What a pity the poor kids left without mom and dad. And how you want to give them all the necessary warmth and care. However, how to do it right and not ruin the kids?
This is the real SOS situation: is it really possible to feed a puppy healthy and strong without a mom?
Do not be afraid: Sobakus.com will tell you in full detail how to feed puppies that are left orphans, how to replace mother's milk and how to properly care for kutis?
Then the processes of development of the doggie organs begin. First of all, the dog has an initial vision - his eyes opened.
Regardless of whether your baby’s eyes are closed or their eyes begin to open, you need to be careful about eye problems. Kittens should not have any form of rash or bark around the eyes. Particulate matter can scratch and damage the eye. When the eyes open, they should be clear, the eyes should be white, and the pupils should be the same in size. If you notice redness or a thick discharge on your face, you may need to take a small cat and take it to the veterinarian as a safety measure.
The size of the Yorkshire Terrier dogs can vary from one specimen to another, but usually ranges from 70 to 170 grams. In any case, this initial weight is not decisive for the size that they reach in adulthood. He looked like a fluffy bird with long, thin legs, like a spider.
This process takes place from 10 to 20 days. On average, this occurs on day 13, however, some puppies may be ahead of development or be somewhat late, which, however, does not affect mental, reflex and motor processes.
Despite the fact that the dog’s eyes begin to open, during this period he practically does not see anything, and is only able to recognize light and darkness.
We have little hope that such a small creature can survive, but it was very important, infinitely sluggish and gaining weight regularly. Four weeks later, he almost reached the same size as the litter brothers, and after three months there was no difference between them.
On the other hand, we also had layers that were born very large, stabilized in 20 days and reached adulthood with a weight of just over a kilo and a half. In general, the layers of the Yorkshire Terrier consist of one to four puppies, although the female birds are usually smaller than the others. At birth, the Yorkshire Terrier puppies are black with reddish spots above the eyes, under the chin and throat, on the legs and under the tail. At birth, when the dog is still wet, an experienced breeder is able to some extent predict the texture that he will have as an adult and differentiate dogs that will be silky from those that will have a wool texture or cotton.
There are other important steps in this period:
- The puppy begins to move already on its paws in small steps, when the dog moves, the dog may fall. At the same time, he can move not only forward, but also backward. The baby stops crawling, which is a natural process.
- Teething begins. Usually they begin to climb by the 20th day, which stimulates the processes of chewing and biting.
- The dog begins to move its tail, but this is a reflex movement, not a reaction to what it sees / heard.
- On the 14-19 days, the baby has a hearing occurrence, however, he cannot determine the distance and direction of the sound source.
It is this time that the main physical changes happen. In just a week, a puppy can open its eyes, learn to walk, hear, etc. That is, in the period between 10 and 20 days, the baby begins to become independent.
This will be a constant problem, the final solution of which for many puppies reaches only 18 months and even later, as well as determining the final color, both fried and blue. At the end of the week of life, more or less, it is time to shorten the tail, because at this age the sensitivity is not too great, so the cut is hardly painful. The place where amputation is traditionally performed is at the top of the red mark under the tail.
But actually it is about tastes, and there are dog breeders who prefer to leave it a little longer, especially if they expect the dog to wear a tail with a high pose in adulthood. In addition, it is necessary to cut off the tip of the nails so that they do not scratch the mother’s chest.
The formation of consciousness
After the dog's eyes opened, in the early days he learns to use the organs of vision and hearing. The formation of vision and hearing in dogs is fast enough, for many puppies this period is 24 hours, but the process can stretch for 5-7 days, after which the dog has already adapted to the environment, and the organs are formed to receive information.
Between the ninth and fourteenth day, puppies begin to open their eyes and become more active. With another week, the ear is also sharpened, and the noise begins to attract attention. The puppy begins to walk on all fours and tries to bite its brothers. His mind slowly opens to external stimuli, and all experiences, no matter how small they are, become important to him. Therefore, it would be convenient to spend a little time every day to pick it up and caress it.
