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A dog, cat or other animal, unfortunately, cannot tell us when something hurts him, but it is extremely important to know about it in order to help the pet in time and effectively. How to understand that a dog is in pain, and how to help it?

What is pain and why is it important to relieve animal pain?

Pain is an unpleasant sensory or emotional experience associated with an existing or potential trauma.

The pain is acute and chronic.

If the pain is acute, it is almost always possible to eliminate its cause and thus relieve the dog of the pain. Acute pain must be stopped in the first 12 to 24 hours.

If the pain is chronic, it is about maintaining an acceptable quality of life for the dog, because chronic pain reduces the quality of life. Various treatment methods are used here, both medical and non-medical.

Why is it important to rid dogs of pain? The fact is that, in addition to the negative impact of the disease on the dog's body, pain aggravates the condition of the animal.

Of course, in the first place, this all applies to very strong or prolonged and debilitating pain.

That is, pain is not just some “inconvenience." Pain is the cause of serious physiological changes due to which the dog will recover much more slowly (if he recovers at all). And proper pain relief in the acute phase prevents the development of a syndrome called chronic pain.

How to understand that a dog is in pain?

There are symptoms that can help you understand that your dog is in pain:

  1. Rapid breathing.
  2. Cardiopalmus.
  3. Anxiety.
  4. The dog cannot sleep or wakes up constantly.
  5. The dog eats poorly or refuses to eat.
  6. Difficulty changing posture (for example, having difficulty getting up or lying down).
  7. Lameness, unwillingness to move.
  8. Lethargy.
  9. Apathy.
  10. The dog takes a strange pose (for example, is hunched over).
  11. Changes in the behavior of the dog, even minor (for example, irritability or sadness).

All this is a reason to beware. And if you notice one or more of these signs in your dog, contact your veterinarian as soon as possible!

Dog Pain Myths

Unfortunately, a significant part of dog lovers have popular myths about whether dogs experience pain and how. These myths have long been refuted by science, but, like all unscientific beliefs, they are extremely tenacious. What are these myths?

  1. This breed (pit bull, rottweiler, ... - substitute what you need) has a low pain threshold. Pain rock as such does not exist in principle. There is a system of antinociception. Antinociceptions are body mechanisms that allow you to anesthetize yourself, and without these mechanisms, any pain would cause a serious condition. This system is really differently developed in different representatives within the same species and differs even during the life of one individual. For example, in two people it can be developed in different ways, and in children, on average, it is better than in older people. And there are dogs that for a short period of time, when some serious stress factor is acting, will not experience severe pain. But after this stress factor is over (for example, after a fight), the dog will have a pronounced pain syndrome, and they need as much pain relief as everyone else.
  2. Nothing hurts dogs. However, dogs in some areas of the body have even more nerve endings than humans. Accordingly, with injuries of these areas (for example, the muzzle), the dog experiences more severe pain than, for example, a person with injuries to the face.
  3. The dog will tolerate, it's just a dog. People who adhere to this point of view, it is better not to approach animals.
  4. The leg will heal better if the dog does not step on it - which means painkillers are not needed so that the dog itself takes care of the leg. This is often said after fractures. But, for example, the veterinarian Tatyana Krasnova, speaking at the Pet’s Behavior-2018 conference, presented the results of studies that say that after surgery (osteosynthesis), functions should be preserved in full immediately after the operation (albeit using painkillers). That is, the dog can fully move. And if the veterinarian says that the dog should not step on his foot - did he correctly operate on it? Indeed, in the case when the dog does not step on the foot, a contracture develops and a number of physiotherapy procedures are needed to develop the leg later.

How to relieve dog pain at home?

Unfortunately, at home it is extremely difficult to alleviate the pain of the dog (and not harm it). Nevertheless, it is possible to alleviate the condition of the pet to some extent.

  1. Apply ice to the injury area or massage with ice cubes. It is better to use not tap water, but frozen chlorhexidine.
  2. Consult with your veterinarian over the phone if you can use pain medication and which one.

And be sure urgently take your pet to the vet clinicto be examined by a specialist!

There are diseases that cannot be cured (and the dog’s pain cannot be relieved) at home on their own.

How can an owner harm a dog?

If you treat the dog yourself, you can, without wanting to, hurt the pet greatly. The main mistakes of the owners in an independent attempt to relieve the dog pain:

  1. Give “human” medicine. Many medicines that help people are deadly for dogs!
  2. Give drugs that the veterinarian prescribed at an earlier stage of the disease or with other diseases, when new symptoms appear.
  3. Do not seek help from a veterinarian when a dog is in pain.

How to understand dog behavior

Situation analysis instead of labeling

Pay attention to how we evaluate a dog’s behavior in a given situation. For example, about a dog barking at someone, we say: “the dog is aggressive” or “the dog is shy.” Often people label themselves: “the dog hates people” or “the dog dominates” or “the dog feels its power and scares on purpose”, etc.

A typified assessment of the dog’s behavior in various situations is also related to the fact that we are not used to believing that many factors influence the behavior of the dog in each specific situation. Moreover, the dog is actively involved in communication with others, and its reactions are the result of such communication.

