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What does a tarantula cocoon look like?

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Tarantula spiders (Theraphosidae) are recognized favorites of Western insectarians. This is facilitated not only by the exoticism and bright outfit of spiders, but also by comparative unpretentiousness. Cope with the task of captivity tarantula spider even an animal lover who is not very sophisticated in entomology can do it.

And the lifespan of these outlandish peanuts plays an important role in this regard: 20 years - how many invertebrates can boast of such results. It should be noted, however, that only females reach such venerable age: nature has acted more cruelly with males - they have not lived for more than 5-6 years.

Tarantulas - terrestrial and arboreal inhabitants of tropical rainforests and deserts. Their lifestyle depends on the species. Some live under the roots of trees in burrows dug by them, while others occupy the hollow of birds.

Photo Avicularia sp

A spider weaves a web around the entrance to its home. It serves as a kind of sensitive antenna that responds to the presence of potential prey. It is worth the victim who has lost his vigilance to inadvertently approach the mink, causing the web to move, as the spider rushes on and carries the jaw - chelicera - into its abdomen, while opening the ducts of the poisonous glands. Poison injected into the victim dissolves the victim's internal organs and allows the spider to suck them in.

An integral part of the life cycle of spiders is molting. Males carry out this unpleasant procedure only in their youth, before puberty and the first copulation. Females molt each year in the fall, before mating. For this purpose, they close in a mink and lie on their backs. Freed from the chitinous cover, the spiders turn over to the abdomen and wait until the new shell is fixed.

Reproduction of a tarantula spider

6-8 weeks after molting, mature males go in search of a female. As a rule, the mating season falls on the period from October to March. By this time, the animals should fill the bulb at the ends of the tentacles-forepaws with sperm. This occurs in a male-spun sperm nest. First, he covers the litter with a dense web. 2-4 cm above the pei, the spider erects a second, trapezoidal layer of web, parallel to the first. Having finished the construction, the male climbs into the nest and lying on his back covers the roof with drops of sperm.

After that, he gets out and settles on the upper layer of the web. Situated above the drops of sperm, the spider grabs them with their feet and sucks in the pressure movements of the bulbs. Then the animal breaks its unnecessary sperm nest and eats it.

Having discovered a potential partner, the male is trying to attract her attention to himself with energetic pops of tentacle tentacles and forelegs. The female responds with aggression to these calls, goes to him with dangerously opened chelicera.

Video reproduction of tarantulas

Now the main task of the male is to block the ducts of the partner's toxic glands. At the same time, he feels the tentacles of the female’s breast and genital area with tentacles, and she bakes a special bag on the tip of the abdomen, allowing the male to enter the sperm bulbs into her genital opening and fill the seed pocket (packet) with seed. Immediately after copulation, the male quickly runs away. Procrastination for him at this moment is truly like death. But even if he succeeds in hiding safely, the male’s prospects are bleak - after several months after copulation he dies.

After about six to ten weeks, the female begins to prepare for egg laying. She arranges a mink cocoon of spider silk, which can accommodate up to 500 eggs. The cocoon is carefully guarded by the female and carefully kept between chelicera. Five weeks later, larvae hatch from the eggs, which are concentrated in one cocoon until the first molt, and then disperse over small minks located in the vicinity.

In captivity, tarantulas need to be kept alone. As a shelter, plastic or glass containers are suitable for them, the bottom of which is covered with a layer of wet peat at least 15 cm thick. For desert-shrub species (for example, Brachypelma emilia refers to them), peat is mixed with sand in a ratio of 1: 2. As a hole, a transparent plastic tube with a diameter of 8-10 cm is used. It is obliquely buried in the ground. For convenience, monitoring the life of spiders, one side of the tube is leaned against the wall of the insectarium.

Stock Foto Chilean pink tarantula spider

For tree species (in particular. Avicularia sp.) It is better to use branches or small bird hollows. Tropical rainforest spiders need humidity of 70-80%. and for desert shrubs -50-70%.

Drinking bowls for spiders are small glass bowls with constantly wet gauze laid in several layers. As a lighting, a subdued daylight is sufficient. Direct sunlight should be avoided. The air temperature is held at 25 ° C.

The main food of tarantulas is live insects. Adults are fed with large crickets, tropical cockroaches, small vertebrates (newborn mice).

Sexual differences between a male and a female tarantula spider

Fertilization organs in tarantulas formed simultaneously with the last molt. External sexual differences in spiders begin to appear when young spiders reach 4 cm in size. In females, in the anterior part of the abdomen, above the mouth of the genitals (epigastric hollow), there is a small, lip-like formation, and in males - two small tongues.

