(Engraulidae) ANCHOWES FAMILY, REAL ANCHUES (Anchovies) 17 genera 144 species
Anchovy family (Engranlldae)
The family includes about 15 genera and more than 100 species of mainly tropical fish that live in coastal sea, brackish and fresh water. Their snout protrudes markedly forward, the mouth is very large, half-lower or lower, the body is elongated, close in shape to the cylinder. The maxillary bones protruding beyond the eyes - the "mustache" - give the muzzle of the fish a funny expression. Large eyes, shifted to the tip of the snout, are covered with transparent skin on the outside, teeth are usually single-row and small, and the tail is strongly emarginate.
Color whitish or translucent with a shiny longitudinal strip along the midline of the body. All anchovies are schooling fish that filter plankton through gill stamens. The maximum size is 41 cm, the usual one is 10-20 cm. Among commercial fish, anchovies firmly hold the lead. Of particular value is their fat (up to 28% of body weight), from which delicious sauces are prepared. Females are larger and fuller than males. Fish - pelagophiles. The juveniles matures in 1-2 years. Seasonal spawning 2-3 portion. Fertility is 5-50 thousand or more ellipsoidal eggs. Caviar is swept at night or in the morning. The incubation period lasts 30-45 hours (at a water temperature of 20-25 ° C). Anchovies, when kept in aquariums, are susceptible to toxicosis, traumatization, and shock events during capture. Of great interest are the Thai lycotrissa (Licothrissa crocodilus) and the South American lycitraulises (Licengraulis), which reach a length of 10-20 cm. Very effective Japanese coelies, South African gilchristella and Australian trissa: Coilia eectenes, 190 Great Coil, Jordan successfully live in captivity. -32 cm. Coilia phantom - S. mystus, (Linnaeus, 1758), 15-24 cm. Gilchristella - Gilchristella aestuarius (Gilchrist - Thompson, 1913), 6 cm. Trissa Scratchley - Thrissa scratchleyi (Ramsay - Ogilby, 1887) , 17–41 cm. Containment conditions: dH up to 30 °, pH 7.2–8.5, t 15–26 ° С, aeration, filtration, if necessary, water salinity 3–5 ‰. Life expectancy in captivity does not exceed 4 years.
CEM. ENGRAULIDAE - ANCHUES
One species is widespread in the Black Sea, represented by two subspecies: Engraulis encrasicholus ponticus Aleksandrov - one of the most numerous representatives of the Black Sea ichthyofauna and Engraulis encrasicholus maeoticus Pusanov - living in the Sea of Azov and forming a high concentration here during feeding and spawning (Aleksandrov, 1927 Puzanov, 1936).
Life of animals. Volume 4. Pisces Edited by Professor T. S. Rass 1971
Anchovy family (Engraulidae)
Anchovy family (Engraulidae) The Anchovy family unites small flocking fish, which are found in abundance in places and play an important role in fishing. The area of distribution of this family includes coastal sea waters of the tropical and temperate zones of all oceans, but representatives of this group are not found far from the coast. Some species are common in river estuaries and in completely fresh waters.
In appearance, anchovies have much in common with herring, from which they are well distinguished by their prohibitively large mouth located under a pointed snout that is pointed and compressed laterally. The elongated body of these fish usually has an almost cylindrical shape (but in some genera it is strongly compressed from the sides) and is covered with large cycloid scales that easily fall off when touched. The anchovy mouth is unusually wide, and the maxillary bones are very thin and long: they extend far beyond the eye, and sometimes even protrude beyond the posterior edge of the gill cover. The teeth are usually small, sitting in a row on each jaw. Large eyes, placed close to the end of the snout, are covered on the outside with a transparent skin film. A small dorsal fin is located in the middle of the body, in front of an elongated anal fin. The caudal fin in most species is provided with a deep notch. These are silver-white or translucent fish, sometimes decorated with a longitudinal stripe running along the midline of the body and casting a metallic sheen.
A very characteristic feature of anchovies is the structure of eggs, which have a peculiar ellipsoid or even teardrop shape and in almost all devoid of fat droplets. The usual spherical shape of fish is preserved only in those members of the family that reproduce in highly desalinated water. Thus, the structure of eggs strongly distinguishes anchovies from herring and indicates large differences in the origin of these groups.
All anchovies lead a pelagic lifestyle. They feed mainly on planktonic animals, which they capture, swimming with their mouths wide open, and filter on gill stamens. These fish play a large role in trophic systems, representing the main food of many predators - not only fish, but also birds, dolphins and cephalopods.
The anchovy family includes about 15 genera and more than 100 species, the vast majority belonging to the tropical fauna. In temperate waters, only representatives of the genus Ordinary anchovies (Engraulis), represented both in the northern and southern hemispheres, live.