From three weeks or so to almost two months, there is a so-called print period or character formation during which contact with people and other dogs and puppies is crucial. At the end of the first month of life, Yorkshire Terrier puppies weigh about half a kilo, and games between litter brothers will become permanent, with battles and pursuits. By forty-five days, many breeders are taking their first steps to destroy them and separate them from their mother. We advocate putting off this moment as much as possible.
Therefore, at this stage there is the highest need for maternal care, it is not recommended to change the puppy's environment. Any movements (including removal from the mother) will have an extremely negative effect on the psyche of the dog, which may create problems in the future.
This period is usually called the period of understanding, after which the puppy begins to study the world.
Thus, the mother will play with them and trust them. There are some women who become completely intolerant with their puppies at this age, especially if they insist on sucking when the woman has already withdrawn the milk. In this case, we will separate the mother during the day, and we only reunite her with the puppies during the night. A good system to have them together from time to time is to use the metal playpen of those that exist on the market.
These enclosures are made up of modules and can be made as large as we want. We will place them in a shady place, if it is summer, and cover, if it is winter, on the basis of easy cleaning. Thus, in the arena, we can observe their movements and skills, choose the best dogs in the litter.
Environmental Studies and Socialization
By days, this period is the longest and can be more than 25 days (from 20 to 50). During this period, the dog learns the features of its behavior, it is they who make him a dog.
For normal training, the dog must be left with his mother and litter. At this time, puppies begin to learn facial expressions, body positions in different situations, learn to work with their voices, studying the effects of their actions on brothers, mothers or other dogs that they might encounter.
The development of behavior in the early stages of life is largely the result of the maturation of the central nervous system and sensory organs, as well as the development of locomotor ability. In the case of a domestic dog, these changes can be summarized as follows.
On the contrary, myelination of the cerebral cortex - and especially the areas of association - is a later process that begins after about four weeks and continues until the dog is several months old. These changes in the central nervous system cause a gradual increase in the ability to train the dog in the early stages of its development. In fact, although the puppy is able to learn simple associations during the first two to three weeks of life, the response is very slow.
During this period, puppies bark most actively and study the consequences that are achieved by barking. They can not be scolded or punished - so you can cause psychological harm to the dog. At the same time, there is an understanding of how his bites affect others and the bites of his brothers - on him.
The dog actively learns its basic skills - stalking, body posture during greeting, coordination when hunting, various power games (which allow it to participate in fights in the future), etc.
On the other hand, more complex forms of learning develop gradually during the first months of life. Despite this, vision and hearing do not begin to function to the end. Visual recognition of familiar objects occurs shortly afterwards. The retina is functionally mature at the age of 6 weeks, although visual perception continues to develop gradually until the animal reaches 4 months of age.
After a few days, the puppy begins to move away from the hole and explore the surroundings. The puppy shows containment of the flexors during the first 4 or 5 days of life, so if the animal is suspended in the air at the base of the head, it reacts by bending the limbs, spine and tail, after, and until the end of the second week of life, the puppy shows angry dominance.
The dog receives the most important lesson at this age from its mother, who teaches him discipline, interrupting dangerous games, not allowing puppies to bite painfully and weaning the dog from the chest.
This period takes an average of 30 days and starts at the age of 1.5-2 months. Usually, it is during this period that the puppy should be given to the new owners (if a sale is planned) or begin to teach discipline and basic skills.
During the first two weeks, the puppy shows some simple spinal reflexes, such as a crossed extensor reflex. This reflex is not normal in adult dogs, but should be considered normal in animals that are less than 18 days old. In addition, the puppy shows more complex motor reactions that require adequate muscle tone. These include the so-called Magnus reflex and the rooting reflex. Magnus reflex can be caused by bending the puppy’s head on one side, then the animal reacts by expanding its legs to the side along which the head is turned and bent.