Mating requires a large capacity. Its approximate dimensions are 60x50x50 cm. Young spiders remain with their mother until the second molt. Then they are caught and placed in a separate small insectarium. Spiders begin to feed from 1-3 days of age Drosophila, juvenile marble cockroach.

Many tarantula lovers pick up their pets. At first, it annoys spiders, causes them stress, but over time they get used to the person and behave more calmly. Nevertheless, try to protect yourself as much as possible: use special gloves. The fact is that under stress tarantulas comb hairs from the abdomen that can cause a strong allergic reaction, they should be avoided in the eyes, respiratory tract, and on the skin.

We must not forget that tarantula spiders bite, and it is very painful, and the consequences of such bites can be extremely unpleasant. The poison of a relatively low-toxic tarantula spider like Phrixotrichus roseus acts after a bite in the same way as the poison of a wasp, bumblebee, and bee. But the bite of even the teenager Poecilotheria regalis causes severe pain that does not go away for 3 months, muscle cramps, and festering of the lymph nodes. The poison of an adult spider of this species can be fatal.

Stock Foto Mexican red-footed tarantula spider

The most harmless and peaceful South American tarantulas. Their antagonists are relatives from Southeast and Central Asia, Africa.

These invertebrates are predisposed to viral, bacterial and fungal diseases, which are most often manifested when spiders are kept in excessively wet insectarium. The fungus can be defeated if you transplant science into an insectarium with low humidity and good ventilation. The infected container is disinfected. Effective ways to combat viruses and bacteria have not yet been found. Sometimes spiders get ticks. They are chosen with tweezers, the tip of which is dipped in Vaseline.

Most often in captivity contain red Chilean tarantula spider (Phrixotrichys roseus). His body has a diameter of about 70 mm. For these spiders, an insectarium of 30x20x20 cm with litter 5-6 cm thick from transulat or sterile peat is suitable. The shelter is the halves of a coconut shell or flower pot. Daytime temperature 25-28 ° C, nighttime should not fall below 22 ° C. The development of nymphs in a cocoon at T-27 ° C takes three and a half weeks.

Tiny freshly hatched spiders are able to cope only with very small food (Drosophila) and even with good care they grow very slowly.

Nest creation process

Building a nest for the female tarantula is a very crucial moment. In most cases, individuals prefer the far corners of the aquarium to place their nests in it. The presence of a support on which the web will be attached from different sides is very important.

When the spider has decided on the location, it begins to weave a kind of hammock. After the female completes the construction process, she begins to gradually lay eggs at the very bottom of her nest.

In appearance, the eggs resemble a yellowish gruel, on which you can see small eggs of various sizes and shapes. The belly of the spider gradually decreases in size and takes on a devastated appearance. Gradually, the female forms the shape of a hammock, creating a spherical appearance.

In order for the future offspring to turn out healthy and strong, it is important to monitor the temperature in the terrarium while the incubation process takes place. If the humidity level exceeds the permissible limits, the eggs may begin to rot. In this case, the mother can eat them.

Propagation Features

In the wild, most species of female tarantulas after the crossing process eat their partners. At home, breeders recommend pre-feeding the female well, and after the process itself, separate the male as soon as possible.

Thus, the partner will remain safe and sound. After fertilization, the female proceeds to form a cocoon for the next generation. The tarantula cocoon is a simple piece of normal web. During this period, the female is very aggressive and in no case should she be disturbed.

In a terrarium with a cocoon of a tarantula spider, food and water should always be present. There are times when a female ate her cocoon. This happened for the following reasons:

  • the insect is very hungry
  • the temperature in the terrarium is insufficient
  • increased moisture level.

After two months of incubation, small larvae appear. Many experts remove the cocoon before the required time in order to conduct an artificial process of maturation of the larvae. Thus, many more small spiders are born.

The cocoon is very carefully opened with sharp scissors and removed from the terrarium. If there were many living larvae inside, then the process ended successfully. The nest with the offspring is placed in a separate dry container with a wet towel.

After some time, the spiders pass the molt and begin to gradually form in adult tarantulas. It is immediately recommended that individuals be taken individually to avoid cannibalism.

Young offspring are fed with cockroaches, crickets and other small insects. There should always be clean fresh water and food in the cage. Kids need to eat at least three times a week so that they are healthy and well fed. In this case, the breeding process will be successful and the breeder will be pleased.