The dog’s reactions largely depend on how other participants in the events behave and in what environment they meet. Therefore, to understand the behavior of the dog and eliminate the cause of the problems is possible only if its behavior is evaluated comprehensively. But this approach is often ignored. Thus, all dogs that react uneasily in a given situation are immediately declared problematic: “the dog is afraid of guests”, “the dog does not like men”, “the dog does not allow to walk along the corridor”, “the dog is aggressive towards the postman”, “the dog does not fit the call "," the dog barks at the fence ", etc. It turns out that the unwanted behavior of the dog is immediately considered a global behavior problem requiring correction. Although in reality it is a flexible reaction in a very specific situation.

For a comprehensive assessment, the owner should not fix attention only on the behavior of his dog. He must learn to observe those to whom her reaction is directed. The owner must also be able to evaluate their own behavior. So, he gradually learns to see the situation through the eyes of a dog.

It turns out that in each situation, the owner should try to analyze a certain triangle as quickly as possible: the dog’s behavior - his own behavior - the behavior of the person to whom the dog’s reaction is directed. I call this triangle magic. It makes it possible to surprisingly easily and accurately understand what is the matter, and adequately respond to the situation. In addition, the magic triangle relieves me of misconceptions about some problems of dog behavior and therefore does not cripple our relations with misunderstanding. The magic triangle relieves me of erroneous reactions, from which my dog ​​would understand that I am not oriented in the situation. But it is precisely the owner’s adequate reactions to the dog’s behavior that lead to trusting relationships!

Dog: a universal set of signals

To understand the dog, remember the signals of reconciliation and some rules of perception in dogs.

Dogs feel uncomfortable or even scared if someone speaks to them in a low voice or vice versa, squeals. A harsh voice displeases them.

Chaotic or too fast movements cause them a state of stress.

Dogs do not like people with too motionless bodies. A motionless, as if a frozen body and scanty facial expression frightens not only dogs, but also ourselves. A little self-observation in contact with other people will help you make sure of this.

Too uncertain movements of the social partner lead the dog to a state of awkwardness, confusion. We also know this state by ourselves. Which person do you feel more comfortable with - confident or timid and timid?

It is very important for dogs that other dogs observe etiquette, for example, during the greeting procedure. They are nervous if someone is approaching them directly (polite dogs approach each other in an arc), if a stranger or a dog looks directly into their eyes, if someone hangs over them, strokes their heads, hugs, etc. . Studies show that a dog's stress levels increase if a partner builds communication without following reconciliation signals.

Each dog has its own individual distance, and if this distance is violated by individuals who are not trustworthy, the dog is nervous.

Many dogs tend to protect their resources from the strangers, the owner's house and all with whom they live. They also tend to protect their resources from family members who have not earned trust.

Dogs are very worried if they are not provided with sufficient opportunities to satisfy their interest in some object or phenomenon, as well as enough to communicate with relatives. The problem becomes most acute if the dog is never allowed to communicate with others at all and rarely is given freedom of action. This makes them very frustrated and makes them emotionally unbalanced.

The dog’s reactions to one or another stimulus largely depend on their general condition: patience, emotional balance, state of health (especially the presence of pain), and stress level. Thus, a dog that has fallen under stress will react more sharply than a dog in a calm state.

It is important that the dog has as little stress as possible. This condition is ensured by good care by the owner. We must not forget that such seemingly insignificant things as clothes, muzzles, collars, leashes and, of course, various training auxiliary tools strongly influence the dog: halties, strict collars, noises, etc. Therefore, in the new cynology, the principle of a naked dog applies. This means that they don’t put anything on the dog, that is, she walks naked. The only exceptions are situations when she just needs to put on a harness (while walking) and, possibly, clothes in the rain or frost. Dogs easily get used to such equipment - provided that it is comfortable and does not hinder movement. No training aids are used, as they necessarily (as conceived by their creators) have a traumatic effect on the dog, modern teaching methods and the maintenance of these tools do not require.

The leash should be long enough so that the dog has enough space for easy communication with others, so that it can stay at a convenient distance from the owner and from people and dogs they meet (see the article For a walk).

The owner: how much do you behave like a dog?

If you well remember the universal set of dog signals, you can easily understand what behavior your dog is waiting for you. In addition, the owner must be predictable from the point of view of the dog. It means:

The owner should always be friendly. There is no reason to be rude to a dog.

Before changing direction on a walk, tell the dog with a look or gesture where you are going to go. Instead of mechanically pulling a dog along a leash, learn to call it after you: a dog is not a toy car. If you want her to consider you part of her family, communicate with her just as you would with other family members.

In unpleasant situations, for example, when meeting with another dog, you do not need to pull the leash, move randomly and shout at the dog - this creates fear in her and leads to hatred of other dogs. Such communication will show you how uncomfortable automatic flexi roulettes are, which constantly have an additional mechanical effect on the dog. Learn to relax the hand in which you hold the leash. This is especially useful for owners who have noticed an instinctive tendency to tug on a leash in order to influence the dog’s behavior. Instead, relax yourself and call the dog, point your hand where to go next. Gradually, the habit of pulling will go away, the leash will turn into a free thread, holding the dog back where it cannot be let go.

