Camelus dromedarius - One-humped camel - is a species of mammal belonging to the family of camelids. These animals can be found in many areas of Africa and Asia. One-humped camel is kept in these areas as a pet.
When they were tamed, today it’s hard to say for sure. According to some reports, their domestication took place on the Arabian Peninsula. Most likely this happened in the third millennium before the beginning of our era.
The first mention of camel riders is on the Assyrian obelisk. There are images on the reliefs of 661-631 years. BC e. On them, as a rule, are shown two riders on a camel. The one in front controls the animal, and the second, turning, shoots with a bow.
As a pet, a one-humped camel spread late enough. According to some reports, the domestication of animals probably did not occur earlier than the second half of the 1st millennium before the beginning of our era. Subsequently, the distribution environment was constantly increasing. The most common camels in the desert.
Today man has bred various breeds of one-humped camels. Each breed performs specific tasks. There is, for example, a flat, mountain one-humped camel.
The name - "dromedar" - is translated from Greek as "running". Unlike other representatives of this family, Camelus dromedarius has higher legs, lighter hair. The one-humped camel has structural features of some details of the skull and bony processes in the vertebrae.
The length of the dromedar is about 2.3-3.4 meters. At the withers, it can reach from 1.8 to 2.3 meters. Unlike the Bactrian, the Dromedar has one hump. Camelus dromedarius weighs from three hundred to seven hundred kilograms. The tail of a one-humped camel is not more than fifty centimeters in length. As a rule, wool has a sandy tint, but individuals from white to dark brown are found. On the top of the head, back and neck, the hair is longer.
One-humped camels are distinguished by a long neck, elongated head. The upper lip has a bifurcated structure, the nostrils are presented in the form of crevices, which, if necessary, the animal can close. The one-humped camel has very long eyelashes. On his feet, knees and in some other places he has numerous corns. Like other members of the family, a one-humped camel has only two toes.
Animals are highly adapted to the arid climate. They are able to do without water for a long period, while maintaining its supply in their body. The hump on the back contains fatty deposits. Their animal uses for energy. The liquid in camels is stored in the stomach.
It is noted that the body temperature of the animal at night is significantly reduced. In the afternoon, the temperature rises very slowly. This allows the camel not to sweat. During particularly dry seasons, an animal can lose more than twenty-five percent of its weight without dying of hunger or thirst. At the same time, the camel drinks very quickly. As a result, in almost ten minutes, he can recover lost weight.
The distribution area of dromedars as pets extends throughout the whole of North Africa, throughout the Middle East to India itself. Turkestan is considered the northernmost point of their habitat. Here, as in Asia Minor, one-humped camels can be found along with the Bactrians.
In the daytime, dromedars are quite active. Those camels that live in the wild usually form harem groups in which there are several females, a male and offspring. Often young males come together in groups. But such associations do not last long.
Camels are herbivores. They feed on plants of various species, including salty and prickly.
The dromedary is perfectly adapted to life in extreme climatic conditions of the desert. Dromedary can live in areas where other ungulates would not have lived for several days. Thick eyebrows and long eyelashes reliably protect the camel's eyes from the sun and sand.
Dromedaries who live in the Sahara can even go without water all winter, since they produce an insignificant amount of it together with urine and feces. The skin of camels is resistant to drying. Interestingly, even at high air temperatures, they do not experience excessive sweating, as in other animals.
Dromedaries breed at any time of the year. Female one-humped camel has a estrus several times a year. This increases the chances of conceiving a cub. Males during the rut are very aggressive. An excited male inflates a sack-shaped process of a soft palate resembling a large red ball. Dromedaries mate sitting or lying on their side, which is quite unusual for animals of this size. Usually cubs are born in the rainy season, when even in the desert regions there is no shortage of food.
The camel gives birth to its only child while standing. Newborns have soft and wavy hair. Like the cubs of other ungulates, camels can move about almost immediately. About 3 hours after birth, they are already running, but they feed on their mother’s milk for another year.
Camel and man
People who live in desert areas are heavily dependent on camels. For thousands of years, these animals have helped people, they transport goods, pull the plow and deliver water to the fields. Thus, camels are involved in increasing the fertility and population of desert areas.
Camels are not only labor. Animals also give people almost everything they need for life: food, clothing, and even protect against adverse natural phenomena. Their meat is very tasty, and camel milk rich in fats is eaten.
GENERAL PROVISIONS. DESCRIPTION
In the Arab countries, he is loved as the most useful creature given to man by Allah. In Arabian countries, camel racing is very popular.
They learned about the one-humped camel later than about the two-humped camel. Nothing is known about the wild ancestors of the dromedary. His homeland is the deserts of Arabia. The world learned about it when the nomadic Bedouin tribes from the Arabian hinterland 3 thousand years ago began to appear in Palestine. North of the dromedary can be found closer to Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Frosty winters prevent the animal from spreading heavily. Dromedary for people of the desert and assistant, and breadwinner. It is distinguished by a faster gait (hence its Greek name "Dromayos", which means fast-moving) than Bactrian (two-humped camel), and resistance to heat. In addition, the dromedary gives more milk, which is very appreciated by the inhabitants of the desert. Sour camel milk, diluted with water, quenches thirst very well. From that time, the triumphal procession of the one-humped camel across all the hot deserts of the world began. Its distribution in North Africa, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and North India coincided with the desertification of the vast territories of these countries. That's why the lives of millions of people in the deserts of Africa and Asia are still completely dependent on the dromedary. Nowadays, nomadic desert tribes use it as a transport and pack animal that can withstand two weeks of hard work without water. Its meat is used for food, and milk quenches thirst.