A significant variety of anchovies is observed in the Indo-West Pacific region, especially in the waters of India, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippine Islands. Here, there are about a dozen endemic genera, including, apparently, the most primitive (in other words, closest to the ancestral forms that are closest to the family). Coilia anchovies (the Coilia genus with 14 species) are especially peculiar, characterized by a strongly laterally compressed trunk, an elongated tail, tapering posteriorly, and a non-forked tail, merging from below with a multi-beam anal fin. The upper rays of the pectoral fin in these fish are very elongated and pass at the ends into thin filaments, and the maxillary bone extends far beyond the edge of the head. Coilia, common in the coastal waters of India, Indonesia, China and Southern Japan, are among the largest representatives of the family in question. Some species (C. ectenes) reach 40 cm in length.
Some species of other flat-bodied anchovies, usually found near river mouths and estuaries, such as the Setipinna genus, the Thrissocles genus, etc. can also reach rather large sizes (up to 25–35 cm). Many representatives of these genera are similar to coiles the maxillary bones also protrude beyond the edge of the head. Some species of flat-billed anchovies are very widespread. The habitat of the common trissocles (Thrissocles setirostris), for example, extends from South Africa and the Red Sea to China and the islands of Polynesia. Among the Indo-Western Pacific anchovies there are also freshwater fish, in particular the lycrissa (Lycothrissa crocodilus), whose length reaches 20 cm, it lives in the rivers of Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam.
All of the anchovies listed are quite common off the coast of South and Southeast Asia, but the Stolephorus are very large in numbers - small fish 6-15 cm long, very similar in appearance to the common species of common anchovies of the genus Engraulis in moderate waters. They are kept in large, dense flocks near sandy shores and, moving along the coasts, often enter in large numbers into bays and bays.
American tropical anchovies are also very diverse. There are 7 genera of this family, including about 75 species, of which 44 live on the Atlantic side of the continent and 32 on the Pacific side (one species of the Anchoa genus, A. spinifer, is found on both sides of the Isthmus of Panama). Some of the American anchovies are among the massive fish. Very large flocks are kept, in particular, the common anchovy (A. mitchilli), which lives in the coastal waters from Yucatan to the Gulf of Maine. This species makes seasonal migrations, moving in the summer to the northern regions of the range and returning to warmer waters in winter. Other species are also very abundant, for example, striped anchovy (A. hepsetus), common on the Atlantic coast, and anchovy (Cetengraulis mysticetus), found in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico. Some American anchovies live in completely fresh water. These include, in particular, individual representatives of the genus Lycengraulis, known only from the inland waters of Venezuela, Guiana and Brazil. They are not closely related to Asian freshwater anchovies and have found their way into rivers regardless of these fish.
All of the above indicates a huge variety of tropical anchovies. In contrast, in temperate waters, as already noted, there are representatives of a single genus Anchovy (Engraulis), which, according to modern data, contains six very close species.
Off the west coast of South America, the trade winds seem to push the cold, north-flowing waters of the Peruvian current toward the open sea. A mass of nutrient-rich water rushes into the resulting hollow, which creates favorable conditions for the development of living organisms, even 300 kilometers or more off the coast of Peru. Huge herds of small, sardine-like anchovies provide food for other fish, sea lions, birds and even penguins. When the mass of this fish splashes, jumps out of the water, millions of cormorants, boobies, pelicans, terns and seagulls hang over it and it rushes to catch it. Five to six million birds eat about a thousand tons of anchovies daily. Such an abundance of feed pushed Peru to the ranks of the largest fishing countries, and as far as the excrement of a myriad of seabirds, that is, guano, it is the raw material for the development of the Peruvian industry, which produces excellent fertilizers.
Xxxv. Sem. ENGRAULIDAE - ANCHUES
The body is elongated, more or less compressed laterally, covered with a thin cycloid, easily falling scales. The head is compressed from the sides. The mouth is very large, more or less oblique, usually with a pointed, laterally compressed snout. The mouth opening is very wide, the maxillary bones are very long and thin, extending back far beyond the eye, and in some species even beyond the head, the premaxillary bones are not extendable, very small, tightly spliced with the maxillary. The teeth are usually small, arranged in a row on each jaw, sometimes there are fangs. The eyes are large, in front of the head. The preorbital bones are narrow, the capes are thin, membranous. Gill stamens long and thin. The rays of the gill membrane are thin, including 7-14. The gill membranes are divided or merged, free of the isthmus. False gills are available. There is no sideline. The abdomen is rounded or compressed laterally and serrated. The fins vary: the dorsal, as a rule, is short and is located in the middle of the trunk above or in front of the usually long anal, fatty is absent, the caudal is often forked, less often pointed. Small, predatory fish swimming mainly in large schools near sandy shores. Common in all warm seas, occasionally enter rivers. (Jordan a. Herre, 1906: 637).
Several genera and many species. There are 5 genera in the Sea of Japan and adjacent waters.
The taxonomy of this. Engraulidae is considered in special reviews and in separate articles of the authors (Jordan a. Seale, 1925, 1926, Delsman, 1926, 1929, 1931, Hardenberg, 1933, Fowler, 1941, Hildebrand, 1943b), but cannot be satisfactorily developed. Unfortunately, we have little material at our disposal. Therefore, we cannot critically revise existing ideas and take as a basis the work of Matsubara (Matsubara, 1955: 194), which takes into account the works cited above.