The misfortune of the dog breeder of traditional cynology is that he is specially trained to pull the leash in order to “effectively control” the dog. Moreover, there are training methods in which the "adjustment" of the leash is given particularly important attention. These methods are based on the fact that dogs are very sensitive to the effects of a leash. However, they do not take into account at least the psychological side of the dog’s perception: the dog begins to perceive the leash as a kind of unpredictable factor. Therefore, jerks and other manipulations frighten and disorient her. You have the opportunity to feel the mechanical unpredictable impact. For example, ask your friend to walk around the city with you by the arm. Arrange with him that he abruptly change direction without saying anything. Your friend will pull you aside and push you at each turn, forcing you to shudder. Soon you will cease to enjoy the walk and concentrate on waiting for new unpleasant sensations.

Learn to be calm and not exaggerate the danger of a particular situation. Otherwise, your fear will cause too violent emotions and make you pull the leash or scream at the dog. Be relaxed and friendly. Naturally, far from always the owner manages to remain calm. But you still need to strive for this. Or you will have to rely on your dog to overcome your negative mood and not behave as well as you could.

How you behave depends on how the dog will generally respond to you, to your signals (a call, finger pointing, an invitation to follow you, a request to sit down, step aside or just distract from the irritant, etc.). Do not try to value your relationship with the dog based on physical impact, commands, or any “instructions for using the dog.” Do not try to ignore your feelings for the dog and the feelings of the dog towards you. Otherwise, your relationship will become too confused and the interaction will be fraught with a host of problems.

Your behavior in any situation creates the basis for a social connection with the dog. Of course, such a relationship is built throughout life together, and communication during problem situations is, as it were, the result of work done over the entire previous life.On the other hand, your behavior in each situation shows the dog how much you have changed. So it's never too late to change. It: a third party, event or subject to which the dog’s reaction is directed

Once you have learned the basics of dog perception well and become accustomed to observing yourself, your dog, and the object that the dog’s reaction is directed at, you will immediately understand a lot.

As a rule, postmen enter the house at a quick pace, quickly give out mail and quickly delete. They do not care that your dog would be pleased if they approached in an arc, moved more slowly, and did not break directly. Dogs, especially shy, such habits often lead to hysteria.

There are dogs who do not like guests - they are afraid of them or try to drive them away, guarding the house. In this case, they become stressed whenever guests arrive. They need special therapy and measures to regulate the situation.

But hostility can show even a hospitable dog. Such a dog is unfriendly only to individuals. Knowing the dog’s perception, you can determine why your dog is nervous when this or that person comes. I always give my dog ​​the opportunity to rate a guest. However, she knows for sure that her assessment should not be expressed too violently - she trusts me. Her reactions were only variations of emotions - from a warm welcome to indifference. True, sometimes the dog was frightened and clogged under the sofa. At first I believed in a certain mystical nature of such a reaction, until I learned to recognize completely specific signals sent by a guest. Recently, several workers brought furniture to us. The dog reacted to each worker in his own way - depending on how each of them stayed.

Cyclists, runners, skiers, etc.

Most often, cyclists and runners rush past at high speed. This behavior annoys many dogs. Of course, you can teach a dog to cyclists. But we cannot always guarantee that the dog will remain calm in any situation. For example, in the dark, dogs are more irritable than in daylight, a dog that the cyclist approaches directly on a narrow path will naturally be more nervous than if he sweeps a long distance or the dog has the opportunity to move a safe distance in advance.

Until recently, I was sure that my dog ​​always calmly misses cyclists. But once a cyclist suddenly jumped out at us from around the corner, when we were already a few meters from the turn. The dog naturally barked.

Is it worth being annoyed in this case with the dog? Of course not. The dog did nothing wrong - she just reacted as any of us would. Calm her and move on. But for some reason people consider such a rare reaction to be a problem. They do not allow the dog to react at all, as if it cannot have emotions. This is probably why it is widely believed that a dog should be suppressed so that

she was just afraid to show herself. The problem of suppression again leads us to talk about the methods of traditional cynology and the problems associated with them. However, even with suppression there is no guarantee that the dog will never show his emotions, even in the most unexpected situations. Such a training simply does not exist.

When we say that a dog does not like children, we need to clarify: “in which case does it react poorly to children?”

If the dog always strains when communicating with the child, it is necessary to analyze the situation in the family, since the relationship of children and dogs largely depends on the behavior of the parents. Maybe the dog is not sufficiently socialized with the children or scared by them. Perhaps some mistakes were made, and the dog had negative associations with the child (for example, when a child appeared, the dog was ignored, locked in a cage, walking less, etc.). Here we are dealing with a problem that must be addressed at different levels.

But there are times when the dog does not like children, only when they make noise or adhere to the dog for too long.

Until a certain age, children do not understand the language of the dog. They do not understand when a dog asks them to move away because they are tired of communication. This leads to an escalation of tension and aggression. In these cases, you just need to separate the dog from the children until everyone calms down. There are still a lot of parents who believe that a dog is obliged to endure children - because it is just a dog and is obliged to endure a child. This installation is as stupid as the installation that the dog can be kept in check by suppression. Both errors lead to new problems. In the case of children, however, suppression can make the dog extremely intolerant of the child, that is, truly dangerous. Therefore, in various situations, responding to the dog’s “leave me alone” signals is much more profitable (for more details, see the article Dog and Child).

Note: if your dog has learned to communicate well with others, it is still excited by the sight of another dog if it violates the rules of communication. At the same time, dogs cannot evaluate why their relative is impolite. Often, the aggression of another dog is caused by the behavior of its owner. If during a walk you see a dog on a too short leash or in a strict collar, you can be quite sure that aggression can be expected from approaching it. A dog will behave aggressively, which the owner has drawn too much to himself, not allowing him to get to know your dog. Dogs with a depressed mood or those with a master who is treated rudely right on a walk can also be unpredictable.