Feeding

Blue color
photo can be enlarged

All tarantulas are obvious predators, but contrary to the name of the bird, they can be found in their diet only by chance. The basis of the menu is various insects and even their smaller counterparts and other species of spiders. Unlike the usual tarantulas, they do not weave a web, but hunt from an ambush. Nevertheless, they secrete a web, but use it for other purposes. For example, creating a female cocoon or strengthening the walls of a hole in the ground.

In captivity, you can feed spiders with flies, cockroaches, bloodworms, small frogs, crickets, flour worms, etc. Some of these animals can be bought at pet stores, where they are sold as feed. The described animals are rather passive, they show activity only in extreme necessity. Even if they are hungry, they can sit motionless in ambush for a long time, not showing any activity, but only passively waiting for the victim. Low mobility provides minimum energy costs and provides the minimum need for food. A well-fed spider may not be active for several months at all.

Description and Features

The class of arachnids is diverse and includes a huge number of species. Scientists count them somewhere around one hundred thousand. Spiders are only one of the units of this class, and despite their relatively small size, it is not for nothing that they are considered far from harmless creatures. This is especially true for representatives of the infra-order migalomorphic.

Instances of this type are usually the largest of their relatives, and also differ in the structure of the mouth chelicera (the word itself is translated literally: claws-whiskers, which says something about their purpose and structure). In these spiders, they are associated with poisonous glands that open in them, ducts.

The family of tarantulas is part of this infraorder. Its members are very large. It happens that in the range of legs their size reaches 27 cm and even exceeds these indicators.

All types of tarantulas are toxic, but with different toxicities. Some are almost harmless, but most should be considered quite dangerous. As a rule, their bite can not be fatal for a healthy adult, but it causes acute pain and can cause seizures, fever and even hallucinations.

In addition, the lethal effect of the poison of the creatures described can be for children and small animals.

Fortunately, such living organisms practically do not occur in Europe, except that some species live in Portugal, Spain, Italy and areas close to these countries. However, with regard to other continents, here the range of these spiders is quite extensive.

After all, they almost completely populate the south of America and Africa, are widespread in Australia and on the islands adjacent to this mainland.

In the photo a tarantula one can see that the appearance of such creatures is peculiar and exotic. The furry long legs of such spiders make a particularly strong impression. Moreover, purely visual it turns out that these creatures have six pairs of limbs. They are covered with bright, thick and significant hairs.

But upon careful examination, only four pairs appear to be legs, and another four processes, shorter and located in front, are chelicera and the so-called pedipalps.

The coloring of such spiders is catchy and striking with its exotic colors, but especially juicy the color gamut becomes tarantula molting. This is a very interesting and characteristic process for such living things. Their body is built by their cephalothorax - the anterior part and abdomen, connected only by a jumper. They are covered by a chitin exoskeleton - a special membrane.

This is a frame that retains moisture during the heat, and as an armor that protects against damage. During molting, it is reset and replaced by another. But it is precisely at such moments that the animal grows intensely, sometimes almost four times increasing its parameters.

Such creatures boast four pairs of eyes, they are located in front. Pedipalps act as organs of touch. Chelicera is used primarily for hunting and protection, but also for hauling prey and digging holes.

And the hairs on the legs should be considered not just a decoration. These are finely arranged organs, with their inherent sensitivity, trapping smells and sounds.

This family has many representatives, including thirteen subfamilies, which are divided into a huge number of species (according to official figures, there are about 143). The features of their representatives are very characteristic, so the most interesting varieties deserve a special description.

1. Goliath tarantula - a creature famous for its size, which, including the length of its legs, is about 28 cm. Previously, a similar specimen of the fauna of the planet was considered the largest of spiders.

But the very beginning of the XXI century was marked by the discovery of Heteropoda maxima - a relative of the detachment, living in the tropics and exceeding the goliath by a couple of centimeters, which means its dimensions are not limiting.

The color of such a spider is brown, sometimes with shades of red or light colors. Such creatures live in the swamps of South America. The weight of the males of the species can reach up to 170 g.

2. Spidertarantula black and white brazilian. Representatives of this species are slightly smaller than the previous one. Their sizes usually do not exceed 23 cm. They are famous for their intense growth and bright, elegant, although black and white color.

The character of the spider is unpredictable and aggressive. Often such creatures hide among stones and under the roots of trees, but sometimes they crawl out into open areas.

3. Metal tarantula (woody) is also a noteworthy variety that is found only exclusively in southern India. But in this case, the spider from the congeners stands out not at all in size, growing up to no more than 21 cm, but in brightness and bewitching, fabulous beauty.

His body and legs are blue with a metallic tint, adorned with wonderful patterns. Such creatures, uniting in groups, live among rotten old trees.

