Ficus rubbery(Ficus elastica) - a perennial plant at home often reaches three meters, but there are specimens up to ten meters in height. The growth rate is high - per year it can grow from 60 cm to 1 meter. The birthplace of rubber ficus is Malaysia, India, Sumatra, Nepal and Bhutan.
It blooms in greenhouses with small inflorescences that resemble a berry and are called siconia. In room conditions, only large specimens bloom.
Watering is carried out twice a week in the summer and once in the winter. The soil should not sour, excess water is drained from the pan. Propagated by cuttings in a mixture of peat and perlite.
|The growth rate is high - per year it can grow from 60 cm to 1 meter.|
|In room conditions, only large specimens bloom.|
|The plant is easy to grow.|
Signs and superstitions
A distinctive feature is the ability of the plant to purify the air and have a beneficial effect on the home atmosphere.
When planning to buy a rubber ficus home, you need to familiarize yourself with the signs that are associated with it:
- need money - put a plant in the kitchen,
- happiness will bring ficus to the house, being in the hall,
- put in the bedroom - to the advent of children,
- place in the corridor - the family energy will be under reliable protection,
- need to increase efficiency - let it grow near the workplace.
Features of growing at home. Briefly
|Temperature mode||It is not difficult to grow rubber ficus with home conditions, even a beginner will cope with this. The plant is thermophilic - in summer it prefers air temperature of 18-29ºС, and in winter - not less than 15ºС.|
|Air humidity||Leaves need to be constantly wiped with a damp sponge, spray the plant once a week|
|Lighting||Prefers moderate lighting. It can grow in partial shade, but not so fast.|
|Watering||Water the plant sparingly. It is necessary to ensure that the soil does not sour. Excess water from the pan is drained. Before the next watering, the top layer of the earth should dry a little 3-4 cm.|
|Priming||Mandatory drainage in the form of expanded clay at the bottom of the pot and sand in the upper part. The soil should be slightly acidic or neutral, but necessarily fertile.|
|Fertilizer and fertilizer||In winter, top dressing is not required; in the remaining period, magnesium fertilizers are applied every month.|
|Transfer||In order to continue to grow actively, it needs to be transplanted annually. It is better to do this in February-March.|
|Breeding||Reproduction of rubber ficus comes in several ways: |
|Growing Features||The leaves require separate care - they must always be wiped with a damp sponge, and spray the plant enough once a week. It should be planted in slightly acidic or neutral, but necessarily fertile soil. Mandatory drainage in the form of expanded clay at the bottom of the pot and sand in the upper part.|
The crown is formed in the spring - removing unnecessary shoots. A young plant can be attached to a support.
The most common diseases:
- scale shield
- spider mite.
If the leaves are pale and sluggish - lacking nutrients, twist and fall off - low temperature, and if they sag and fade - insufficient watering.
Ficus care at home. In detail
Domestic ficus rubbery is considered unpretentious and grows well even in inexperienced gardeners. This tropical plant does not like drafts, prefers warmth and diffused light.
After purchase, it must be quarantined for two weeks. During this period, foliage should be inspected for pests. For disinfection, you need to spill the earth with soap and water in order to destroy possible parasites.
In the event that pests are detected, it must be transplanted into another pot and treated with an insecticide. After the destruction of all parasites, the plant is transplanted into another pot.
Fertilizer and flowering
A plant feels much better if it receives all the necessary organic and mineral fertilizers from spring to autumn. They must be applied to the soil every two weeks. In this case, the ficus will delight its owner with beautiful flowers.
Also blooming is affected by cold wintering. After it, the plant awakens and blooms.
For good growth, the plant must be in a comfortable air temperature for it.
Between spring and autumn, the room should have an average temperature of 15-26ºС.
In winter, a dormant period begins and the plant feels well in the range from 8ºС to 15ºС.
Only variegated rubber ficus prefers ordinary room temperature.
If you constantly maintain moderate humidity, the ficus will look great and delight the owner with green foliage. A plant likes a warm shower once every couple of weeks. It is necessary to ensure that water does not accumulate in the funnel of the sheet. Spraying should be done several times a week, and the leaves should be wiped as they become dirty.
An inexperienced owner needs to pay special attention to watering. It is very destructive both the soil bay and its drying out.
In the warm period, the plant is watered two to three times a week. The need is determined by the dried top layer. In winter, watering is reduced to once - this is enough even for especially large specimens. It is extremely harmful to overdo it with watering in a cold room - this is detrimental to the root system.