From observing your dog for a walk, try to answer the question: who needs treatment - your dog or the one you meet? Or maybe the owner of the oncoming dog is to blame for everything? Or are you yourself - with your strict collar, noose, short leash and wild emotions?

For a pleasant meeting, dogs need a little: enough space (leash 3 meters), comfortable, painless, harness and calmness of the owners. To create a pleasant atmosphere, the hosts can also say hello to each other and exchange a few words. Such a greeting will also help you evaluate the sociality of the oncoming dog, since adequate dogs belong to adequate people. In addition, dogs adopt the mood of the owners and relax themselves.

Observations show that as soon as the leash ceases to act and the dogs are left to their own devices in a fairly large space, they usually find ways to coexist peacefully. We used to live in a city located on the banks of a river. The shore was a large meadow, the vastness of which was provided to dogs and their owners. Our dogs did not know the leashes. They walked and talked freely. Peaceful relations between dogs were the norm. Therefore, the owners did not know what dog aggression is. Moreover, in different parts of the city, on different sections of the meadow, there were groups of dogs and owners, but the culture of peaceful communication of dogs was widespread everywhere. According to one of the dog lovers, out of 50 dogs in the district, only 5 had problems with relatives.

In the center of the metropolis, it is difficult to imagine such a situation: the owners must drive the dog on a leash. At the same time, the owners have no idea what to do when one dog meets another. Many fear the aggression of another dog and forbid their dog to say hello. Someone did not manage to socialize their dog. Someone has no desire to wait for the dogs to say hello.

Most owners deal with a leash arbitrarily: someone pulls, someone drags the dog along, someone pulls it so tightly that the dog does not have a meter for at least some communication signals. Then she starts to get nervous. At this moment, the owner thinks that his dog is aggressive and should not be allowed to reach others. As a result, at each new meeting the dog is even more nervous. Therefore, the "control" of the dog by pulling up can only last as long as the owner is able to cope with it physically. Further, he will probably want to use stronger restraining tools, for example, a strict collar or a noose. The use of soft harnesses seems absurd to him. Although the situation is resolved precisely by harnesses and the lack of pressure from the owner. The modern method for solving this problem is to normalize the social behavior of both the dog and its owner. In many cases, it is enough to simply replace the strict collar with harness and stop attracting the dog to itself during a meeting with another. Sometimes I manage to save the situation if I start a dialogue with the owner of another dog. I try to assure him that we ourselves are not dangerous and ask permission to say hello to his dog (for more details: article On a walk).

For a long time I was convinced that my dog ​​does not like dogs. But once we met a husky male who literally charmed my dog. His movements were soft and unhurried. He always very politely and neatly performed the rituals of greeting. As a person, I probably could not understand all the subtleties of the relationship between my dog ​​and husky. But after this acquaintance, I began to purposefully observe the behavior of oncoming dogs and the reaction of my dog. So, I found out that she does not like young, energetic animals that fly at her like a hurricane. She also does not like impolite dogs who do not care to say hello to a meeting. Now, only in some cases, I am not able to understand the dislike of dogs. But I calmly relate to this ignorance: dogs understand dog language better than people. It is a fact!

Do not rush to ascribe dislike to men to your dog. Perhaps the dog is confused by the behavior of not all men, but of a specific man or type of man (posture, voice, manner of moving).

If a dog needs to constantly communicate with a man of the “unloved” type, it would be nice to teach him to behave more politely towards the dog (use reconciliation signals). Then the dog will be able to quickly get used to it and not so sensitively react to its features.

If during the course of socialization you train a dog to communicate with men, choose different types of men - both “polite” from the point of view of the dog and “impolite”.

If a frightening man is just a guest and there is no point in wasting time training, help your dog deal with the situation.

Recently, a group of rather temperamental people came to us in the case. My dog ​​was very worried. She lay on her bed and breathed heavily, constantly watching us. I kept coming up to the dog: stroking it and treating it. We had Kong and other chewing toys at our disposal. When everyone dispersed, we made a pleasant, relaxing walk.

Think in advance how you will help the dog in case she has to endure an unpleasant contact! Do not think that your dog will immediately bloom and become non-independent (see the article Support or pampering).

The corridors are narrow. Moreover, the individual distance of a dog to a certain person depends on its trust in him. If the dog does not trust someone who is trying to walk past her along the corridor, she may growl. No matter how unpleasant, try not to be rude to the dog. If you show a signal of reconciliation (for example, turn your head to the side, turn sideways, isolate yourself from the dog with some object, for example, a bag), the dog will calm down and skip.

When the situation is overcome, it is necessary to consider what scares the dog in human behavior in everyday life. Maybe he is too rude with the dog? Or is it a new person that the dog is not used to yet? Perhaps unpleasant changes in the family are associated with its appearance, for example, a decrease in attention to the dog? The warmer the relationship, the less likely it is that the dog will be scared of this person in a limited space.

Our dogs are well aware of how this or that person relates to them. They know this even when a person simply thinks about the dog badly. We are not able to determine now by what signs the dog understands his attitude to himself. Therefore, if your dog does not like someone, just ask if this person loves dogs, and if not, what is his dislike about, is it possible to make friends after all - or is it better to teach each of them to observe the rules of formal politeness?