4. Brachypelma Smith Is a species found in the southern United States and in Mexico. The size of such spiders usually does not exceed 17 cm. The color can be black or dark brown with the addition of red and orange patches, in some cases decorated with yellow or white border, frequent hairs on the body are light pink.

This species is not toxic poison and is not considered particularly aggressive.

Concerning tarantula sizesThis has already been mentioned. But the parameters were given earlier taking into account the span of the legs. However, the body of the largest spiders has a size of about 10 cm, and in small species it can be less than 3 cm. We should also mention the peculiarities of tarantulas with age and change their color as they mature.

Lifestyle & Habitat

Different types of such spiders take root in a wide variety of geographical areas and conditions. Among these representatives of the fauna, settlers of arid places and even deserts are known. There are species that prefer equatorial forests with their tropical humidity.

Tree tarantulas spend their days on shrubs and trees, in their crowns among the branches. They weave cobwebs and fold them into tubes. Others prefer solid ground and it is in this environment that they seek shelter. There are many types of spiders that dig their holes, which go deep underground. They close their entrances with cobwebs.

In addition, the habitat of these creatures largely depends on the developmental stage of the individual. For example, being a larva, it spends its days in a hole, and when it grows, it begins to go to the ground (this happens in semi-wood and terrestrial species). That is, the model of behavior as they grow and mature in these spiders can change.

As for the growth stages of such living things. Newborn spiders that have just been born from eggs are called nymphs. In this period of development, they usually do not feel the need for food.

Further, the nymphs, undergoing a pair of molts, during which the organism grows rapidly, turn into a larva (it is customary to call spiders until they reach adulthood).

The hairs covering the body of such creatures are saturated with poison. For their owners themselves, this is a very useful acquisition, received by them from mother nature. Such fur processes of tarantulas are used to protect nests, weaving them into a web.

Also, in anticipation of danger, they scatter poisonous hair around themselves, thereby protecting themselves. If they enter the body when inhaled, even a person may manifest painful symptoms: weakness, suffocation, burning sensation - all these are signs of an allergic reaction.

Tarantula spiders are not particularly mobile. And if they violate this rule, then only if there is a good reason. For example, female tarantulas, if fed, can sit in their shelters for several months. But even hungry individuals are motionless and patient. They are in their ambushes and hunt down prey.

Nutrition

It is in connection with the peculiarities of nutrition that such a spider was named: tarantula. And this story happened at the end of the XVIII century in Venezuela, when a group of scientists discovered a huge spider in the rainforest, with the appetite of a hummingbird eating.

Then even one of the members of the expedition, Maria Merian, made a colorful sketch of the tarantula impressed by what she saw. And he soon got into the newspapers, creating for all the spiders of this family a certain glory, which became the reason for the name.

In fact, the organisms of such spiders are often not able to digest poultry meat. That is, such cases do occur, but rarely. Basically, these creatures eat insects, small arachnids, and can encroach on their own relatives.

But certainly they are predators. They ambush their victims. And to catch them using pre-prepared traps. The diet of these spiders includes: birds, small rodents, frogs, in some cases fish, as well as smaller prey - bloodworms, cockroaches, flies.

Reproduction and longevity

Tarantula spider males mature faster than any of the females, but after that they live no more than a year, and if they manage to mate, then even less. You can guess about his readiness to have offspring by characteristic external signs. Firstly, bulbs are formed on its pedipalps - natural vessels for sperm.

And also males have special hooks called tibial, they play a role during mating. These devices are needed to hold the partner, as well as protection from her, as the chosen ones of the spiders can be very aggressive individuals.

In preparation for a meeting with the "lady", the males weave a special web, allocating a drop of family fluid on it, then they grab it with hooks and cross over to find a partner.

But even when the spider is found and responds to the call, showing consent in all kinds, coition does not occur without performing the prescribed rituals. Without them, spiders are not able to determine whether they belong to the same species. It can be body shaking or tapping feet. Each variety has its own mating movement.

The intercourse itself can be instant, but sometimes it stretches for hours. And the process consists in the transfer by pedipalps of the male of his sperm into the body of the partner.

Such games are completely unsafe for spiders. Some of them may suffer before copulation, if a couple does not get along with each other (this happens more often in aggressive species). And after the act itself, the male is usually fleeing, since, if he does not show agility, it may well be eaten by a hungry female.

Next, the process of forming eggs in the body of a spider. And when the time comes, it forms a nest from the web, where the very eggs are laid. Their number is different, in some species it is in the tens, and in some it reaches a couple of thousand.