Indoor rubber ficus prefers moderate lighting. It can grow in partial shade, but not so fast. Variegated forms are more demanding to care - they need more light, they are much more thermophilic and tolerate lower temperatures worse. According to experienced gardeners, plants with dark foliage require less light.
Ficus with dark green leaves can grow even in poorly lit places. While a young plant should not be placed close to batteries or in passage places where drafts are possible. In some cases, this can cause death.
Best home rubber ficus positioned on the west or east window.
Rubber ficus is transplanted every year. In this case, the size of the pot is increased by 2-3 cm and the top layer of the earth is changed, which is about 3 cm.
Adult plants are transplanted by transshipment: when the main earthen lump with roots is transferred from one pot to another. If necessary, add new earth.
If the plant needs to be limited in growth, regular pruning should be carried out and not transplanted. A prerequisite is the presence of drainage at the bottom of the tank.
Many gardeners plant several young shoots in a pot - this way you can achieve greater decorative effect. To enhance branching, the tops and side shoots are trimmed as they grow.
You should not keep the plant in the draft, but in summer it is better to take it out onto the loggia.
Can I leave without leaving on vacation?
If the owners are going on vacation, then you need to take care of watering the plant. It is good if relatives or neighbors will constantly deal with this issue.
Otherwise, you can use folk methods:
- place the clay pot in a large container and fill the space with moist expanded clay,
- make a small hole in a plastic bottle and place it in the ground - water will drop out and moisten the soil,
- Dip a woolen thread or bandage from one edge into the ground, and place the other end in a container of water, which will be at a level higher than the pot.
You need to place it away from the window, and put water containers nearby - this will increase air humidity.
Ficus rubbery - home care
The birthplace of the rubber ficus is India, where the plant is considered sacred. Its wild counterparts grow up to 20 m in height, releasing aerial roots. In the past, rubber was made from ficus juice on an industrial scale. Hence its name. Other names for the plant are ficus elastica or “snake tree”. In apartments and offices, it takes root well, withstanding both diffused light and partial shade.
Ficus rubbery in the interior was used by designers back in the last century - large glossy leaves fit into any decor. To this day, this flower is the most popular in home gardening. He requires the most ordinary care: moderate light and watering, regular transplantation and top dressing. If desired, you can grow tall plants whose leaves will touch the ceiling, or you can leave compact bushes that look good on cabinets and special flower stands.
Ficus rubbery - species
To date, many varieties of ficus have been artificially bred, which differ from each other both in size and color of the leaves:
1. Ficus Melanie - the most compact of all varieties. The length of its leaves does not exceed 20 cm, and the flower itself well bush and forms a beautiful crown.
2. Ficus rubbery varieties Tineke is very moody in leaving. However, if you create all the necessary conditions, then your interior will have a beautiful flower with bright green leaves, along the edges of which are white and pistachio spots.
3. Ficus The Black Prince, unlike his brothers, has dark crimson foliage and is not demanding at all.
4. Ficus Robusta - the most popular and unpretentious variety. It can be recognized by bright plain dark green leaves.
5. Ficus Belize is distinguished by the unusual color of the leaf - its middle is green, and the edges are white and pink. To grow such a handsome man at home, you will have to make a lot of effort.
Ficus rubbery - care
An excellent green decoration of the interior will be rubber ficus, which even beginner growers know how to care for. The plant loves diffused sunlight. The best place for him will be the east and west side of the house with a shading of tulle. The shadow ficus tolerates, but develops and grows much more slowly. With an excess of shadow, the leaves become smaller in the flower, the lower part of the trunk is exposed.
Since this guest came to us from warm countries, he also likes high air temperature - 22-27 degrees in the summer and 10-15 degrees in the winter. Variegated varieties are more thermophilic than their plain counterparts. In order for your ficus to please you for many years, it is important to pay attention to the following factors:
- watering regimen in the summer and winter periods,
- timely top dressing,
- proper pruning and crown shaping,
- regular transplantation into a nutrient substrate and in a pot of suitable diameter.
Ficus: types, care
Indoor flowers and caring for them may perplex the housewives: is it worth wasting precious time on this? In the case of ficuses, such an occupation is not difficult: ficuses are mostly unpretentious plants. However, if you want to enjoy ficus for more than one year, you should follow the basic rules of care:
- Do not place ficuses in direct sunlight. The ideal solution is to place the plant in a slightly darkened place.
- During the growth period, actively water. But do not overdo it - make sure that water does not accumulate in the pan (otherwise the roots may rot). In the warm season (from April to October) should be watered the plant 2-3 times a week. With the advent of colds, ficus needs only one watering in 10 days.
- To leave the leaves growing at a faster speed, and their color was saturated, use a special top dressing. This will not only answer the question of how to care for flowers, but also help to grow unique plants.