IDENTIFICATION TABLE OF CHILDBIRTH ENGRAULIDAE (According to Matsubara (Matsubara, 1955: 194).)
12). The caudal part of the body is noticeably elongated, pointed at the end. The caudal fin is not forked, its lower part merges with the anal, containing many rays. The upper 4-7 rays of the pectoral fin are very elongated, their ends are turned into thin threads. (Sub-sub. Coiliinae). 1. Coilia Gray.
2 (1). The tail of the body is not elongated. Wilchati tail fin does not merge with anal fin.
3 (6). Caviar is oval. There are more abdominal vertebrae than caudal vertebrae. Anal fin less than 25 rays. (Sub-sub. Stolephorinae).
4 (5). The belly is rounded or compressed laterally, but without keel scales. The body is more or less cylindrical in shape and completely not transparent. The body color is silver-white, but in many species there is no distinct silver-white strip along the sides of the body. Vertebrae 46–47. 2. Engraulis Cuvier.
5 (4). The belly is laterally compressed and has a keel between 2 pectoral and ventral fins, armed with 2–7 keel scales. The body is translucent. Usually there is a distinct silver-white strip along the sides of the body. Vertebrae 39-43. 3. Stolephorus Lacepede.
6 (3). Caviar is round. The abdominal vertebrae are smaller than the caudal ones. In the anal fin more than 25 rays. (Sub-sub. Thrissinae).
7 (8). The upper ray of the pectoral fin is not elongated. In the anal fin 35-40 rays. The number of vertebrae is 40–41. 4. Thrissa Cuvier.
8 (7). The upper ray of the pectoral fin is elongated and has the shape of a thread. In the anal fin 50-75 rays. The number of vertebrae is 46-56. 5. Setipinna Swainson.
Popular name: hamsa.
Distinctive features of appearance:
- the location of the dorsal fin - the middle of the body at the tip of the snout,
- the body is narrow, flat on the sides,
- the back color is blue-green, the belly is silver, the sides are decorated with gray-blue longitudinal ribbons, which are distinguished by a silver sheen,
- the mouth is relatively large, it reaches the posterior edge of the orbits,
- length up to 20 cm with a mass of 50 g.
Forms of European anchovy: Atlantic, Mediterranean, Black Sea, as well as Azov. Anchovy is a sea fish, however, it easily tolerates fluctuations in water salinity, it can often be found in fresh waters of river mouths, and enters estuaries. European anchovy - one of the most numerous marine fish, kept in huge schools, making migratory transitions over long distances. Fish feed on zoo and phytoplankton. Anchovy has a lot of enemies in nature - it serves as the main food for a number of seabirds, fish and mammals.
Spawning: spawning European anchovy in the coastal zone of the seas.
Nutrition: phyto- and zooplankton. Ways of fishing: an important object of fishing, amateur fishermen get only by chance.
This may seem strange to many, but Japanese anchovy lovers are often anime fans. True fans of this genre of animated films, with the advent of broadband internet, have a great opportunity to watch anime for free at home. On ivi.ru they will be able to choose anime films from a large collection to watch and slowly eating delicious anchovies, leave their personal review of each picture.
In the modern world, the name "anchovy" actually began to mean only a cooking method. So, anchovies in cans are often prepared from a small White Sea herring, from herring or from other small fish, but only by a certain method of anchovy salting. Anchovy is rightly considered a delicious spicy fish appetizer. However, it is not only tasty, but also a healthy snack. The properties of the “real” anchovies were told to us by a researcher at the TINRO-Center pelagic resources laboratory, candidate of biological sciences Aleksey Baitalyuk.
“The anchovy family unites small flocking fish, which are found in places in abundance and play an important role in fishing,” says Alexey Baitalyuk. - The area of distribution of this family includes coastal sea waters of the tropical and temperate zones of all oceans.In appearance, the anchovies have much in common with herring, from which they differ by their exorbitantly large mouth, located underneath a snout that is pointed and compressed from the sides. These silver-white or translucent fish are sometimes decorated with a longitudinal stripe running along the midline of the body and casting a metallic sheen.
A very characteristic feature of anchovies is the structure of eggs, which have a peculiar ellipsoid or even teardrop shape and in almost all devoid of fat droplets. The usual spherical shape of fish is preserved only in those members of the family that reproduce in highly desalinated water. Thus, the structure of eggs strongly distinguishes anchovies from herring and indicates great differences in the origin of these groups, says Alexey Baitalyuk.