After completion of the indicated, the spider makes a special spherical cocoon and incubates it. This period in different species lasts differently (it can last twenty days or more than a hundred). Moreover, the female can guard her offspring with aggressiveness and zeal, or she can eat this whole farm if she is hungry.

Such is the nature of the spiders. From the cocoons mentioned above, first nymphs appear, which molt and grow, turning first into larvae, and then into adult spiders.

Females by nature measured a longer life than their gentlemen. Spiders are considered lifelong champions of arthropods. The record is 30 years. But, strictly speaking, the duration of the life cycle depends on the species, and is sometimes measured in ten years, but in some species it is only a few years.

Poultry eater at home: care and maintenance

Tarantula content lovers of wildlife becomes every year an increasingly common hobby. And not surprising, because such pets are easy to care for, unpretentious, and besides, they are endowed with an impressive and exotic look.

Breeding such spiders is also useful because it is in the conditions of the house that it is more convenient to observe the habits of these living creatures. Moreover, it is extremely difficult to do this in the wild.

For tarantula it is necessary to equip a medium-sized, enclosed terrarium, which for each individual should be separate, since such pets are quite capable of eating each other. The floor of the container is lined with coconut bark.

You should also provide a spider shelter in the form of a flower pot. For woody species, pieces of bark or driftwood are needed. As food, it is better to use insects: flour worms, crickets, cockroaches, flies.

Taking in hand most of the species of such pets, in view of their danger, is strictly not recommended. And precisely because of the threat to health, it is better to keep species with a calm temperament.

For example, in this capacity, experts recommend Chilean red tarantula. It has an interesting coloring, non-aggressive and almost not dangerous.

Such a spider is quite possible to pick up. When he feels a threat, he usually does not bite and does not make attacks, but tries to hide himself. For novice exotic lovers, such a creation as the first pet spider is best suited.

A guide for beginners to breed tarantula spiders.

Almost every newcomer in our difficult business dreamed at least once to try to get offspring from one of their females. Feel the joy and adrenaline rush from observing processes, mating or laying a cocoon by a female, and then feel these exciting moments of opening a cocoon, or finding an independent exit for babies

Each person, of course, reacts to all these joys and moments purely individually. An experienced breeder cold-bloodedly picks up the cocoon at various stages of development, and then in cold-blooded manner performs all further manipulations with it. Beginners are asked a lot of questions about mating, and further actions with the cocoon, eggs, nymphs, spiders themselves, etc. Very many, often, make a number of standard mistakes, and as a result fail, and then abandon subsequent attempts to breed anyone at all.

Let's figure it out in order and try to help beginner lovers

So, let's take the most standard and most captive-propagated species-Brachypelma albopilosum
This is a terrestrial species of spiders, at an adulthood they are always in sight, so it is very convenient and practical to watch them in the breeding process.
This species is also very fertile! Therefore, think about whether you want to breed it, and what you will then do with the kids in the future - in advance.

For breeding you will need:
1. Ancestral female Brachypelma albopilosum, aged 4 years and above.
2. One, or better, several males of the same species, from 2 to 6-7 months of age from the time of the final molt in the adult.
3. Two plastic boxes: 10 and 3 liters in volume, horizontal type.
4.Kapron stocking.
5. Fresh coconut soil, about 5-6 liters.
6. Napkins

Stage number 1:
Preparation of the female.
The female must be fat before breeding, good enough! The criterion may be size, a healthy, well-fed female should be 6-7cm in the body, no less.
Further, about molting, it’s a very important point. Many breeders mate their females already a month after molting, I personally practice a longer period. In general, the normal term for mating can be considered from a month to three, after the last molting.

Stage number 2:
Male.
The male should be chosen not too old, but not too young. As practice shows in both cases, the result is not so hot, or even none at all.
Therefore, I recommend that beginners acquire males that have come to adults and are actively weaving, with a life span of 3-4 months to six months. At this age, the male is already fertile and must fulfill his duties perfectly.
I want to warn you! What are the deviations from the norm, more about this below.