- Replant the plant in a timely manner. In a small pot, the growth of the root system will slow down, which will lead to a wilting process. Therefore, it is worthwhile to figure out how to transplant ficus. Do this about once every two years.
- The higher the humidity level, the better for your ficus.
Breeders manage to create new species of ficus every year. The most popular of them are:
- rubber bearing
- dwarf creeping,
- Ficus Benjamin.
The latter has a large number of subspecies. Among them, you can find original plants with black leaves or pink blotches. Let's consider how to care for Benjamin's ficus.
Ficus Benjamin: care, reproduction
The most sought after plant among ficus plants is the Benjamin variety. The subspecies of this plant are as follows:
- exotic - leaves about 6 cm, unpretentious to lighting,
- monique - corrugated at the edges of the foliage,
- baroque - small foliage, twisted into a tube, a slow-growing variety,
- safari - a classic Benjamin ficus with beige splashes on the leaves,
- starlight - leaves of a gentle cream shade, very expressive, the most whimsical variety of ficus.
So that the plant does not cease to please, it is necessary to choose the right care for Benjamin's ficus. Despite the fact that the plant is not subject to frequent attacks by pests, there are still some parasites that can destroy or damage it. Usually it is a mealybug, scutellum or thrips. Fighting them is simple - just apply the usual systemic fungicides.
Recognizing that a plant has been attacked by parasites is not difficult:
- the leaves become pale
- the structure of the trunk and leaf is not so elastic,
- ficus completely discards foliage
- unusual specks appear.
More often than not, one ficus over time will not be enough. Then the housewives begin to think about how to propagate ficus. Three methods are usually used:
The best method for propagating ficus is by cuttings. To do this, cut a small stalk (15-20 cm). To leave the extra white juice, dip it in water for half an hour. After that, put in boiled water with the addition of charcoal (this will help prevent decay). As soon as you notice the first roots, the stalk can be safely planted in the ground.
Ficus Benjamin does not require excessive care. Everyone can grow such a plant, pleasing to the eye and creating an atmosphere of comfort.
So, how to care for Ficus properly
Under natural conditions, ficuses are common in tropical rainforests, and in all countries where there is such a climate. Surprisingly, some species of this plant can be found in arid regions. For example, in the semi-deserts of Mexico there are ficuses that are in the form of “bottle trees”, they drop almost the entire crown during a drought.
But the main thing that unites all these species is that the ficus is not so capricious of living conditions as of changing them. The first thing to consider if you are just about to start a ficus, he does not like to travel. Immediately try to find him a permanent place in the house. If this flower is often rearranged from place to place, it can partially discard leaves.
Also, a sharp cooling in apartments in the autumn period can also affect the ficus not in the best way. Take it and drop the leaves. But in the summer, the ficus will not be out of place to take out to fresh air (on the balcony, for example). Even if he drops the leaves a little, new ones will quickly appear - after all, this is the time of active ficus vegetation.
Loves the sun, but dim
Ficus, although a tropical guest, does not like direct sunlight. It hurts too tender leaves, can get burns. Only some types of ficus with hard leaves can be placed on the south side of the room, for example, the same indoor figs.
Some species of ficuses even tolerate a lack of light. In nature, they are often located under the dense crown of higher tropical trees.
But most ficuses love diffused sunlight. That is, you can put a flowerpot near the east or west window. It is better not to put it on the windowsill, if only because the bushes of this plant are wide enough and the shoots with leaves will be crowded on the windowsill, which will adversely affect the appearance of the flower.
And, again, the main thing is that there should not be a sharp change in illumination. He really does not like the ficus of change - he is a conservative by nature. Therefore, if you do not want to “admire” a completely circled bush in winter, provide it with additional illumination: metal halide, mercury, sodium, or traditional fluorescent lamps.
Ficus soil and top dressing
Well, I already wrote where to put it and how to water it, and most importantly I forgot: where to plant it. So, the substrate for ficus should be light and moisture-absorbing. The main components of the mixture: 2 parts of turfy land, the same amount of leaf and one part of sand. You can add peat, but then you need to take less turf and leaf land. Ficus "in age" does not prevent humus (1 part). The acidity of the soil should be slightly acidic or neutral.
For those who do not like to bother or are unable to buy or find ingredients, there is a ready-made Ficus mixture on sale. I prefer ready-made mixtures: you know for sure that you can’t bring any parasites and sores into the house, as happens with humus or sod land, it is not known where it came from.
It is advisable to fertilize once every one and a half to two weeks. Any dressings that are used for foliage plants will do. In winter, ficus is not fed. Or do it once a month (or even less).