Anchovies lead a pelagic lifestyle. They feed mainly on planktonic animals, which they capture, swimming with their mouths wide open, and filter on gill stamens. These fish play a large role in trophic systems, representing the main food of many predators - not only fish, but also birds, dolphins and cephalopods. The anchovy family includes about 15 genera and more than 100 species, the vast majority belonging to the tropical fauna. Representatives of the genus “common anchovies” (Engraulis), present in both the northern and southern hemispheres, live in temperate waters. A significant variety of anchovies is observed in the Indo-West Pacific region, especially in the waters of India, Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippine Islands. Here, there are about a dozen endemic genera, including, apparently, the most primitive (in other words, closest to the ancestral forms that are closest to the family). Coilia anchovies (genus Coilia with 14 species) are especially peculiar, differing in a strongly laterally compressed trunk, an elongated tail, and tapering behind. Coilia, common in the coastal waters of India, Indonesia, China and Southern Japan, are among the largest representatives of this family. Some species reach 40 cm in length. American tropical anchovies are also very diverse. There are 7 genera of this family, including about 75 species, of which 44 live on the Atlantic side of the continent and 32 on the Pacific side (one species of the Anchoa genus is found on both sides of the Isthmus of Panama), continues Alexei Baitalyuk. - Some of the American anchovies are among the massive fish.
In the Japanese and Yellow Seas and off the Pacific coast of Japan, Japanese anchovy lives, also represented by a closely related form - Cape anchovy - in the waters of South Africa. Australian anchovies are found along the southern shores of Australia (outside the tropical zone) and New Zealand. Three more species are found off the coast of the American continent: these are California anchovy, Peruvian anchovy and Argentinean anchovy.
Peruvian anchovy is considered the most widespread species of all living on our planet. The large abundance of this species is explained by the special conditions of its existence: it lives off the coast of Peru and Northern Chile, where processes of rise to the surface of nutrient-rich salts of nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and deep waters occur with extraordinary strength. As a result, a huge amount of phytoplankton develops here, which is the only food of this fish, which, unlike other anchovies, eats in the adult state not microscopic plankton animals, but microscopic algae. There are few predatory fish here, but this does not save the anchovy from enemies. The main consumers of this species are fish-eating birds - cormorants, gannets, pelicans, gulls, in a huge number nesting along the shores of Peru and Chile, and especially on coastal islets. According to a rough estimate, there are about 18 million of these birds on the Peruvian coast, and anchovies account for 90% of their food. To realize the significance of these predators, it can be noted that the annual production of guano - bird droppings, widely used for fertilizer and developed now by industrial methods, has reached an average of 130 thousand tons annually over the past 50 years. The Peruvian anchovy does not make any significant migrations. Spawning of this species is greatly extended, but its main peak falls in the summer months. Like other anchovies, the fish in question has a short life span. The usual sizes are 14-15 cm, and the longest reaches 18 cm.
European anchovy lives on the Atlantic coast of Europe and North Africa. In the Azov-Black Sea basin, it is known under the local name hamsa. The most widespread is the European anchovy, which lives in the Atlantic Ocean, from the Canary Islands to the Bay of Biscay, in all areas of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. In summer, the European anchovy comes to the North (to the shores of Southern Norway), the Baltic and Azov Seas. Within its range, this species, which tolerates large fluctuations in salinity and temperature, forms several separate forms - the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Black Sea and Azov, ”says Alexey Baitalyuk.
The Black Sea anchovy, or hamsa, constantly lives in the Black Sea off all coasts. In summer, hamsa is widely dispersed throughout the sea and adheres to the upper layers of water located above the temperature jump layer. Especially a lot of this fish happens in the summer in the northwestern part of the Black Sea, which is well warmed up and rich in fodder plankton. In winter, when surface water is very cooled and storms become very strong, hamsa concentrates in limited coastal areas, leads a sedentary lifestyle, eating poorly and sinking to a depth of 70-80 m. Here it stays mainly in bottom waters and only in warm, quiet days rises to the surface. However, in mild winters, hamsa may not even go down to the depths at all. In the territory of the former USSR, the main wintering areas are located off the southern coast of Crimea and off the coast of Georgia.
Hamsa breeding occurs everywhere in the Black Sea and continues throughout the warm season - from May to September, and judging by the location of eggs, the most intensive spawning occurs in places of mass development of plankton. Hamsa has a very short life cycle - its age limit is only 3-4 years. In the first two years of life, this fish grows rather quickly, reaching 10-11 cm in length by the end of this period, but in the future its growth rate slows down, and the maximum size does not exceed 13, rarely 15 cm. - and three year old fish. The Black Sea hamsa is the largest and largest (compared to anchovy) fish of the sea. It serves as the main food for most predators of this reservoir - bonito, mackerel, beluga and other fish, as well as dolphins, gulls and petrels.
The Azov hamsa differs from the Black Sea in light color and smaller in size - its usual length is 8-9 cm. This fish spends only the summer in the Sea of Azov. There she eats actively, spawning (in June-July) and fry are fed there. In autumn, the Azov hamsa of all ages leaves through the Kerch Strait in the Black Sea and, moving along the shores of the Caucasus and Crimea, like the Black Sea hamsa lies in wintering pits. Most of it usually remains for the winter in the region of Novorossiysk or somewhat south. During the wintering migration (as with the reverse movement), the hamsa moves in huge schools, accompanied by a mass of gulls and petrels circling above them, as well as dolphins. Sometimes migratory hamsa in large numbers enters bays and bays, especially a lot of this fish was observed at a time when its fishing was still poorly developed, ”says Alexei Baitalyuk.