A simple walk through the village confirms the generally accepted opinion: dogs like to bark at passers-by because of the fence. They create so much noise that walking in the countryside becomes unpleasant - over and over the ears barks of different voices.

If you want your dog not to bark at the fence, ask yourself questions: is she too bored? How often does she walk, play, chat with other dogs and people? Do you communicate with her enough? Is she alone? How many hours a day does she have to spend in the garden?

If the dog’s life is inferior, it develops symptoms of stress - including restless barking for any reason, forced behavior, such as digging holes and running along the same path - symptoms that show stress in many dogs living outside the city.

A dog is able to calmly watch passers-by behind a fence only when its emotions are in balance and the dog lives a normal, full-fledged life.

No doubt: any dog ​​may be interested in something on the street, where the fence does not let her. Not every dog ​​can calmly withstand the sight of a squirrel jumping in the trees or the sight of chickens grazing in front of the gate. If you know exactly what stimulus causes a violent reaction, you can train your dog, treat him calmer.

Dogs that feel loved by their family are very sensitive to their owner’s signals. Therefore, they can easily understand that the owner does not like their reaction, and they try to remain calm. In addition, in an unpleasant situation, the owner can simply recall the dog to the house or distract her with a more meaningful activity.

It is only important that the stimulus behind the fence is another dog, a person, etc. - did not turn out to be an eternal forbidden fruit. Forbidden fruits - this is what causes irritation, as it is necessary, but not available. Moreover, what happens behind the fence should not be the only thing that the dog perceives in his boring, lonely life in a limited area.

The dog does not fit the call

My observations show that when the owner needs to call the dog, he does everything possible to scare her away. There are several scare options. Some owners scream louder and stricter. Others run after the dog, as if playing with it. Still others try to call her with short, sharp sounds that are completely unlike a call (the dog often does not respond to them due to the peculiarities of its perception). When your dog does not come to you, think about whether the dog really thinks your call is a call (for more details, see the book Beyond the Leash)?

Dog pulls on a leash

Any dog ​​needs to be trained to walk on a relaxed leash. Just because dogs most often cannot control their emotions, adjust their speed to the speed of the owner and put up with movement restrictions. In some cases, it is helpful to train your dog to walk nearby.

However, the ability to walk on a relaxed leash primarily depends on how the dog feels on the leash. With a poor social connection with the owner, the dog tries to stay away from him (pulls on a leash). All factors of severe stress lead to this, since severe stress causes an increase in motor activity.A stressed dog has less control over its emotions. Please note: collars that cause pain cause a state of panic. A short leash causes a desire to move away from the owner. All these factors are not taken into account, as a rule, in the traditional teaching of dogs obedience. If we take them into account, there would be nothing special to train: the dog quickly learns to adjust its pace to the pace of the owner and tries to orient its movement on it (for more details, see the book Turid Rugos. My dog ​​pulls on a leash. What should I do?).

The magic triangle helps us solve the problem of fear of separation. A dog is a social animal, and it is difficult for her to be alone. Loneliness causes stress. To cope with this stress, the dog must become mature enough and developed. In this she is helped by general developmental exercises (for example, developmental games), improving social communication with the owner, as well as special exercises for parting. The duration of loneliness must be appropriate for the dog. So, many dogs calmly endure up to 5 hours of loneliness, but panic if they are forced to sit at home all day. At the same time, the duration of loneliness is gained by training and greatly depends on the individual qualities of the dog. The place where the dog stays

she should be pleased and guarantee security. Such a place may be, for example, the apartment of the owner.

In this case, the magic triangle will look like this: a developed, confident, calm dog - the owner, who considers his dog to be part of the family and strengthens his connection with him - the time of loneliness and the place where the dog should remain alone, as well as other factors. But, as a rule, the qualities of the dog itself and the quality of its connection with the owner are forgotten. From this, the solution to the problem of the fear of separation becomes less effective.

Learning the dog’s perception and reacting correctly in various situations is quite simple - provided that you don’t perceive the dog as something alienated and insensitive. You will need some time and observation. But you can believe me: your work will pay off, because life with a dog will become more calm and joyful.

Dog paralysis

Paralysis is a violation of the motor function of one muscle or muscle group. With this disease, there is no sensitivity in the affected area, and the transmission and execution of commands by the nervous system becomes impossible. The cause of this violation may be malfunctions of both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Peripheral paralysis is characterized by immobilization of one side of the organ due to trauma to nerve tissue.

Paralysis of the central nervous system often affects paired organs, but can occur in any organ of the animal (muzzle, ears, tail, lower jaw, bladder, and muscles of the rectum). The result of paralysis, as a rule, is its atrophy. This disease is treated successfully at the initial stage and is intense and prolonged. The causes and methods of treating paralysis are determined by the veterinarian.

Dog Epilepsy

A nervous system disease characterized by regularly recurring seizures is called epilepsy. According to veterinarians, seizures of dogs only vaguely resemble epilepsy. They last from a few seconds to several minutes. The attack begins with a fall and convulsive twitching in the air of all limbs. During a seizure, the animal has a glazed look and copious saliva. At the end of the attack, the dog may still whirl for a while, stumble over various obstacles, but then returns to its normal state. It is noteworthy that most animals feel guilty towards their owners.