Ficus - home growing and care
This plant is difficult to attribute to capricious or whimsical, but it is worth knowing some features of ficus care at home. For example, this flower loves calm and constancy, and it is better to immediately determine for it one pot "for growth" and a permanent place. Under natural conditions, ficuses are tropical plants, so high humidity is a prerequisite for its cultivation.
The temperature at home is also very important. Make sure that the air temperature in the room, even in the coldest winter, does not fall below 16 ° C for its comfortable life. The critical minimum that a flower can survive with proper care is 12 ° C. In the summer, it is important to maintain the air temperature within 25-30 ° С.
The light mode at home can be different for different types of ficuses. Most varieties feel good in light partial shade, direct sunlight can be harmful to them. But you should not allow another extreme - in the far dark corner of the apartment, the flower will be bad. As for the variegated species of ficus, for example, Benjamin's ficus, they like to grow more in the light, but the light must be diffused, otherwise burns may appear on the leaves.
Another important question that you have to face is which pot is needed for ficus? Regarding capacity, the flower is unpretentious. The size of the pot is selected depending on the size of the flower itself and its root system - from the roots to the walls of the pot should remain at least 2 cm, the new pot should be a couple of centimeters larger than the old. Too large a pot is not recommended to be taken - this can lead to rotting of the roots.
As for the materials of the pot, ficus does not have any particular preferences, provided that home care is correct. It will feel great both in clay or ceramic, and in simple plastic. One condition - the plant should not be exposed to the chemical effects of any substances, that is, there should be no paint inside the pot. It must also have drainage holes.
Ficus in the house - good or bad
It is believed that the ficus flower is a carrier of a certain kind of energy. That is why there is still a debate among gardeners about whether it can be kept at home, good or bad, and what effect it has on the whole.
There are several well-known signs that room ficuses can promise owners. Most of them have a positive meaning:
- in case of a sudden impulse, one should not obstruct one's desire to acquire a plant: most likely, an addition will soon appear in the family. But in order to accelerate the desired event, it is necessary to accept a flower as a gift from a loved one or, pleasant to the soul, person,
- if the girl or woman intends to quickly find a soul mate, she is recommended to grow the ficus from a small layering or cuttings herself. Further, she should take care of him on her own: in this case, constant contact with the flower is necessary to obtain the necessary energy from him,
- if you want to improve your financial situation, it’s best to put a pot in the kitchen,
- with insomnia and regular stress, it can be put in the bedroom,
- it is traditionally believed that this flower helps to attract money, good luck and stabilizes the energy in the house,
- flowering ficus - to add to the family or the acquisition of a pet. However, under indoor conditions, the plant blooms very rarely.
In addition to popular beliefs, it does not hurt to know the opinion of biologists. If we talk about the real, “non-mystical” use of ficus plants, their release of special substances, volatile, stimulates air purification in any room. Plants also absorb harmful substances and carry out from the subsequent conversion into saccharides and amino acid compounds.
It becomes harmful only if the family has a person suffering from allergic reactions. There are so-called rubber-bearing varieties that secrete juice, which can cause a reaction in people with asthma. It is important to remember that the juice of the plant should never be tasted, and its contact with the skin often causes burning, redness and itching. Therefore, if there are pets or small children in the family, you should be especially vigilant and monitor their behavior.
Thus, the ficus has more advantages than disadvantages, and if certain safety measures are followed, it will never harm living creatures.
Description of indoor ficus
Like other indoor plants, ficus is perfectly adapted to life at home. More precisely, the place of its “historical homeland” is defined as the tropics of southeast Asia and New Guinea. It is also found in the Solomon Islands. Most of the representatives are evergreens, except for the fig tree (fig), which is deciduous.
Sometimes it looks like a tree, but there are also species that resemble small shrubs in appearance. The leaf is most often dense, green, with different shades, up to 70 centimeters in length. There are varieties with two-color foliage that look especially beautiful and exotic (for example, the Starlight variety with silver-white leaves).
Whether ficuses bloom - some gardeners claim that they managed to achieve their flowering in room conditions. However, if the plant does not undergo constant care and does not create a special microclimate, it, unfortunately, will not bloom. How ficuses bloom - in different ways, depending on the growing conditions, variety and pollinating insects that live in certain latitudes. Most often, plants have small flowers with a simple perianth. However, in the wild and in the botanical gardens there are specimens with luxurious snow-white flowers, similar to a lotus.