Here is how one of the first researchers of the Black Sea fisheries N. Ya. Danilevsky describes a similar approach of hamsa to the Balaklava Bay: “The most remarkable example of this genus was in 1859, when the abundance of hamsa that entered the bay instead of the beneficence of nature turned into a real national disaster. From the onslaught from behind, the hamsa entering the bay could not return. Here the bay, which is more than a mile long and about 100 fathoms wide, was so overflowed with fish that no water was visible. She was suffocated by such crowding and strangled all the other fish that jumped ashore. Sea crayfish also crawled out of the water. From the rotting of this fish, such a stench spread that silver in cabinets and oil paintings with whitewash turned completely black. From the corner of the bay, where it is shallow, they were forced to rake hamsa and carry it away in bags. It was buried in the ground, some fertilized the fields, but all this could not reduce the stench ... The unbearable smell lasted for a year in the vicinity of Balaklava, and the fish completely disappeared from the bay. The next year it was possible to see from the embankment ... in calm weather, whole heaps of dead fish at the bottom, lying exactly like ricks. According to residents, millions of pounds of hamsa died here. In small sizes, this was repeated in 1867. "
In addition to hamsa, Japanese anchovy is also found in Russian waters, which is quite common in the waters of Primorye, but in large numbers living on the shores of Korea and Japan. This fish also lives only two to three years and reaches a length of no more than 16 cm. Spawning occurs everywhere within the vast range that extends from Taiwan to Southern Sakhalin. Caviar and fry can be transported from the coast of Japan in the Kuro-Sivo stream to the northeast, so that individual individuals are found even away from coastal waters. Currently, Japanese anchovy, along with saury, is the dominant species of the ichthyocene epielagial of the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Japanese anchovy stands out among other commercial fish species of the nerito-pelagic complex with the most stable population structure. Two populations are distinguished in its range: the Pacific and the Sea of Japan.
Fluctuations in abundance in both populations are insignificant in comparison with fluctuations in abundance, for example, Iwashi sardines and, judging by the catch and reproduction, do not exceed a 4-fold level. For both populations, a significant increase in catch was observed in the 1990s, including due to the development of previously unused resources of the Japanese population in the East China and Yellow Seas by China.
In addition to China, our neighbors, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the DPRK, are also fishing in the Far East region, and in recent years, their catch by these countries has increased, which is due, inter alia, to an increase in the prices of fishmeal and other products. In particular, after a significant break in the late 1990s. the anchovy seiner fishing by Japan was restored off the Pacific coast of about. Hokkaido, and now the catch here is up to 400 thousand tons. The catch of anchovies in the Sea of Japan by Japan, the Republic of Korea and the DPRK is just as high.
The scale of penetration of anchovy into the Russian EEZ is determined by the population size and hydrological conditions. In the feeding season, from June to November, it forms significant accumulations here, allowing one to judge the size of the reserve. In recent years, when conducting surveys of FSUE TINRO-Center, its biomass in the Pacific waters amounted to several hundred thousand tons, and its occurrence in catches was about 70%. In many areas of the Far East, Japanese anchovy forms large clusters, accounting for a significant part of the total production of pelagic fish. Scientists at the TINRO Center have been researching this object for a long time, studying its nutritional and biological value. “We were able to develop a unique processing technology for the Japanese anchovy. Primorsky preserves are an easy way to produce salted fish products from quick-ripening fish, including anchovies, by adding a protease inhibitor to the saline solution, which allows you to preserve the quality of the product for a period of time that exceeds 1.5-2 times the original ", - Alexey Baitalyuk shares a secret.
Anchovies are one of the most important groups of commercial fish. By the size of the catch, this family firmly holds the first place in the world fishing statistics. A large proportion of the catch, of course, is the Peruvian anchovy. An equally important role in the anchovy fishery is also played by the European anchovy harvested in the Netherlands, Portugal and France, and its Black Sea and Azov forms.
Anchovies are caught mainly in purse seines, as well as fixed and casting seines and in trawls. The value of anchovies as an object of fishing is largely determined by the high fat content of these fish. First of all, this applies to moderate-water species. So, our Azov hamsa - one of the fattest anchovies - contains 23-28% fat in its body in the autumn after feeding. Taste qualities of these fish, especially after appropriate processing, are very high. Even in ancient times, the Mediterranean and Black Sea anchovies were very appreciated in salt form and for the preparation of acidic, spicy sauces, the so-called garum, which served as a favorite seasoning of Greek and Roman deli. And now in France and Italy a delicious, salty product is made from these fish. In our south, many methods of cooking fresh hamsa are used: they are fried in a pan with butter, stewed with onions, tomatoes and potatoes, cooked meatballs and used in other ways. The bulk of the catch is still harvested in salt form and partially in the form of canned food. However, anchovies go far from everywhere. Almost the entire catch of the most important in the world fishing of the Peruvian anchovy is realized, for example, for the manufacture of fishmeal, used for feeding livestock and fertilizing fields. Many tropical anchovies, as well as Japanese and Californian go to the bait of the tuncello fishing. If there are accumulations of tuna, dozens and hundreds of fish are thrown out of special live-fishing tanks in the net by the net, and when the tuna come closer to the side of the vessel and grab the bait eagerly, they are caught, throwing the lure into the flock of feeding predators.