Sometimes seizures happen in very frequent series, which leads to death from heart failure, and sometimes breaks between them can be several years. To date, the causes of epilepsy in dogs have not been established, but it is noticed that only some breeds are prone to this disease.

Causes of Attacks dogs can be very different: a brain tumor, poisoning, a disease affecting the brain, canine rabies and meningitis. Epileptic seizures are sometimes caused by a brain injury, but can also be hereditary - for example, in a golden retriever. In addition to treating the underlying disease, dogs with regular seizures should be given medications for convulsions - phenobarbital, etc. (on the recommendation of a veterinarian).

Dog concussion

The main functions of the skull in a dog, as in humans, are to protect the brain from all kinds of damage. A concussion in an animal can occur as a result of various injuries resulting from possible falls from a height, traffic accidents, severe headaches. This condition is characterized by a temporary loss of consciousness and a disturbance in the brain, strabismus, vomiting and dizziness may appear.

Often the animal has a staggering gait and impaired coordination of movement. If the injury is not severe, then after a maximum of three days of rest, the dog returns to normal. Due to a strong blow, blood vessels sometimes burst, which leads to cerebral hemorrhage. If the hemorrhage is extensive, then this can lead to the death of the animal. Inspection of a veterinarian in such cases is required.

Dog Spinal or Brain Inflammation

The causes of inflammation of the spinal cord or brain can be complications after various infectious diseases (rabies, false rabies, encephalitis) or injuries with subsequent inflammatory processes.

Symptoms diseases are various disorders of consciousness (aggressiveness, depression, inadequate reaction to what is happening), as well as impaired motor function of the animal’s body. The recovery process is long, the consequences of the disease can be of varying severity, from blindness and deafness to paralysis of individual limbs. Assessing the severity of the damage to the body, one often has to make a decision on the advisability of continuing the life of the dog.

Nervous breakdowns can be triggered by the condition of the spinal cord or nerves suitable for it. In rocks with a long back, slippage of the intervertebral disc occurs. The vertebrae are separated by shock absorbing soft cartilaginous discs, which are held by ligaments. When the ligaments are weakened, the disk moves from its place and squeezes the spinal cord. This causes back pain, paralyzes the hind legs, and sometimes all four legs (if the disc is in the cervical region).

Dog character - dominant or dominant

If we talk about such a moment as the correction of the dog’s behavior, first of all, it’s worth understanding what type of character the dog has.

  1. Dominant character. So the dominant behavior of the dog is unique to leaders - the animal recognizes only the leader of the pack, the main member of the family and will be subordinate to his commands, treating loyally or ignoring the commands of all other family members. Such an animal will strive to dominate its pack, but with competent training and education it is possible to correct a dog with such an attitude.
  2. Recessive - in this case, the behavior of dogs with a person does not come from the position of gaining a leading position in the pack, but with the condition of submission and equality between all family members.

Learning to understand your pet

Before raising the question of the need to adjust the dog’s behavior in one direction or another, each owner should understand his pet, what triggered his behavior and only then make a decision on how to fix it, correcting it in one direction or another.

  1. Joy - the manifestation for both an adult dog and a puppy will be the same. The dog will jump on the person, lick his face and hands, run fun and bark around the owner. Her behavior can manifest itself and an invitation to play, the animal will bring toys.
  2. Goodwill. In this case, the physiological basis of the animal’s behavior is laid in its character from the very beginning - the dog’s goodwill is determined not only by the conditions of feeding, nutrition or other external factors, but also by the breed and character. The dog shows its location, the benevolence of the dog by wagging its tail, the body of the animal is relaxed, its ears are slightly raised, but rather express curiosity.
  3. Dominance. The dog shows its dominant inclinations clearly and clearly - it is not difficult to understand them. First of all, this is expressed in increased sexual activity, jumping on the owner and family members as during estrus or rutting. If the animal takes away toys, food from other dogs is a clear leader and the training will help to correct such behavior, installation on submission to the owner, correct understanding by the person of the physiology of the pet.
  4. Aggression. In this case, the dog as a born aggressor, due to its nature, breed or conditions of detention, will exhibit aggressive behavior with loud barking and throwing at the owner or other animals, trying to bite. In this case, a training course is required - it can differ from the standard program, if there is a need, then the use of other methods of influencing the animal, for example, taking sedatives.
  5. Attack readiness - in this case, the behavior of the animal may resemble the behavior of a friendly dog, but ... There are differences in its behavior - the dog will wag its tail with a lower amplitude, keeping it raised up, the body will be tilted forward, the front legs are wide apart.
  6. Manifestation of submission. The behavior of dogs in this case involves a demonstration of their abdomen. The behavior of the dog on the street or at home when meeting an adult, larger individual will be unambiguous - the animal allows itself to sniff, lie down on its stomach and show its stomach as the most unprotected place. Such behavior is inherent in young dogs, puppies, which are unable or cannot, for one reason or another, take a dominant position in the pack.
  7. Fatigue. To understand each pet, just watch its behavior for each owner - the physiology of the behavior of a tired animal is similar to human behavior. Their behavior will manifest itself in slow and heavy movements, a constant desire to sit down or lie down.
  8. Fear and stress. So the behavior of the animal under stress can vary - trembling in the body, attempts to escape or hide behind the feet of the owner, the manifestation of aggression, up to involuntary urination. Just take the animal home, calm down. The main thing to remember is that you should not lick and caress the animal in a state of fear, because in the future it may form an inadequate attitude to the source of fear and stress.

