According to the breed standard, the dog must have a strong physique, a wide and deep chest, a wide skull, strong hind limbs and lower back. A healthy dog is active, very fond of water. The dog breed Labrador Retriever is distinguished by well-developed muscles and skeleton, the ability to work for a long time without getting tired and in any weather. The proportions of the body should be in the ratio of back: lumbar: croup - 2: 1: 1. A characteristic feature of Labradors is the ribs located horizontally and forming a “vault”.
Behavior and temperament
Labradors are friendly, loyal, obedient, have the desire to please the owner. Dogs quickly adapt to unfamiliar situations; they are excellent companions and companions. An echo of the hunting past can be considered a love of outdoor games, and especially the desire to bring the owner something abandoned. They have great intelligence, are smart and insightful, fearless, but not aggressive. They have a stable psyche.
In the eyes of the dog sympathy should be reflected. In a purely "Labrador" expression of the muzzle, confidence, good mood, humility and obedience are read. Real Labradors will never behave aggressively or unnecessarily cowardly. Such qualities are disqualifying by standard (in exhibitions and breeding). Deviations from the norms should not be confused with a small junior shyness of a dog in an unfamiliar environment or excessive activity, taken for aggression.
Proportions and addition according to breed standard
English canine experts pay special attention to the following features of the standard: well-sculpted, with clean lines, a head proportional to the body and the absence of fleshy cheeks, a pronounced transition of 140? from forehead to face. Jaws should not be too short, the optimal ratio of their length with the cranial part is 1: 1.
Well set on shoulders, strong and powerful, without bulges or suspensions. There may be a scruff. The emphasis in the standard is on good positioning on the blades and proportionality.
She should not have waves and tows. The undercoat is tight and waterproof, it can be a little greasy. The expert evaluates the quality of the coat and undercoat, passing them through the fingers. Color - black, fawn (from cream to ginger), brown (with chocolate or liver tint). A white spot on the chest is allowed. The hue of the undercoat should vary with the shade of the coat. According to the standard, wool with a tan, which is sometimes found in brown dogs, is not allowed.
Disadvantages and defects - too narrow posture of the hind or forelimbs, short, mincing steps, a “spanking” gait. All movements that prevent the manifestation of the working qualities of the Labrador are disqualifying.
Ideally, growth is: for males - 56-57 cm. And 54 -55 cm. For females. In a well-built dog, the distance from the shoulder joint to the base of the tail is equal to the height at the withers (height). The normal weight for a male is 29-36 kg., For a bitch? 25-31.5 kg. Exceeding the norm indicates obesity.
Disadvantages and Disqualifying Defects
- overweight or thin dog,
- discoloration of the eyes or lack of pigmentation on the eyelids,
- tail of an unnatural shape, different from the standard in color, shape, size, etc.,
- color different from the standard (fawn, black and chocolate),
- temperament and behavior uncharacteristic of the breed. For example, cowardice or aggressiveness.
Choosing a future champion
You decided to have a puppy in order to make him a participant of contests and exhibitions in the future. Where to start?
First, check out the Labrador Retriever breed criteria. Determine for yourself exactly what you need the dog for: for the soul, for hunting, for exhibitions, etc.
Secondly, it is better to entrust the choice of a puppy to an experienced dog handler, since a beginner will not always be able to distinguish vices from the norm.
Thirdly, make a purchase only in special nurseries and clubs.
2. The age of the dog. Get a puppy no earlier than 45-46 days after birth.
3. The puppy must demonstrate with all his appearance a cheerful disposition, playfulness and curiosity, calmly withdraw from the litter, without looking back and without running away.
4. Proportionality and harmony of addition. Obvious pedigree signs of the puppy. The exterior should not be asymmetric, and disproportionate. Categorically refuse to purchase puppies with defects in appearance. Pay attention to the dog’s ears: standing or half-hanging ears are a serious disqualifying defect.
5. The hair should be hard, with a thick undercoat.
6. The manifestation of the hunting instinct.
7. General healthy appearance: fatness, clean coat, lack of fleas, etc.
With the proper approach to choosing a pet, you will get an excellent dog that will be able to participate and win in various exhibitions and competitions.
1903-2003: anniversaries in great shape.
The centennial of Labrador’s official recognition, whose popularity has become world-wide relatively recently, was celebrated in 2003. Millions of fans on five continents - this is an excellent result of breeding work and passion for enthusiasts.
For many decades, people have bred, selected and trained representatives of this breed, which currently has the highest rating in the world. Hunting dog. toppled from the throne stars such as the German shepherd and poodle! In conditions when the growth of traditionally popular breeds is more or less reduced, the current undoubted progress of Labradors looks especially impressive.