You should start by introducing the dog to those around him. For example, in a village you should “introduce” cows, chickens, pigs and other inhabitants. For city dogs, you should specially prepare them for the sounds of a vacuum cleaner, cars and other things that will surround him in adulthood.
One should not demand high results right away - the period of concentration of the dog is still very short, but mental abilities have already been formed. At this age, the dog learns to distinguish training from games, etc. It is important to remember that during this period of time the puppy gets the maximum effect from training and other influences. It is best to start training in this period.
During this period, it is not recommended to scare the puppy or cause injury. This is due to the fact that the fear that will arise after exposure to a number of negative factors will be lifelong for the puppy. For example, if he is suddenly frightened by a vacuum cleaner, then he will be afraid of him all his life.
At the same time, there is a reduction in the number of teeth, as well as the dependence of young dogs on the bitch. The dog begins to understand leadership issues. Therefore, it should be taught the dog that a person is the undisputed leader, but do not interfere in the "showdown" between the dogs - puppies themselves must determine the leader of the litter.
The dog begins to try his hand and skills. She will try to establish herself - to ignore commands, often get into fights even with unfamiliar dogs, etc. During this period, it is recommended to start training (preferably attending special classes), it will depend on them how smart and calm the dog grows.
It is during this period that the puppy needs objects that he can sharpen his teeth about. Thus, he works out the reflexes of attack and defense.
Puppies are born completely helpless and need not only care from the mother, but also the attention of the breeder. It is in the first month of life that babies are especially vulnerable. Therefore, you need to know when the puppies open their eyes, begin to hear other important points.
Development of newborn puppies
It is worth noting immediately that the development of each puppy is individual, and it is impossible to determine strict deadlines. Even littermates can differ significantly from each other.
2-3 days after birth, the umbilical cord drops in the puppies. In order to avoid infection of the umbilical wound, it is necessary from birth to keep them in a warm room on a clean bench. Newborns sleep a lot and at the same time often move and push. This is necessary for the development of muscles and the nervous system.
After one or two weeks, the kids begin to move around - crawling along the bottom of their box. While they are guided only by smell, the time has not yet come when the puppies open their eyes after birth. Dogs begin to try to get up and walk at about 16 days old, and at 21 days they can already move confidently. The bottom of the box and the place where the puppies walk should not be slippery. If the paws of the kids are scattered in different directions - cover the surface with a dense blanket.
At the age of 4 weeks, puppies play with each other, run around, pay attention to toys. At this time, socialization begins, they learn to communicate with each other, in contact with a person.
Puppies without teeth are born. Like humans, dogs first have milk teeth, which later become permanent. Milk teeth begin to be cut in 2-4 weeks. By two months, everyone should have erupted.
How long do puppies open their eyes? This occurs on average 12-15 days after birth. Ears open later - at 14-17 days, and puppies begin to hear well only by the 4th week. Recognizing hearing problems and congenital deafness can be difficult, especially when the puppy is among littermates. Often, such flaws are found only after moving to a new house.
A responsible breeder should take care of puppy health from birth. Animals should be carefully examined to exclude birth defects. If those are discovered and are not compatible with life, then a humane solution would be euthanasia.
The standard of some breeds requires stopping tails. This procedure must be performed at an early age - 2-4 days. It is during this period that stopping is most easily tolerated, animals do not experience suffering, and the wound heals in the shortest possible time. Typically, this procedure is done at home. If the puppies are taken to the clinic, then you need to bring a bitch with you, which will calm and feed the babies.
At 2 and 4 weeks deworming is carried out, and at 6-7 weeks of age - the first vaccination. Bitch worms with puppies. It should be feared not only ribbon and round, but also heartworms.
Puppies leave the house no earlier than a month, usually after activation, which is done in 6-7 weeks.The veterinarian or specialist from the breed club inspects the puppies, after which they receive the first document - the puppy.