In natural habitats, ficus trees grow in the form of huge trees, up to 40 meters in height. There are species that grow on other, stronger trees and take such powerful roots that the tree can die. At home, you can get both bushy and tree-like form of culture. If you pinch off the crown, the lateral branches begin to grow intensively, which will give the ficus a resemblance to a bush, and when the side lashes are trimmed, it will quickly turn into a tree and begin to grow up to two meters in height, even in room conditions.
There are several wonderful species that can be successfully grown at home:
- rubber-bearing - a large shrub, lush branches, beautiful and thick leaf (long, in the form of an ellipse or oval, the ends are pointed, like a lancet). Leaf length - up to 45 cm, in an adult plant it acquires a classic dark green color,
- loosestrife or Ali - its leaves resemble willow leaves in shape, hence the name. The foliage is dark green, the color of the trunk is dark brown, with characteristic white stripes. Hardy, but loves the constancy of the place: it’s better not to rearrange it,
- Bengali - in indoor conditions it can grow up to three meters, so it will be best to feel in a large room. Shoots are strong, the root system is airy, the leaf is green, oval in shape, with lanceolate ends, length up to 25 cm,
- lyre-shaped - it happens in the form of a large bush or tree of small sizes. The foliage is stiff, about 25 to 45 cm long, has characteristic light veins and an original guitar shape. Very beautiful, often found as a home plant,
- dwarf - climbing or ampelous form with leaves in the shape of hearts. The foliage is thin, small, and the stem in appearance resembles a flexible wire,
- Benjamin's ficus is one of the most popular and unpretentious varieties. Presented in the form of a small tree or branchy shrub. The leaf is hard, pointed at both ends, the color is varied: classic green or dark with light stains, sometimes white spots are found.
Benjamin Ficus Care at Home
Caring for ficuses at home implies the observance of simple measures aimed at supporting life, growth and the formation of a beautiful crown. How to grow ficus is not difficult at all. The process will be able to do both for a beginner grower, and for a person who is very busy. If you follow the simple rules of care, you can expect rapid growth (up to twenty centimeters per year), after which, if desired, grow a real tree at home - two to three meters high.
General rules for choosing a place are as follows:
- without strong sunlight
- absence near heating appliances,
- room without drafts,
- air humidity level is average.
What air ficus loves
Domestic ficus, which has tropical plants as its ancestors, inherited from them the poor tolerance of drafts. Do not put the pot in a too cold place, as the roots are sensitive to the cold floor and can freeze. The temperature indicator in the summer should fluctuate within 25-28С, in the winter - 16-18С. An undesirable, but possible level is 10 - 12 degrees, while the classic green ficuses tolerate cold much better than the more attractive variegated species.
Caring for ficus includes feeding. In winter, they are not introduced, since the plant is at rest. It should be fed from the beginning of March until September, twice a month. Complex fertilizers should include nitrogen, as well as natural components (nettle infusion, ash). The use of complex formulations intended for ficus is allowed.
How to trim ficus at home
Pruning activities should also be included in ficus care from time to time. For sanitary purposes, dry foliage and weak branches are removed. The crown is also thinned out - both outside and inside, and the main branch is cut annually by twenty to thirty centimeters. After trimming, the minimum number of sheets left should not be less than five. If the plant is cut off the upper part, it will not grow at all. Slices themselves are made in a beveled direction, while their bottom edges should be located directly above the kidneys.
Proper pruning is as follows:
- you will need a secateurs treated with an alcohol solution + fine coal (wood or activated to process the places of cuts),
- The optimal time for the procedure is the beginning of April-month, in order to maintain the shape of the crown, the top is neatly trimmed. Lateral branches will grow faster, and the top will slow down growth,
- if you want to “let” the tree grow up, on the contrary, side branches are cut (the length of the cut is from 4 to 6 cm),
- juice at the cut points is quickly removed with a damp cloth and processed with coal,
- two weeks after pruning, the plant can be fertilized.
Ficus Benjamin - Reproduction
When breeding, domestic ficuses breed well both by cuttings and with the help of layering. In this case, the first method is the easiest. Cuttings are cut in the spring, while their length depends on the location of the cut. If the material is taken from the top, its length should be about 15 cm, and if the side branch - you need to focus on the number of leaves (the minimum number is three). The leaves are folded into tubes, not too tight, and tied with a soft elastic band. This will prevent moisture loss. In order to “leave” the poisonous juice that appears on the slices, it is enough to place the cuttings in clean water with the addition of the stimulating drug Kornevin.