Dog behavior reactions and their importance in breeding

Practicing dog handlers and experienced dog breeders identify specific reactions to dog behavior - some will help to control and correct training, a correctly selected method of correcting behavior in the form of encouragement, restriction or the use of medication, sedatives.

  • Food reaction. The predominant behavior reactions in dogs put food in the first place - food for each animal is the basis of life, taking part in the formation of many behavioral models of the animal as one of the external factors of influence.

Hunger will provoke the animal to search and obtain food - it is the food reaction that is the most ancient, instinctive form of behavior. If the animal forms certain behaviors using food as an irritant, such conditioned reflexes will be long-lasting and strong. Dog training using a food reaction is effective and practical.

  • The basics of dog behavior include in its physiology and defensive response - it can be both congenital and acquired reflexes aimed at ridding the animal of danger, threat, pain. Each dog displays it in its own way - it will be easy for the owner to understand them, but it will manifest itself in 3 variations. First of all, it is an active defensive position, then an evil-cowardly reaction, or, as it is called by dog ​​handlers, a mixed form, as well as its passive manifestation.
  • Indicative reaction. For dogs, such a reaction can and will manifest itself when it enters an unfamiliar habitat, an unusual environment, a new place. this is a normal reaction and just let the pet get used to the new realities without taking any measures.
  • Search reaction. It is it that is directly determined by the physiology and innate reflexes of the animal - to search and find, acting as an important condition for survival in the nature of the dog. Despite the fact that modern pets live in apartments and comfortable houses, the need to look for food or to pursue game has disappeared, but the instinct at the subconscious level still remains. In particular, the training of service dog breeds is directly related to its innate instinct to seek and find, using instinct.
  • Behavioral Attachment Reaction. From time immemorial, a dog has formed centuries-old relationships of affection with people and, as a result, understands its owner, having formed today a complex system of reflexes, innate and acquired, manifesting themselves in the form of a joyful bark and affection for a specific person, the desire to be with him constantly and protect against any manifestation external threat. Strange behavior of the dog, inadequate and aggressive, constant manifestation of fear - these are the consequences when the attachment as such has not formed and the question naturally arises of adjusting its behavior.

What is the reason for the dog’s bad behavior

When deciding which training method will help correct the inappropriate, negative behavior of a dog, the root cause that provoked it should also be considered.

Behavior and characters in dogs are always different, but certain reasons are capable of forming certain of its best or worst reflexes and manifestations in everyday life. Experienced dog handlers say that there is always a reason that a dog behaves badly - the animal will not spoil furniture or bark for no reason. And often there are several such reasons - before taking a dog training course with a dog, adjusting its behavior, it is worth eliminating such root causes.

  • Wrong breed choice. Each owner, choosing a puppy, should take into account the characteristics of the breed. If you are a calm person who does not accept fights - a fighting breed of dogs will definitely not suit you, if you are constantly busy at work - pay attention to an active pet, you simply cannot train it.
  • Lack of team reinforcement during the training process. Dog training in its fundamentals prescribes the rule - each team, the correct behavior of the pet, must be supported, whether it is a treat or praise, the weasel of the owner. If the animal has performed something illegal, its behavior should not be ignored by the owner. That is how the optimal behavior of the animal is formed, its coexistence in the family - the pack, submission to the owner.
  • Own sloppiness of the owner. In this case, just ask yourself - are you always careful, do you play with your pet with your toe or glove? If at home you always leave personal things scattered on the floor at the disposal of the dog, then you should not be surprised why the dog constantly bites your slippers or pulls socks to holes.Put things in order in your house and you will put things in order in the behavior of your pet.
  • Incorrect pet maintenance in the house. As experienced dog handlers note, the needs of the animal can not only shape its character and behavior, but also interfere with this process. In practice, they can be divided into the following groups:
  1. livelihood needs. In this case, we are talking about the simplest things and it is not difficult to understand them - this is the desire to drink and eat, defend your territory and sleep, move and experience positive emotions. If the animal does not adequately satisfy its needs — in the best case, its behavior will deviate from generally accepted norms, in the worst case it will lead to the death of the animal,
  2. social needs. A dog is a living creature, experiencing the need for reproduction and parental care, its territory and personal space, the formation of a pack in accordance with all the provisions of the hierarchy,
  3. need for development - This is freedom of movement and imitation, playing and receiving new information.

The corrector of the dog’s behavior in the basics of training provides - to get rid of bad behavior, it is enough to identify and eliminate the root cause of its occurrence. It is the dissatisfaction of a particular need that leads to poor behavior - offer the animal the right way to satisfy it, thereby forming the basics of the correct behavior in the animal. To eliminate a dog’s unwanted behavior provoked by an unmet need, such as food or communication with relatives, is simpler and easier than controlling its unmotivated future behavior.