Stage 3:
Pairing.
Many beginners are very mistaken in the fact that if the pairing went off with a bang, then that's it, it's in the hat, so to speak.
Nothing like this!
Mating is 20% of the total.
So, you fed the female, found a normal male, and decided to plant a couple for the further process.
The initial reaction of fed animals, ready for breeding, should be as follows: the male begins to roam about in the tank with the female, and as soon as he sees it, he immediately goes to her frontal attack to fix it in the stance and fertilize it. Usually this is still accompanied by mutual tapping of the feet on the ground, or other surface on which the couple will be at the moment. Sometimes the females don’t rattle the males, and sometimes they don’t pay any attention to them at all, then the males, especially experienced ones that have already mated with other females before, take everything into their male, so to speak, paws
During mating, the male holds the female chelicerae with tibial hooks and, using pedipalps, transfers seminal fluid into the female. During mating and after mating, a hungry female can be aggressive and can eat a male. In case of successful mating, the male tries to leave the female as soon as possible.
Another important point about mating! In the case of the Brachypelma genus, I can advise you to try to mate the female as many times as possible, until the moment when she starts immediately rushing at the male, trying to eat him. What is it for ? Brachipelms, as a rule, produce large offspring, and mating is often not enough. It’s not enough in that the small amount of sperm stored by the female in the seed can’t cope with a huge number of eggs, and in 90% of cases part of the cocoon is obtained from unfertilized eggs.

Stage 4:
Preparation of a female for laying a cocoon.
Many people contain spiders in plastic containers, not everyone has the opportunity to buy a terrarium, and properly equip it for reproduction.
We will discuss the option with plastic, and it is also applicable in terrarium conditions.
So, you mated your female, and look forward to laying the cocoon.
I advise you to have more patience, the minimum masonry period of the cocoon after mating is 1.5-2 months later, the maximum after 6 months or more!
Therefore, you need to prepare the female’s home in advance for a comfortable environment.
A pregnant female, usually, becomes very fat before laying, and her abdomen resembles the shape of a round ball.
The capacity must be taken horizontally -10 liters, make it flow ventilation, without fanaticism.
It is desirable to combine the soil, coconut + sphagnum + vermiculite, the last two components in equal parts, 1 handful per 1 liter of coconut.
The soil layer should be from 10 cm.
Shelters and decorations need to be removed. Brachipelms rarely use them during the breeding season.
It is desirable to have a drinking bowl, a drinking bowl in front of the masonry is best removed completely.
Immediately a month before laying, the females usually begin to equip their home, in the case of the Brachipelms, the female simply digs a crater in the middle or corner of the tank, and then lays it with a cobweb and lays eggs in a depression on the web. This process is very long-lasting, and at this time it is highly recommended not to disturb the female, take all kinds of photographs, shine a flashlight, move the container, and other unnecessary manipulations - people do it at their own peril and risk, there were cases when the females were disturbed during laying, and as a result: lost both masonry and female in addition.
Another point, it is advisable to moisten the soil by 50-60% (no more).

Stage number 5:
Masonry cocoon.
Finally, after all the manipulations carried out, the female arranged a dwelling, and began to braid everything with a web. This usually lasts 2-3 days. Then the female lays eggs, plaits them on top with a thin layer of cobwebs, and then only begins to remove the hammock from the surface of the soil to twist it into a cocoon.
There are several nuances that you need to know at the same time, sometimes it happens that the female does not twist the cocoon correctly, in this case, you can pick up the cocoon gently by throwing a dummy for a while (folded and moistened napkins the size of a real cocoon), quickly glue it with tape or sew it thread - and return to the female.
Usually, if the cocoon is not twisted correctly, eggs from the cocoon spill out onto the ground. Then, after the measures described above, we return it to the female and observe for some time, if she takes it back, then everything is fine and leave her alone. If the female does not pay attention to the cocoon returned back, then it is better to remove it and manually incubate it herself.
It happens that the female does not twist the cocoon at all, but crawls on top of it and sits like a chicken on eggs. Only spider eggs are not designed for such a weight load, and such a cocoon in the form of a pancake is often doomed to a sad fate. As a rule, such unfortunate cocoons are made by too young females that were mated on the 11-12th molt of their life. Therefore, I recommend you, friends, to mate females who are already 4 or more years old.
A normal sexually mature female will twist the cocoon without any problems and flaws, and will carry it with her everywhere until the time comes for the kids to come out, more about that in the next chapter.

Stage 6:
Incubation of the cocoon.
At this stage, I will tell you about further manipulations with the cocoon.
The female twisted the cocoon and began to drag it with her around the house - do not rush to take her precious burden from her, even if it seems to you that the cocoon is all dirty in the ground and does not resemble a ball in shape, but it is not clear
The optimal time for cocoon removal from Brachipelm is 35 days after masonry.
Inside the cocoon for 35 days there should already be stage 1 nymphs.
After you have taken the cocoon from the female and opened it, do not rush to pour the babies completely out of the parent's bag.
Leave it open and cook the incubator.
The incubator can be made according to the following scheme, as in this video.
https://youtu.be/hChOjeP4Z6s
Nothing complicated, take a 3-liter box, cut out everything in the lid, leaving only the bezel, then pull the box-capron stocking onto the lid itself, then put the lid on top and snap the latches.
The first part of the incubator is ready, fill in a small box with ordinary water, so that the water covers the bottom, and the total density does not exceed 2-3 cm in height.
Then take a box of 10 liters, do ventilation in a plastic cover, and lay napkins (which need to be moistened once a day) on the bottom.
Put the little box in the big one - The incubator is ready !!
General view as in this video - https://youtu.be/EAdzk8c3NWo
Put the opened cocoon with the kids on a small box with a stocking, and wait.
After 1-1.5 weeks, the nymphs will move to the second stage, nothing needs to be done with them either, except to disturb them less.
In this mode, they will stay another 1-1.5 months, and then go to babies L1.
Take care of baby containers in advance
Photos to help, chose on our resource.
Pairing