When do puppies open their eyes after birth?
Babies are born very tiny and completely dependent on their mother. Their eyes and ear canals are closed. Many novice breeders are interested. Usually this happens 10-16 days after birth. Eyes can open both in one day and in 3-4 days.
Do not forget that each animal develops at its own speed, and some puppies may lag behind brothers and sisters. Normally, in a healthy baby, the eyes should open before the 20th day. Such a delay does not indicate a developmental delay, defects or any diseases.
From 18 days you can help the puppy a bit - very gently and gently wipe the eyes with warm water. Water should be boiled, cotton wool - sterile, hands - clean. In each eye - a new swab. In no case do not tear your eyelids, do not poke your eyes in dirty hands. If the puppy does not open its eyes after reaching the age of 20 days, consult your veterinarian.
When puppies open their eyes, they begin to explore the world around them. They appear preferences and character. This is a period of active development and the beginning of socialization.
What you need to pay attention to
So now you know when the puppies open their eyes. The formation of the retina ends by the 21st day. It is very important not to leave babies in bright light - this is harmful to the eyes. It is good to see puppies at the age of four weeks.
If the puppy's eyes have not yet opened, but look swollen - this is an occasion to consult a veterinarian, an infection is possible. Specialist assistance will also be required in case of suppuration or redness.
Newborn puppies have bluish eyes. Later it will change to permanent. But if the eyes appear cloudy, whitish or too blue, then show the puppy to the veterinarian.
If the mother completely refuses to care for the weakened puppy, additional care is required:
- care of the area under the tail after bowel movements several times a day, in this part a dried fecal film forms, which can cause infection and irritation,
- it is important to monitor the air temperature in the room where the puppy is located (at least 20 degrees), this temperature is considered optimal,
- immediately after opening the eyes, the puppies become more active, they can be fed with additional mixtures to adapt the digestive tract to complete food,
- puppies need six meals a day, gradually the number of meals can be reduced, so by the age of six months the puppy should eat up to three times a day - this is enough to fully saturate the body,
- do not forget about vaccination: the first vaccine is given at the age of 6 to 8 weeks, rabies vaccination is given at the age of three months, the veterinarian must inform other vaccinations.
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Why puppies do not open their eyes right away?
Eyelids of puppies even after birth continue to develop, and their full development plays an important role for the health of the animal. After all, the eyelids perform several functions:
- protect the cornea from external influences,
- contribute to the production of tears, and they, in turn, help the eye to cleanse naturally
- prevent drying out of the eye.
That is, when puppies open their eyes too early, certain consequences are possible. For example, if they do not produce tears in the right amount, this will lead to the so-called “dry eye”. This condition must not be left to chance. Usually, antibiotic treatment and the application of special ointments are required.
Problems that may interfere with opening your eyes.
Sometimes the owner is not in vain worried about the question, after how many days after birth, the puppies open. There are some reasons that can interfere with this process. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor the pets. If on the 15-18th day the puppy is still blind, then it would be better to consult a veterinarian to assess the condition of the pet. Since this may be a variant of the norm, the following problems are possible.
The birth of any kids is an event. The little fluffy lumps in the first days after birth are completely defenseless. The situation begins to change only when the puppies open their eyes.
Features of opening eyes and ears
How many days after birth do babies begin to see and hear? First, after about a week, the ears of the puppies open. At the same time, at first they are able to distinguish only loud sounds. Gradually, day by day, hearing begins to work better.
Eyes open a little later, from the tenth to the fourteenth day. And then, at first, the image is not clear, only light, shadow, outlines and contours of objects are well distinguished. After three weeks, when the pets grow up, the eyes begin to see normally.
Small, recently born puppies are very vulnerable. They need constant supervision, proper care. If after two to four weeks the tiny pet does not open its eyes and ears, it is worth paying attention to their condition. This is not always a sign of complications, because in some dog breeds it takes longer.