The soil for the young shoot should consist of land mixed with perlite or sand, as well as peat bog. Planting is done with a cutter deepened by a centimeter or a half, then the sprouts are covered with food-grade polyethylene (this creates a greenhouse effect). Instead of a plastic film, it will be most convenient to use parts of plastic bottles. The container with the sprout is placed in a warm place, and the greenhouse is regularly ventilated. The duration of the rooting process is usually not more than one and a half months.
Reproduction by air layering is a more troublesome task, but no less interesting. A strong branch is chosen that grows directly; foliage is removed from it at the planned incision site. Then, using a thin knife, several neat cuts are made at a distance of three centimeters from each other. The bark is removed in between. Now you need to attach to this place a moistened piece of moss 4-5 cm thick and wind it to the branch with a cling film. Next - make sure that the place is constantly moistened, and after a while roots will grow on it. After the appearance of the roots, the sprout can be transplanted.
Subject to all the rules of home maintenance, the ficus will live for years, and how many years are allocated to it by nature - you can not worry about it. A houseplant rightfully deserved the title of long-liver, since its life span is from 10 to 15 years. This period is not surprising, because the house tree has inherited it from its relatives living in the wild. In tropical countries, a mighty and tall tree lives from 400 to 600 years.
A pet, unfortunately, can be vulnerable to fungal diseases and the attack of harmful insects. Among the fungal lesions, the most typical are black spotting, rotting of the roots and an unpleasant disease - gray rot, which is difficult to treat. Insects that often infect a plant include a mealy worm, spider mite, scale insects, thrips and aphids.
Against insects, it is recommended to use effective insecticides, in particular - Actaru, which takes first place among all existing drugs. In addition to Actara, you can use Confidor or Actellik. As for fungal infections, most often they arise due to improper care (copious “flooding”, temperature changes, stuffiness and heat).In this case, all affected areas are cut off by secateurs and destroyed, and then the plants are treated with preparations containing copper (especially in the presence of gray rot).
Among antifungal agents, the most popular are Gamair or Fitosporin. If the roots finally rot, this, unfortunately, is not amenable to treatment.
If the flower is constantly transferred from one place to another, this can provoke dropping of leaves and a decrease in resistance to disease. Fungicides are also recommended for prevention, spraying ficus in spring and autumn.
With proper and timely care for any ficus, it will always look healthy and delight with its greenery - especially if there are several of them in the room. It is important not to forget about the basic rules of care, and then communication with the flower will not cause serious trouble.
How to water ficus?
How often to water ficus depends on many factors - this is the age of the flower, the size of the pot, season, soil properties, lighting in the room, air temperature. Therefore, planning a tight schedule for watering a flower is definitely not worth it. It is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil and water the flower as needed.
How to understand that it’s time to water the plant? To do this, just deepen the finger into the substrate by 2-3 cm. If the earth crumbles and the finger remains clean, then the flower needs watering. It is necessary to water the ficus with warm water, pour it from above until the water pours out of the drainage hole. After half an hour, water should be drained from the pan.
Remember that ficus is demanding for watering, and for it, both lack of moisture and its excess are equally dangerous. It is also important to consider that this plant is tropical, and in nature it grows in conditions of high humidity. In the apartment, ficuses are very fond of spraying with water from a spray bottle, or at least wiping the leaves with a damp sponge.
With proper care, you are unlikely to encounter a problem such as diseases and pests of ficus. But if this all the same happened, it is important to know how to recognize this or that ailment, and how to help the plant. So, neglecting the rules of care, you may encounter such problems:
- The leaves turn yellow. The most common cause of the disease is dry air. The best way to solve the problem is to move the flower to another place, away from heating appliances and install a humidifier. Another possible cause of yellow leaves is the stress associated with the frequent movement of ficus. If you transfer ficus to another place, home care should be especially gentle.
How to care for ficus in the winter?
In nature, these flowers grow in the hot tropics, so care for ficus in the winter at home should be done carefully and carefully so that the plant does not suffer from low temperatures, drafts, watering with cold water or dry air in the apartment. How to provide ficus with ideal conditions in the winter?
If a ficus has appeared in the room, home care for it also consists in maintaining the necessary humidity. Ideally, if the humidifier works in the room. In case this is not possible, it is important to spray the flower, leave wet things on the battery or put a container of water near the ficus.
Why do ficus leaves fall in winter?
In the autumn and winter season, many small-leaved species of ficus shed part of the leaves, and this is considered the norm if the number of leaves does not exceed 10-15 pieces. The cause of the loss may be:
- hypothermia (low temperature or draft),
- stress after a transplant,
- lack of sun
- excessive watering
- the appearance of pests.