Pregnant female

Female with a Cocoon

An opened cocoon after 35 days inside the nymph H1 - the first stage

Molten nymphs of the second stage after a week

Nymphs in a loose type incubator

Nymphs darken before going to l1 spiders

The output of spiders in l1

This manual is written for beginners, and is suitable for the initial type of breeding, not difficult to maintain and breed species. Some conventions are possible, for example: someone nymphs spills out of a cocoon onto the ground, someone incubates on napkins, and someone leaves a cocoon with a female at all. There are a lot of options, if this topic confused you, or there are some questions on it, write in a personal.
Good breeding to all, friends! Do not be afraid to experiment, and share your experience with other people, do not be greedy

Last edited by Inquisitor, 08/20/2017 at 10:17.

Spider venom

Tarantula spider feeding
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The tarantula spider is a poisonous creature and may well deliver several unpleasant minutes to the house. When dealing with him, care must be taken. Consider how it can be protected. All types of tarantulas are able to use poison when bitten. But in many cases, a so-called dry bite occurs when the spider does not sprinkle poison.

The deaths of an adult, healthy person from a bite of a tarantula are unknown. Nevertheless, you will not get pleasure, poisoning with poison can be accompanied by fever, pain, convulsions. The exception is the presence of a strong allergy to poison, in which case you should immediately consult a doctor.

Cases of death of cats from the bite of such a spider are known. Therefore, contacts of young children with such a pet should be excluded. The poison can also be found in the tarantula's hairs, especially those located on the abdomen. In captivity, the animal can lose hair from stress. If they get on the skin, on the mucous membranes (eyes, nose, mouth), in the lungs when breathing, there is a pain, itching, suffocation. These symptoms usually go away after a few hours. The exception is people with allergies, in which case you need to take medication or consult a doctor. The poisonousness of a spider is highly dependent on the species, and one genus Avicularia is protected by a stream of excrement, throwing them towards the attacker.

Molting

Tarantula spider eyes
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One of the unusual, from the point of view of man, processes in the life of a spider is molting. In order to grow, the tarantula spider must get rid of the old hard outer cover. In this case, the size of the animal can increase one and a half times. Since the rate of growth and development of the spider is highly dependent on temperature and the availability of food, the age of the spider is often determined not in years, but in molts.

Young spiders can molt once a month, and old individuals once a year. Shedding animal usually lying on its back. The main sign of moulting is the darkening of the color of the spider. Also, before molting, the number of hairs on the body is minimal; they were used for protection; after molting, their number is restored. Sometimes during molting the animal fails to pull the limbs out of the old integument and they come off, their recovery occurs slowly, in the next 3–4 molts. Typically, such problems occur under poorly maintained conditions.

The tarantula spider belongs to centenarians among terrestrial arthropods. True, this primarily concerns females. They can live up to 30 years. Males usually die within a year after mating. Life expectancy strongly depends on the temperature of the content; at lower temperatures, the rate of metabolic processes decreases and life expectancy increases.

Content

Brown
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It is impossible to keep tarantulas spiders in a group, they are aggressive towards their brethren. Therefore, when choosing pets, several factors must be considered. The female is larger than the male and lives longer, but the male in most cases is brighter colored.

It’s best to keep calm species of spiders with the least toxic venom at home. Unfortunately, it is difficult to obtain accurate information in this case. It is also necessary to consider the absence or presence of burning hairs.

When buying a spider caught in nature, you can get parasites with it, so it is better to take animals bred in captivity. Since these spiders are burrows, terrestrial and arboreal terrarium devices for them will vary. For burrows, a thick enough layer of soft soil will be required, and for wood, a piece of a tree trunk, driftwood, or at least a piece of bark.