DO YOU KNOW THAT.
- Camels are called “desert ships” because they walk with a little sway, and also because camels are almost the only means of transport in these regions.
- Camels differ from other mammals in the structure of blood cells: they are oval.
- Camels spit undigested contents of the stomach. Sometimes camels can spit, for example, visitors to the zoo.
- The camel is perfectly adapted to life in arid areas and can go without water for a long time. But, when he drinks, in 10 minutes he is able to drink up to 100 liters of liquid.
COMPARISON OF DRAMADER AND BACTRIAN
Feet: on each foot of the camel there are 2 large hooves with pads that, when stretched, help to move along the loose, hot sand.
Wool: thin, wavy on the head, protects the dromedary from the scorching sun.
Legs: long and thin, with pronounced calluses on the joints, which protect against burns when the camel lies on the sand.
Nose: narrow slit-like nostrils can completely close during sandstorms.
- Dromedary habitat
It is believed that the dromedaries come from Arabia. Now domesticated camels distributed from North Africa and Central Asia to Mongolia. Dromedaries also live in Australia.
As pets, dromedaries are very numerous, and in the wild they probably have already disappeared. Wild camel populations live only in Australia.
The camel spits, it turns out! Video (00:02:06)
In the Altai Mountains, we met a camel. We fed him, and he thanked us with a delicious spit.
Camels (Latin Camelus) are a genus of mammals of the corpus callosum. These are large animals adapted for life in the desert.
There are two types of camels:
? Bactrian or Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus)
? Dromedary, less often - dromedar or One-humped camel (C. dromedarius)
Both types of camel were domesticated more than 5000 years ago. Wild camel populations survived in the Gobi Desert and were discovered by N. M. Przhevalsky. Nowadays, the issue of acclimatization of wild two-humped camels in the Pleistocene park in Yakutia is being considered. Domestic camels are used primarily as pack and draft animals. In some arid regions of North America and Australia, these animals were released into the wild, where they perfectly took root and bred. The number of wild camels in Australia in 2008 exceeded 1,000,000 and is growing at a rate of 11% per year. It is the largest wild camel population in the world, consisting mainly of dromedaries.
In Russia, one breed of one-humped camels is bred - Arvana and three breeds of two-humped camels - Kalmyk, Kazakh and Mongolian. The most valuable breed is Kalmyk
The Latin name Camelus ascends through Greek. to the general Semitic “gamal” (Arabic).
The Russian word "camel" is a distorted Kalmyk "burgud" meaning "camels". According to Farmer, a camel comes from an ancient borrowing from a Gothic source, in which ulbandus meant "elephant".
The mass of an adult camel is 500-800 kg, reproductive age starts from 2-3 years. Camels can live up to 20 years.
A camel was born in Mexico City Zoo. Video (00:01:39)
A camel was born in Mexico City Zoo For the first time in nine years, the Chapultepec Zoo in Mexico City celebrates the birth of a one-humped camel or dromedary. The baby was born on April 5 and weighed 24 kilograms. Now he has grown up, and visitors can look at him. The director of the zoo says that the camel is completely healthy, but is on artificial feeding. Mother immediately after giving birth refused him. Juan Arturo Rivera, Director of the Chapultepec Zoo: The zoo administration invited people to choose a name for the camel. Voting takes place on the Internet. However, the further fate of the baby has not yet been determined. Juan Arturo Rivera, Director of the Chapultepec Zoo: One-humped camels or dromedaries, which in Greek means “running,” are much smaller than their two-humped counterparts. Their wild populations have not survived to the present day, but wild-dropping dromedaries re-live in Australia. In many regions of Asia and Africa, people use single-humped camels as pack animals, and also ride them. They are adapted to the arid climate and can do without water for a month, and if they carry luggage, then a week. Camels can drink almost 100 liters of water in 10 minutes.
“We had to resolve this problem with the offspring, because this is the first time that the mother showed aggression towards the cub. "We separated him from his mother, because she was very nervous, and began to artificially feed."
“We need to work on his return to the family. As soon as this happens, he will stay with us for several years until we determine what will be better: leave here for the purpose of reproduction or make an exchange. ”
For the first time in nine years, the Chapultepec Zoo in Mexico City celebrates the birth of a one-humped camel or dromedary. The baby was born on April 5 and weighed 24 kilograms. Now he has grown up, and visitors can look at him.
The director of the zoo says that the camel is completely healthy, but is on artificial feeding. Mother immediately after giving birth refused him.
Juan Arturo Rivera, Director of the Chapultepec Zoo:
The zoo administration invited people to choose a name for the camel. Voting takes place on the Internet. However, the further fate of the baby has not yet been determined.
Juan Arturo Rivera, Director of the Chapultepec Zoo:
One-humped camels or dromedaries, which in Greek means “running,” are much smaller than their two-humped counterparts. Their wild populations have not survived to the present day, but wild-dropping dromedaries re-live in Australia.
In many regions of Asia and Africa, people use single-humped camels as pack animals, and also ride them. They are adapted to the arid climate and can do without water for a month, and if they carry luggage, then a week. Camels can drink almost 100 liters of water in 10 minutes.