1 area of use
1 area of use
This standard applies to anchovy and small salted and spicy salted herring fish (hereinafter referred to as salted and spicy salted fish) intended for food purposes.
This standard does not apply to salted and spiced salted herring, the relevant requirements of which are established in GOST 815, GOST 1084.
The species composition of fish is given in Appendix A.
2 Normative references
This standard uses normative references to the following interstate standards:
GOST 8.579-2002 State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements. Requirements for the amount of packaged goods in packages of any kind during their production, packaging, sale and import
GOST 21-94 Sugar. Technical conditions
GOST 814-96 Chilled fish. Technical conditions
GOST 815-2004 Salted herring. Technical conditions
GOST 1084-88 Pacific herring and sardine spicy salted and pickled. Technical conditions
GOST 2802-89 Fruits of common juniper. Technical conditions
GOST 2874-82 * Drinking water. Hygiene requirements and quality control
* On the territory of the Russian Federation GOST R 51232-98 "Drinking water. General requirements for the organization and methods of quality control."
GOST 5717.1-2014 Glass jars for canned food. General specifications
GOST 5717.2-2003 Glass jars for canned food. Key parameters and dimensions
GOST 6716-71 Rhizome of the cinquefoil (wild otter, dubbing, Uzik)
GOST ISO 7218-2011 Microbiology of food and animal feed. General requirements and recommendations for microbiological research
GOST 7630-96 Fish, marine mammals, marine invertebrates, algae and their processed products. Marking and packaging
GOST 7631-2008 Fish, non-fish objects and products from them. Methods for determining organoleptic and physical indicators
GOST 7636-85 * Fish, marine mammals, marine invertebrates and their processed products. Analysis methods
* Replaced by GOST 13496.15-85 in part of clause 3.7.1 in terms of determination of raw fat in fish meal and marine mammals and crustaceans, intended for the production of animal feed, GOST 26927-86 in clause 3.8, GOST 26657-85 in clause 8.12.1.
GOST 9159-71 Mustard seeds (industrial raw materials). Requirements for procurement and supply. Technical conditions
GOST 10444.15-94 Food Products. Methods for determining the amount of mesophilic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms
GOST 11771-93 Canned and preserved fish and seafood. Packaging and labeling
GOST 13516-86 * Corrugated cardboard boxes for canned food, preserves and food liquids. Technical conditions
* On the territory of the Russian Federation GOST R 54463-2011 "Container made of cardboard and combined materials for food products. Specifications."
GOST 13830-97 * Food table salt. General specifications
* On the territory of the Russian Federation GOST R 51574-2000 "Food table salt. Technical conditions" is in force.
GOST 14192-96 Cargo labeling
GOST 15846-2002 Products sent to the Far North and equivalent areas. Packaging, labeling, transportation and storage
GOST 17594-81 Dry bay leaf. Technical conditions
GOST 18315-78 Anise. Industrial raw materials. Requirements for blanks. Technical conditions
GOST 20055-90 Rhizomes of calamus. Technical conditions
GOST 21569-76 Rhizomes and roots of angelica officinalis
GOST 21570-76 Grass bison
GOST 23285-78 Transport bags for foodstuffs and glass containers. Technical conditions
GOST 24597-81 Packages of packaged goods. Key parameters and dimensions
GOST 25951-83 Shrink polyethylene film. Technical conditions
GOST 26663-85 Transport packages. Formation using packaging tools. General technical requirements
GOST 26669-85 Food and taste products. Sample preparation for microbiological analysis
GOST 26670-91 Food Products. Microorganism Cultivation Methods
GOST 26927-86 Raw materials and food products. Methods for the determination of mercury
GOST 26929-94 Raw materials and food products. Sample preparation. Mineralization to determine the content of toxic elements
GOST 26930-86 Raw materials and food products. Method for determination of arsenic
Probably the error of the original. It should be read: GOST R 51766-2001. - Note by the manufacturer of the database.
