinary mosquitoes they are the same,
  • the back of the body of Anopheles is elevated, and the squeaks are located strictly parallel to the surface.

Scientists identify a number of differences that can only be noticed upon detailed examination by a specialist:

  • anopheles wings have scales and are covered with brown spots,
  • the length of the whiskers located next to the lower lip is greater in malaria mosquitoes than in ordinary representatives of the mosquito family.

Individuals living in hot countries are distinguished by their light color and small size; dark blue mosquitoes with a larger body are found in cool areas. Larvae of different species of anopheles also have differences in color and size.

Interesting fact: Before committing a bite, a malaria mosquito makes movements similar to a kind of dance.

Now you know what a malaria mosquito looks like. Let’s see where he is.

What does a malaria mosquito eat?

Photo: Large malaria mosquito

Females of these insects feed on blood, but not constantly, for example, after laying eggs, they switch to flower nectar, and this period is the safest for potential victims of a blood-sucking insect. Males never eat blood, they prefer the same nectar of flowering plants. Having bitten a patient with malaria, Anopheles becomes its carrier. For parasites, the mosquito is the main host, and the vertebrate is only intermediate.

Anopheles can winter in the form of fertilized females. Inside the female, malarial plasmodia cannot survive the winter, so the first mosquitoes after the winter are not carriers of malaria. In order for the female individual of the malaria mosquito to be able to infect again, she needs to drink the blood of the patient with malaria and after that live a couple of weeks for the parasites to form inside her. In Russia, this is unlikely, moreover, more than half of the females die within four days after the bite of an infected malaria.

Interesting fact: Anofeles within one second makes about 600 flaps of the wings, which are perceived by a person as a squeak. The sound made during the flight of males and females differs in height, adult individuals also squeak lower than young ones. The flight speed of the malaria mosquito exceeds 3 km per hour.

Features of character and lifestyle

Photo: Mosquito bite

Malaria mosquitoes are mostly active at night. To search for food, females do not need sunlight at all - they quickly find an object to attack even in the dark, focusing on infrared rays from the victim's body. Like all mosquitoes, they are very intrusive and do not lag behind for a long time until they do their job.

Anofeles is distinguished by endurance and great mobility. He is able to fly many kilometers without landing and rest. Large flights are mainly made by females in search of food, in which case they are capable of impressive march-throws of tens of kilometers. Males spend almost their entire lives in one place, most often on lawns with a large number of flowering plants.

In countries where a humid tropical climate is active all year round. In other habitats, individuals born at the end of summer and surviving hibernate until spring. To do this, they choose secluded places, they can even be found in human homes. With the first warmth they wake up. The average lifespan of a malaria mosquito is about 50 days.

There are a number of factors that can increase or shorten this period:

  • air temperature. The lower it is, the longer mosquitoes live,
  • with a lack of nutrition, insects live longer,
  • A sharp change in climate also shortens the life of Anopheles.

It was noted that the life cycle of malaria mosquitoes living in the forests is much shorter, since it is very difficult for a female to find food in such conditions.

Social structure and reproduction

Photo: Ural mosquito

The development of anopheles is the same as that of ordinary mosquito-squeaks and has the following stages:

The first three pass in water, lasting from six days to a couple of weeks. If the eggs are laid in a swampy pond, then the development period is shorter, since there is more food there and lasts from a week to two. Elevated temperatures of water and air also affect the rate of development.

Among malaria mosquitoes, sexual dimorphism is observed, as well as heterosexual individuals have different genital structures. Copulation occurs during swarming on the fly. Eggs mature inside the female within 2 to 20 days, depending on the climate. The most optimal temperature is 25-30 degrees - with it, maturation occurs in 2-3 days. After maturation, females of malaria mosquitoes rush to ponds to lay eggs. Laying is carried out in several approaches, the total number of eggs can reach 500 pieces.

A few days later, larvae emerge from the eggs. At the fourth stage of maturation, the larva molts and forms into a chrysalis, which do not feed at all throughout its existence. Pupae attach to the surface of the water, are able to make active movements and sink to the bottom of the reservoir, if disturbed. Young pups spend about two days in the pupal phase, and then imagoes fly out of them. It is noted that the development process of males is faster. In a day, adults are ready for breeding.

Natural enemies of malaria mosquitoes

Photo: What does a malaria mosquito look like?

The Anopheles have a lot of enemies, they are destroyed by leeches, snails, various worms, all aquatic insects. Mosquito larvae, being a favorite food of frogs, fish, die in huge numbers, not reaching the next stage of their development. Do not disdain them and birds that live on the surface of the water. There are some types of plants that also prey on adults, but they are found in the tropics.

In connection with the danger posed by malaria mosquitoes, in all countries where outbreaks of malaria are observed, special attention is paid to their destruction. This is done most often with the help of chemicals that process the places of their accumulation. Scientists are in search of the most effective way to combat anopheles. Even genetic engineering specialists are involved in solving this serious problem, since many types of malaria mosquitoes have already adapted to the chemicals used against them and multiply at an appalling pace.

Interesting fact: By means of a genetically modified fungus, scientists were able to destroy almost the entire population of Anopheles in an experimental setting. A modified fungus manages to destroy adult insects before they have produced their numerous offspring.

Population and species status

Photo: Mosquito

Due to the phenomenal fecundity and ability to survive even under extremely unfavorable conditions for insects, the status of the species of Anopheles is stable, despite the huge number of natural enemies in their habitats. The situation may change somewhat in the near future, when the latest genetic weapons will be launched into the fight against these bloodsucking. When using old methods to combat malaria mosquitoes, their population is restored in a short time, again claiming hundreds of thousands of human lives. The word "Anopheles" is not in vain translated as useless or harmful, since these creatures do not bear any benefit, only causing great harm.

After the elimination of malaria on the territory of the USSR in the middle of the 20th century, all of Russia was outside the range of malaria. In subsequent years, only imported cases of all types of malaria from other territories were recorded.In the 90s, due to the huge migration of the population and the lack of sufficient means to combat malaria, there was a surge in the incidence in the entire post-Soviet space. Later, this disease was imported from Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, where epidemics of malaria occurred several times. Today the situation is favorable.

Despite the fact that malaria mosquito mainly lives in hot countries, everyone should know what danger it carries, how to effectively defend against it. There are several reasons for this: firstly, due to a change in climate, these insects become habitable in new territories and may soon appear in the most unexpected places, and secondly, tourism in exotic countries is developing more and more actively every year.

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