  • Wrong diet. Another reason why a dog in the house can be scandalous. Often an unbalanced diet and a lack of certain components leads to the fact that the dog begins to gnaw the plaster, lick off the chalk, gnaw the leaves of indoor flowers, or with a twisted appetite, there is everything in a row, without going over, its behavior is inadequate. In this case, it is worth revising the diet - if it is full, then show the animal to the doctor, since many diseases, such as a stomach ulcer or gastritis, gastric colitis or worms can provoke inappropriate behavior of the animal.
  • The dog has a special physiological state. Physiology most directly determines the behavior of dogs. So a pregnant female or with a false pregnancy can often dig a hole for future litter, create a nest, pulling all the rags and soft things into a corner. If the dog has severe hunger or the animal was chronically undernourished earlier, then it will constantly drag in quietly or open food from your table, beg for it even if it had eaten well before. And when changing milk teeth for permanent puppy can bite your shoes or furniture - these points should be taken into account, as well as the fact that you are not able to fix them, but it is quite possible to correct them by offering, for example, a puppy a bone for games, and a puppy bitch - a cozy couch.
  • The age of the dog. Dog behavior reactions change with age. So the puppy looks at the world in his own way, perceiving the environment in a new way - he plays and learns, forms his character, his position in the pack. If this is already an adult animal in years, his behavior will be more calm, oriented to rest, rather than outdoor games and knowledge of the world.

When is it necessary to correct the behavior of dogs?

If the owner is not able to adjust the behavior of his aggressive pet and the first one poses a serious threat to the person, the problems that have arisen will help to address the appeal to specialists and take a course of training, behavior correction. First of all, it is worth showing your pet to the veterinarian and cynologist, zoologist - they will help determine the root cause of deviations in the behavior of the animal, its aggression, by creating a correction program.

So experts - zoologists note that the correction of the dog’s behavior can be carried out using a course of training, a program to eliminate the root causes and correction of the animal’s behavior, its medical treatment and even castration.

In practice, cynologists distinguish such stages of correction of animal behavior.

  1. First of all, it is worth building a relationship with a dog in tandem Man - Dog, replacing the existing one, Dog - Man, when your pet in the house defended its dominant role as the pack leader.
  2. Further, with the help of any sound signal, namely, an audible, but not at all force, blow, suppress each inappropriate behavior of an animal. It can be a whistle or a loud clap of hands - the main thing is without the use of physical force, which can aggravate the situation and aggression of the pet.
  3. Further, each correct act, the behavior of the animal should be encouraged - it can be a treat, as well as stroking and praising the pet.
  4. To fully consolidate the results obtained, take a training course with an experienced dog handler. We will correct the behavior of the animal in this case by not just transferring the dog to the care of a dog handler, but by working with it in pairs, attending each training lesson, and completing each task of the correction course and pet training. This will not only consolidate the results, but also build a trusting, strong relationship between the dog and the owner.

Adjust the dog’s behavior on its own

Each owner of a dog, regardless of breed, must understand that the aggression of an animal is formed, first of all, by the improper upbringing of a pet from the first days of its stay in your house. First of all, the dog does not understand its place in the hierarchy of the pack - only the leader must control what, where and when occurs, the behavior of all the wards and strangers.

When a dog occupies a leading position in the house, it is quite possible in the future that it will show its aggression in the future. But this behavior should be corrected at the first manifestations of aggression on the part of your pet.

First of all, deprive your pet of all the attributes that belong to the leader of the pack:

  • leader leads the pack - while walking, the dog pulls on the leash of the owner. In this case, training prescribes to train the animal to go next to the owner, keep up with him or a little, half his head, behind. The behavior of the dog on the street should be controlled by the owner,
  • the leader always eats first. In this case, it is worth forming a disposition in which family members first eat and only then - give the dog a bowl of food,
  • the leader takes a favorite, most comfortable place - an armchair, a bed. In this case, it is worth giving the dog only one place to sleep and rest, his litter - if the pet stubbornly takes the place of the owner, grab the collar, remove the leader from the place and take it to its litter,
  • leader guards his property - a bowl of food or toys, while taking away toys from others. In this case, it is worth accustoming the dog to the fact that any family member can take her household items, toys - just pick them up for a couple of minutes in your hands and give them back to the dog. If the animal takes your things and toys - suppress such behavior.

In addition, the owners should understand and teach their pet to the fact that any kindness, delicacy or an exciting game should be deserved. It is impossible to get it just like that - it must be well-deserved obedience to the animal, submission to a member of the pack, or the execution of a command. Among other things, when removing the dog’s aggression and adjusting its behavior, it’s worth remembering one indispensable rule - playing with a pet, giving him food or a treat, his favorite toy is always the leader, the owner and leader of the pack should be at least a few centimeters from the animal. This will form a dog’s understanding and awareness that it is you who are the leader and leader of the pack, because even in nature, larger and stronger individuals always occupied the highest position in the hierarchy.

Shaping the correct behavior of the pet, remember - stop any game and caress before the dog gets tired of it, and start only when you yourself want it, but not the animal.

As far as possible, take your favorite dog toy and, holding it in your hands, give it right away to the dog - that’s how you show the leader’s position. If the dog growls, simply shake it by the scruff of the neck or gently press it to the ground, thereby suppressing the will of the animal. The main thing is never to use force and do not beat the animal - so you only embitter it and form its aggressive behavior.

The dog should receive toys only from your hands and only at that moment when the owner himself counts them. The dog should sleep only on its own bedding - this is important for its socialization, understanding of who the leader and master is in the house, and for hygiene purposes this is also of no small importance. Any factor can provoke aggression in an animal, the reason is It is important to show the pet to specialists, and if there is a need to undergo not only a course of training, but also a medical course of taking sedatives, and in some cases, sterilization.