GOST 31628-2012 Food products and food raw materials. Inversion voltammetric method for determining the mass concentration of arsenic
GOST 31659-2012 (ISO 6579: 2002) Food products. Method for detecting bacteria of the genus Salmonella
GOST 31746-2012 (ISO 6888-1: 1999, ISO 6888-2: 1999, ISO 6888-3: 2003) Food products. Methods for the identification and determination of the number of coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus
GOST 31747-2012 (ISO 4831: 2006, ISO 4832: 2006) Food products. Methods for detecting and determining the number of bacteria of the group of Escherichia coli (coliform bacteria)
GOST 31789-2012 Fish, marine invertebrates and their processed products. Quantitative determination of nutrient amines by high performance liquid chromatography
GOST 31791-2012 Products and raw materials of essential oil, herbaceous and floral. Technical conditions
GOST 31792-2012 Fish, marine invertebrates and their processed products. Determination of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls by the chromato-mass spectral method
GOST 31795-2012 Fish, seafood and products from them. Method for determination of mass fraction of protein, fat, water, phosphorus, calcium and ash by near infrared spectroscopy
GOST 31895-2012 White sugar. Technical conditions
GOST 31904-2012 Food Products. Microbiological sampling methods
GOST 31983-2012 Food, feed, food raw materials. Methods for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls
GOST 32004-2012 Chilled small fish. Technical conditions
GOST 32031-2012 Food Products. Methods for the identification of bacteria Listeria monocytogenes
GOST 32161-2013 Food Products. Method for determination of cesium content Cs-137
GOST 32163-2013 Food Products. Method for determination of strontium content Sr-90
GOST 32164-2013 Food Products. Sampling method for determining the content of strontium Sr-90 and cesium Cs-137
GOST 32366-2013 Frozen fish. Technical conditions
GOST 32744-2014 Frozen small fish. Technical conditions
Note - When using this standard, it is advisable to check the validity of reference standards in the public information system - on the official website of the Federal Agency for Technical Regulation and Metrology on the Internet or the annual information index "National Standards", which is published as of January 1 of this year, and on issues of the monthly information index "National Standards" for the current year. If the reference standard is replaced (changed), then when using this standard should be guided by the replacement (modified) standard. If the reference standard is canceled without replacement, the provision in which the reference to it is given applies to the extent not affecting this reference.
3 Main parameters and dimensions
3.1 The length of small salted herring and spicy salting should be, cm, not more than:
17.0 - Atlantic, Pacific and Czech-Pechora,
13.0 - White Sea.
3.2 The mass of small Azov-Black Sea herring (Don, Dnieper, Danube, Kerch) salted and spicy salting should be less than 0.1 kg.
3.3 Other small fish are not divided by length and weight.
4 Technical requirements
4.1 Salted and spicy salted fish must comply with the requirements of this standard and be made according to technological instructions in compliance with the requirements, technical regulations or regulatory legal acts in force in the state that adopted the standard.
4.2.1 Fish should be processed with table salt or a mixture of table salt, spices and sugar (when using salted semi-finished product - a mixture of spices and sugar), packed in a package with or without natural brine, saline or salt-and-salt fillings.
4.2.2 Salted and spiced salted fish are made in whole form.
It is allowed to produce salted and spiced salted fish in cut form in accordance with the supply agreement (contract).
4.2.3 Herring small Atlantic and Pacific salted and spicy salting, depending on the mass fraction of fat, is divided into fatty and non-greasy.
Other types of small herring are not divided by fat content.
4.2.4 Salted fish according to the degree of salinity are divided into slightly salted, medium salted and strongly salted.
Salted fish are not subdivided according to the degree of salinity.
4.2.5 Salted and spiced salted fish packed in consumer packaging can be frozen artificially dry.
The temperature in the thickness of the product should not be higher than minus 18 ° C.
4.2.6 According to the chemical indicators, salted and spiced salted fish must meet the requirements specified in table 1.
Mass fraction of salt,%, for fish:
Popular name: anchovy
Distinctive features of appearance:
- the head is devoid of scales
- the body is long, narrow, flattened from the sides, the scales on the body are large,
- the diameter of the eyes is relatively large, the mouth is wide enough, it is of the lower type,
- the back color is dark blue, and the sides and belly are silver,
- length up to 16 cm with a weight of up to 35 g.
This type of fish is common in the waters of the Japanese, Yellow, and East China Seas, off the Pacific coast of Japan and in the Sea of Okhotsk, and often enters the Aniva and Terpeniya bays (Sakhalin). However, it is often found in brackish waters of estuarine areas of the seas, in the lower reaches of rivers. This is a species of flocking pelagic fish that makes long migrations in search of plankton food. The main fishery for this fish is conducted by Japanese and Korean fishermen, the share of Russian fishers in the total catch is small.
Spawning: takes place in the summer when the water temperature reaches 14-19 degrees. The female can sweep over 100 thousand eggs.
Nutrition: phyto- and zooplankton.
Ways of fishing: the subject of fishing, accidentally gets into amateur gear.
Signs The body is covered with thin, easily falling off scales. The head is strongly compressed from the sides, the snout protrudes forward. The mouth is very large, the lower jaw is long and narrow. The jaws have small teeth. There is no abdominal keel. The bases of the ventral fins are in front of the vertical of the beginning of the dorsal. The number of transverse rows of scales is 41-50. Gill stamens 58-77. Vertebrae 43-47 (48).
In Russia, two forms - the Black Sea, E. e. ponticus, and Azov, E. E. gaaeoticus.
What is anchovy
Anchovies are a fish from the Pelagic genus, the Anchovy family. A flat, small fish with a cylindrical body shape, large eyes located towards the end of the head, and an excessively large mouth are an infrequent guest on the tables of Russians. The structural features are clearly visible in the photo of the anchovy. Silver-white fish are sometimes decorated with a stripe on the midline of the body.