What you should not do if leaves fall is to water it more and more often. If you have ruled out all of the above reasons, and the ficus is still dropping leaves in winter, what should I do? Most likely, we are dealing with rotting of the roots, and the only solution is to urgently remove the flower from the pot, check the roots, remove rotten areas, then plant in a new pot and ensure ideal conditions.
How to feed ficus at home in the winter?
Ficus top dressing in winter should be done only in case of urgent need, but not longer than a week and in small quantities. For this plant, nettle leaves, mullein, chicken droppings, wood ash are a good fertilizer. And remember that giving ficus top dressing “just in case” is not only undesirable, but also harmful to the flower.
How to water ficus in winter?
Paradoxically, despite the fact that ficus in the cold season especially needs humidity, it does not need moist soil at all. Therefore, watering ficus in the winter should be done no more than once every two weeks. But you need to spray the leaves as often as possible - 2-3 times a week will provide the flower with good health.
Can I cut ficus in the winter?
Like any other plant, ficus has its own seasonal cycles, according to which the best time for the formation of its crown is mid-spring. At another time of the year, it will not give the desired results - unfortunately, the flower will not grow beautifully and evenly and the meaning in this procedure is lost.
Pruning ficus in the winter can be dangerous for the flower. The fact is that the nutrients accumulated in spring and summer accumulate in the shoots of the flower, and if they are cut off, the plant can seriously weaken or even die. Therefore, it is better to refrain from the procedure and wait a few months. As for sanitary trimming of ficus, it can not be called stress for the plant, and as necessary it can be carried out at any time of the year.
Diseases and Pests
Rubber ficus is not very susceptible to disease, but it can still be attacked by pests:
- shields - for their destruction, Actellic is used and the leaves are washed with soap foam,
- thrips - disappear after treatment with an insecticide,
- aphid - are destroyed after spraying with a special preparation against insects,
- spider mite ,
- mealybug .
But diseases can occur not only due to parasites, but also due to improper care. The most common phenomena are:
- dry leaf tips - the reason is dry air,
- leaves twist and wither - the room is cold,
- dry light spots on the sheet rubber ficus - a lot of sunlight,
- brown spots - insufficient watering,
- the stalk begins to rot - excess moisture in the soil,
- leaves turns yellow - insufficient moisture, lack of mineral and nutrients,
- leaf edges darken- drafts
- small leaf and slow growth - lack of fertilizer.
The natural process is a slight fall and yellowing of the lower leaves. You can plant a new plant, thereby the lower tier of greenery will look fresh.
In some cases, frequent spraying can lead to fungal spotting. This is due to stagnation of moisture on the foliage and spots of various sizes appear. This condition is not treated in any way and does not pose a danger to the life of the rubber ficus.
If small white spots appeared on the edge of varieties with dark leaves, then this is most likely an accumulation of crystals of calcium oxalate. This is normal and does not require treatment.
Powdery mildew may appear if the room is poorly ventilated. The disease can progress, then the plant should be treated with a fungicide.
Ficus rubbery Melany
Melany variety has a bushy shape, every seven days a new leaf grows with proper care. The leaf is dark green, has the shape of an ellipse, slightly pointed at the end.
Prefers adequate lighting, but without direct sunlight. The plant is kept at a temperature from 16C to 30C, watering is necessary moderate after drying of the top layer of the earth by 3-4 cm.
Ficus rubbery - pruning and shaping
The formation of rubbery ficus is not particularly difficult, it is only important not to make common mistakes. The first and most frequent of them is the trimming of the top. With this method, only one of the upper points of growth will awaken, and the flower will again go up. To create a magnificent crown, it is better to resort to one of the effective methods:
- Rubber ficus can be slightly bent and fixed in this position. In this case, the highest point will go up. When the flower reaches the desired size, it is returned to its original position.
- An effective way is to puncture the plant trunk 1/3 of its thickness. Such punctures must be made with a clean sharp object starting from the top and gradually lowering down.
Ficus can reach impressive sizes, so in early spring it should be cut to the desired height. Perform the procedure with a clean, sharp secateurs or knife. The cuttings obtained after trimming are wiped with a damp cloth or washed under the tap (the excreted juice irritates the skin), put for a week in any root-forming solution and planted in pots.
Ficus rubbery Robust
The most unpretentious of all considers Robusta variety. It perfectly cleans the air of phenol, benzene and favorably affects the atmosphere in the house. The plant adapts well to containment conditions, so it grows even on the sulfur side or on a darkened window. Comfortable temperature ranges from 18-25C.
Do not place near hot batteries - dry air is harmful to them. The leaves are dehydrated and the plant may die. For irrigation use settled water at room temperature. In winter, watering intensity is reduced, in summer it is increased. It is better to fertilize during the period of active vegetation - from the beginning of spring to mid-autumn.