Terrariums made in the likeness of plexiglass aquariums are the most convenient for keeping tarantulas. Tightness in this case is not needed. The dimensions are sufficient several times the size of the spider itself, taking into account the paws. It is only necessary to consider that the young spider will still grow. Rectangular containers with sizes from 20x20x20 cm to 30x30x30 cm are optimal.

Brazilian black and white tarantula spider
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It is believed that it is dangerous to use higher vessels, an overeating spider falling from the top cover may break. It is also believed that an increase in horizontal dimensions is undesirable, the spider will be hard to hunt for quick live food. The top cover must have ventilation holes with a diameter of several millimeters. The top roof on the terrarium itself is also obligatory, otherwise the tarantula will come out. You can glue such a terrarium, like an aquarium with silicone sealant.

To maintain a group of spiders, you will have to make several terrariums, or you can make one, but divided into deaf sections, so that arthropods can not reach each other. For temporary maintenance, a glass jar with a screwed metal lid is also suitable, the main thing is not to forget to make ventilation holes in it.

For burrowing tarantulas, it is desirable to have a sufficiently thick layer of soil up to 10 - 15 centimeters, which ensures their existence, close to natural. You can pour a thinner layer of soil, creating shelters in the terrarium, for example, from a half of a flower pot, of suitable size. True, you will not see your pet often. In the absence of a thick layer of soil or shelter, the animal can be stressed and show increased aggression.

Species Avicularia purpurea
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The primer used is usually a coconut substrate sold in pet stores or flower shops, which is crushed coconut bark. Litter change in adult spiders should be made at least every 3 to 4 months, and for young individuals even more often.

Well now about temperature and humidity. These spiders are tropical or subtropical animals, respectively, the optimum temperature for them will be 28 - 30 C, in reality they feel quite tolerably at a room temperature of 24 - 25 C, lower temperatures are undesirable. The most critical sharp changes in temperature of 7 - 10 degrees, this can lead to rapid death of animals.

You can maintain the temperature with the help of special heaters, cord or flat, for terrariums sold in pet stores. Given the small size of terrariums for spiders, the power of the heater should be minimal. When keeping a group of animals, it is better to place them in individual terrariums in a glazed cabinet and heat the entire cabinet.

Species Avicularia versicolor
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For tropical spiders, humidity of up to 90% is required, in which case daily wetting of the inner surface of the terrarium from the sprayer may be required. For semi-desert species, humidity is 70 - 80%, drinkers with a large surface of water are enough. If you wish, you can buy a universal device in the hardware store that measures temperature and humidity, and install it in the terrarium.

About what objects can be used to feed tarantulas discussed above. It’s worth adding that it’s not worth using any kind of “human” food, frozen meat or fish, the pet may die. And you can add about the size of food objects - they should be significantly smaller than the size of the spider itself. If your pet ignores any particular food, and this happens, you will have to use a different type of food.

A spider kills prey by injecting poison into it, then it injects gastric juice into it, and the tarantula has external digestion of food. A spider eats already overcooked food for several days. There should always be a drinking bowl with clean water in the terrarium.

It should also be understood that you should not even take the calmest tarantula in your hands, in the end it will end badly. All work with the spider and in the terrarium should be carefully carried out with long tweezers. It is also worth always carefully closing the terrarium so that your pet does not go traveling around the apartment.

Safety precautions

After talking with your pet, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.

Leaning over an open terrarium is strictly prohibited.

All actions in the predator's dwelling should be done using a special long tweezers.

Objects in contact with the animal may only be touched with gloves.

It is forbidden to leave the terrarium open without supervision. It is very important that it is out of the reach of other pets.

When contacting spiders, remember that they cannot be tamed or trained. Even the most calm and sedentary tarantula, sensing danger, can bite the owner.

Blue tarantula - who is it?

Blue spiders or Poecilotheria metallica are large carnivorous arthropods, whose body is covered with rigid dense hairs. Blue tarantulas are unusually beautiful and impressive spiders. Bright blue or blue color with an attractive ornament along the torso makes you attract attention and warns others about the danger of possible contact.

Blue arthropod tarantulas are quite aggressive and have a high reaction rate. Body size on average is 7–8 cm, however, together with large limbs it is about 16–18 cm. Female tarantulas are larger and not as mobile as males. The average life expectancy of these predators in nature is 13–15 years.

Where do they live

Under natural conditions, these spiders are active at night, and during the day they hide in the crowns of trees. Also, young individuals often make their homes at the base of a tree in earthen burrows, masking them with a web. Blue spiders live mainly in groups.

The fight! The venom of these arthropods is potent. A bite of a person by an adult can lead to various allergic reactions, headache, nausea, dizziness and fever.

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