Where are anchovies found?
These inhabitants of marine coastal waters never go into the open ocean. Familiar to many hamsa is the European anchovy, but there are also subspecies:
From the names of the subspecies, their habitats are clear: the Mediterranean, Black and Azov Seas. Other subspecies are also known: Argentinean, Australian, Peruvian, Japanese, California and Cape. Japanese, Mediterranean, Azov and Black Sea anchovies are popular among consumers because of the fat content, which is 23-28%.
Composition of anchovy
Small fish is also a source of easily digestible protein, which is quickly digested. So, the body will spend 5-6 hours on the digestion of beef, while the fish will be digested in 2-3 hours. Fish oils are rich in polyunsaturated acids that dissolve cholesterol. A feature of such fats is that they are enriched with vitamins of group F, which are not synthesized in the human body, but must be present in food.
Anchovy contains (per 100 g of product):
- proteins - 20.1 g
- fats - 6.1 g (polyunsaturated + monounsaturated + saturated),
- potassium and sodium - 300 and 160 mg,
- vitamins - A (retinol), K, D, E (tocopherol), group B (niacin, folic, pantothenic acid, cyanocobalamin, thiamine and riboflavin),
- ascorbic acid
- minerals - phosphorus, calcium, iron, sodium, iodine and zinc,
The benefits of anchovy
Anchovy is a sea fish, which leads to a rich chemical composition, which is a storehouse of macro- and microelements, nutrients. With constant use in food, a small fish will improve the quality of life, since it will enrich the body with useful components necessary for human life.
- strengthening bone tissue and teeth,
- prevention of endocrine diseases,
- normal functioning of the central nervous system,
- supporting emotional health, increasing stress tolerance,
- strengthening immunity
- prevention of cardiovascular disease.
The use of anchovy reduces the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and diabetes. There is a benefit in normalizing blood pressure, cholesterol due to Omega-3 and Omega-6 in the composition. The fish should be included in the menu of the elderly, it goes well with many side dishes, while it is inexpensive and considered affordable for various segments of the population.
There are no strict contraindications for the use of anchovy. But like any product, fish can cause allergic reactions. With caution, it is worth it to people suffering from allergic manifestations of seafood. People with iodine intolerance, allergies, are advised to abstain or limit the amount of fish consumed.
On the shelves of the fish is salted or canned. Hypertensive patients are better to soak the fish before use to remove excess salt. People suffering from joint diseases or gout should exclude anchovies from the menu, because the product contains purines that increase the level of uric acid. Patients with gout are shown a low purine diet.
The use of anchovies has been known since ancient times. The famous ancient Garum sauce was prepared from the blood and viscera of fish by fermentation. In addition to fish, olive oil, vinegar or wine were added there. Garum was a component of many recipes. A similar recipe for fish sauce is used today in Southeast Asia.
If finely chopped salted anchovy and pour olive oil, it will almost completely dissolve in oil, giving it a noble piquant taste. It is important to note that only anchovy is suitable for the preparation of such oil, but replacing it with hamsa and sprats will not work - they simply will not dissolve.
To add a special taste, smell, necessary salinity to dishes, fish salted in a certain way are used. There is the concept of “anchovy ambassador”: fresh fish immediately after catch is poured with spicy pickle, leaving it there for several days. After that, anchovies are poured with salt and transferred to barrels, hold for 4 months. Such fish is used everywhere.
European chefs use salted fish to make:
- famous Worcester sauce,
- Italian pizza, pasta,
- Caesar Salad,
- pastes, sandwiches,
- capers with refined dressing.
How to replace anchovy
It happens that the anchovy is not at hand, but it is necessary to convey its taste to the dish. Fish from the herring breed, so suitable for taste: sprat, herring, hamsa, sardines, sprat and sprats. Another option is Thai fish sauce, which will convey a bright fish aroma, which is necessary in the dish. The traditions of making such a seasoning are carefully preserved and passed on from father to son in Asian countries.
How to choose anchovies
Today it is not difficult to buy a jar of anchovy; they are sold in many large stores. But often, a completely different fish can hide under the name of anchovy, so when buying, you should carefully study the composition indicated on the label. In order not to make a mistake when choosing, it will not be out of place to know that anchovies are an expensive product. It is better to purchase anchovy in a transparent dish so that you can see the contents.
There are differences between anchovies and other herring fish, they are visible when the can is already open:
- The fillet of this fish after salting takes on a reddish-pink color, the sprat fillet will remain white.
- The anchovy meat is more fat and dense, has sufficient elasticity, and the hamsa becomes soft.
- Only anchovy brine gives the fish a piquancy and a characteristic specific smell.
If you come across fresh fish, then you should know that:
- the scales fit tightly to the body,
- the fresh fish will appear to be silvery, shiny, with a smooth, mirrored surface. but the presence of mucus will show that the fish is stale,
- to the touch the fish is dense, has sufficient elasticity,
- the structure is not broken, there is no damage to the fish.