Sometimes it can be caused by an infection. In such cases, it is advisable to seek the help of a veterinarian. In the worst case scenario, puppies may develop a twisting of the eyelids, requiring surgical intervention in front of the eyes. As for hearing, deafness at an early age is very difficult to diagnose. If in doubt, it is better to consult a specialist on the same day.
At what age do puppies begin to walk?
After birth, puppies are not only helpless, but also motionless. The first significant motor activity occurs when the eyes open. From this moment on they feel more confident and make attempts to stand up. At about the age of three weeks, these cubs begin to walk, and after thirty days already run.
When do puppies begin to eat themselves?
All that a little dog needs is a mother's affection and milk. It contains all the necessary elements for the normal growth and development of the puppy. Mom feeds her babies as much as she can. Fourteen days after birth, some dog breeders begin to gradually introduce complementary foods.
When to introduce new food depends on the state of the puppy itself and how many of them are in the offspring. However, a full-fledged complementary foods should not be introduced earlier than his teeth appeared. This usually happens 20-30 days after birth. At this time, their mother begins to spew incompletely digested food for her cubs, accustoming them to adult food.
The feeding of four-legged babies begins usually 21-30 days after birth. The first supplement to breast milk is regular milk, milk formula, or kefir. Puppies are fed, starting once a day with one type of new food. Gradually, the number of times increases until the mother completely refuses to breastfeed.
From a month in the diet of a small pet, raw, well-ground meat is introduced. For the first feeding from natural food, it is better to use beef staple or minced meat. But better, ready-made starter food, which is recommended from 3 weeks of age.
By the age of two months, they themselves should eat meat food once a day, milk - several. When there are more teeth, you can give him egg yolk, crackers, drinking water. Then porridge, vegetables, fish are added. A puppy also needs vitamins and minerals every day for health.
With the right weight gain fast enough, active, have a healthy appearance. In cases of overfeeding or malnutrition, problems with the gastrointestinal tract can occur. Digestive upset and poor health can be caused by the toxicity of milk when the mother is sick or takes medication.
Puppies should not be given sweets, lots of salt, potatoes, barley, spices, fatty foods. These products are poorly absorbed and adversely affect the digestive system. To teach your pet to eat healthy food is important when he is still small.
Natural food or dry food?
Many pet owners are wondering which food is best. Some argue that only natural nutrition is suitable for a puppy. Others prefer dry food, which already contains all the necessary nutrients and nutrients. Mixing these two types of feeding is not recommended.
What should be considered when choosing store feed? Dry mix or canned food is produced separately for puppies, taking into account their age needs. Ready-made high-quality feeds have a balanced composition, vitamins and mineral supplements. By themselves, the granules of the finished food take care of the health of the pet’s teeth. The main task is to choose a good suitable dog food.
Making a balanced diet more difficult. It takes more time and effort; it is difficult to determine how much vitamins and nutrients are needed in a cooked meal. About two-thirds of the diet of a four-legged baby should be protein food. In addition to her, the pet needs to eat cereals, vegetables, dairy products. A puppy should also receive vitamin and mineral supplements every day.
From birth to the age of three to four weeks, a person’s little friends need special care. At a time when they hardly hear or see, practically do not move, they will need constant monitoring. Heat transfer in babies has not yet been established, therefore it is very important to observe the temperature regime. Subcooling during this period can be dangerous.
It is important to keep track of how much your four-legged friend is gaining weight. Small pets are prone to various infections, so you need to maintain a clean house, hygiene of the baby. But you can’t bathe the puppy; washing is provided by his mother. But you need to regularly check the condition of the eyes, ears, claws.
Combing becomes a common procedure as the hair grows back. It is worth accustoming a puppy to walks from an early age. How much to walk depends on the weather. In the cold season, walking with a pet along the street is not recommended. It should be remembered that attention and care are very important for a baby who is separated from the mother during the first days.