Ficus Rubbery Tineke
One of the representatives of variegated ficus is the Tineke variety. The leaves are large, oval in shape with a slightly pointed tip. In nature, they reach more than two meters in height. The plant prefers diffused light, moderate watering and high humidity. Spray regularly and keep away from heaters.
After acquiring a plant, it is necessary to transplant it into loose soil or add turf and leafy soil, as well as sand, to store peat.
Ficus rubbery Tricolor
Variegated ficus of the Tricolor variety has a beautiful leaf color - dark green and light green in color over the entire leaf area, and creamy white at the edges. The plant does not like direct sunlight - this can lead to burns. The temperature should be kept within 22C, and in winter it is necessary to reduce to 16 degrees.
You can transplant every year by transshipment, constantly increasing the size of the pot by 2-3 cm. It is better to fertilize once every two weeks from spring to autumn.
Ficus rubbery Doescheri (harlequin)
It is considered a fairly rare variety. He tolerates housing conditions well, prefers soft adequate lighting. In winter, he needs lowering temperatures for a comfortable wintering, better away from hot batteries.
If there is not enough light in winter, the plant may begin to hurt. To avoid this, you need to think in advance about the possibility of additional artificial lighting.
In the warm period, they are watered as the top layer of the earth dries up - about 2-3 times a week. In winter, watering intensity is reduced to once a week. Drafts have a bad effect on the plant, it is better to put a pot so that they are excluded.
How to water rubber ficus?
Watering of rubber ficus varies in winter and summer. When the air temperature is above 23-24 degrees, the flower is watered once every two days. In winter, they switch to one watering per week. To check whether watering is needed, you can examine the ground, if it has dried out with at least two fingers - you can safely water the plant. Excess moisture will have a detrimental effect - the flower will begin to drop leaves and disappear. In addition to watering, rubber ficus must be sprayed regularly. In winter, you can wipe the leaves with a damp cloth. Large bushes can occasionally be bathed in the shower.
How to feed rubber ficus?
Only healthy and well-rooted ficuses are fertilized mainly twice a year - in spring and autumn with complex mineral fertilizers. If signs of a slowdown in the growth and development of the flower are noticeable, then they first check whether the watering and lighting conditions are observed, and only then resort to artificial dressings. The most popular of them is zircon for rubber ficus. This drug is indicated for plants under severe stress, for rooting cuttings and as a prevention of fungal infections. It must be used strictly according to the instructions and not more than 1 time per year.
Ficus rubbery - transplant
The transplantation of rubber ficus at home is carried out annually for young plants and once every 2-3 years for mature ones. . A signal to the fact that the flower needs to be replanted is a sharp slowdown in the growth rate and peeping of the roots through the drainage holes of the pot. For transplanting, choose a pot 5 cm larger than the current one. A plentiful drainage layer is poured into it, it is best for this purpose the purchased expanded clay, and a little earth. Transplant the flower by transshipment, slightly shaking off the old soil. Pour the right amount of earth into a new pot and water it abundantly.
Land for rubber ficus
The usual soil for rubber ficus is not suitable. If you want to get a luxurious plant in your interior, you need to create a well-drained light soil. To do this, in equal proportions mix sod, leaf and peat soil and coarse sand. You can add a little birch charcoal. Now in garden shops special soil for ficuses is sold, in which all the above proportions are taken into account.
What kind of pot is needed for rubber ficus?
When choosing a pot for rubber ficus, pay special attention to the material from which it is made, and the number of drainage holes. The best choice will be a container made of high-quality plastic without a harmful smell, which can become a poison for the flower. In addition, the ficus itself grows large and heavy, so the extra massiveness of the pot is useless. Drainage holes should be sufficient, but not in excess. Otherwise, the moisture will leave too quickly, and the ficus will not have time to absorb it. It is optimal to choose a new pot 5 cm larger in diameter than the previous one.
How to propagate rubber ficus at home?
You can propagate the ficus rubbery species as cuttings, and aerial layering:
- Varietal varieties are often propagated by air layering. With this method of propagation, the desired branch is selected and a 1/3 section is made on its trunk. A match is inserted into the resulting incision and wrapped with sphagnum and a plastic film with moist moss. Until aerial roots appear, moss is regularly moistened with water. After their appearance, the branch is cut and planted in a new pot.
- Cuttings of rubber ficus are an even simpler process of reproduction. Cut the stalk with three internodes obliquely, washed from the secreted juice and kept in wet sand or a root-forming solution. After the emergence of root primordia, a new plant is planted in a permanent pot.