The peninsula from which they received their official name is not really their homeland. The history of this peninsula is as changeable as the elements of the waves rolling on its shores. Occupying an area of more than three times the area of Newfoundland, he repeatedly changed his owners: when in 1763 the peninsula was proclaimed the property of the British crown, Canada’s largest neighboring country came up with loud protests, demanding that Labrador be transferred to its possession. The argument dragged on for a long time. In 1909, the Newfoundland authorities proposed that Canada redeem the Labrador for nine million dollars, and 23 years later they made new, equally unsuccessful new offers of redemption. True, the amount requested by them was twelve times higher than the original. Finally, April 1, 1949 Labrador, along with Newfoundland, became the tenth province of the Canadian Federation.
Their ancestors lived in Newfoundland.
In general, the Labrador was most likely born on the island of Newfoundland, discovered in 1494. English fishermen. Fishing here became the main occupation of the British. But in the XVII century, one of the natives of St. John was actively interested in the "water dogs" that lived on the island. As part of this population of “retriever” (from retrieve - to find and bring dead game) there were dogs with long wavy, as well as short and dense hair, but the basis of the future breed of Labrador retriever happened to become individuals with a short and even hairline. Before this name was officially adopted in the United Kingdom, the first Labradors were called St. John's water dogs - evidence that their cradle was the island of Newfoundland, the capital of which is this city.
British sailors and entrepreneurs were so enthusiastic about these dogs that in 1830-1840. began to take them to their homeland. The main point of delivery to England for future labradors was the port city of Poole. At first, they were dismantled by foresters and huntsmen in addition to the setters and pointers that had become famous by the time on the hunt.
In 1870 The Illustrated London News newspaper publishes an article about a dog show in Birmingham with the following words: “Here you could see the difference between the famous Newfoundland and the black Labrador, which is undoubtedly a completely different breed.”
Duke of Bakkleuchsky, discoverer.
Quarantine, introduced in the UK in 1885, blocked imports and forced English dog breeders to work with the material they had on hand. Labrador’s debut on British soil is associated with the name of Walter Francis Montague Douglas Scott, the fifth Duke of Buckleuch. In the priceless pedigree books that he kept in his nursery, Labradors Lord Malmesberis Sweep (born in 1877) and Juneau (born in 1878) were the first to be noted. The hunting advantages of the Labrador have been appreciated in many counties. Soon he became a strong competitor to setters and pointers, while at that time much superior in numbers to other breeds of hunting dogs. One of the most outstanding innovators in the field of breeding Labradors was, of course. Holland Hyibbert, better known as the Viscount of Knutsford, who at the beginning of 1880 founded a large nursery. In the field tests, his male Manden Single, a black Labrador born in 1900, was especially distinguished. from Manden Sixty (Bakkleuch Nith x Manden Sarah) and Manden Scotty (Bakkleuch Dreykh x Bakkleuch Bell).
Finally, after half a century of breeding, in compliance with all the rules for recording and processing data, July 7, 1903. The Kennel Club agreed to acknowledge a new breed called the Labrador. From this moment on, she appears in the official nomenclature of dog breeds of dogs (“Sporting group”) and has her own rating system. Note that the current Duke of Bakkleuchsky, who is one of the descendants of Walter Francis Montague Douglas Scott, founded in 1941. Labrador Club of Scotland. All breed historians recognize the Duke's dogs as the ancestors of the main lines of the modern Labrador. And although all the representatives of his kennel differed exclusively in field trials, and not at prestigious events such as Kraft shows, it is believed that this kennel laid the foundation for the first lines of the breed and the first official breeding. Between 1910 and 1920 a particularly rapid increase in the number of nurseries is observed, as well as a real increase in livestock.
The great success of the Benchory.
In the 1920s and 1930s, Countess Loria Hove distinguished herself in British dog breeding. Her Kennel “Banchory” has become famous for several wonderful dogs. So, Labrador Banchory Bolo for the first time made a winning double, having won simultaneously two titles - the champion in beauty and the champion in working qualities. The most famous producer of her kennel was the black male Bremshaw Bob, who for two years in a row (in 1932 and 1933) was the first in the competition for the best dog of the Kraft show. No other Labrador to this day has repeated this achievement. God loves the trinity, and in 1937 another Miss Hove pet, Labrador Cheverells Ben of Benchory, won the same contest. More such "feats" did not succeed to anyone and never.
During this period, which many experts call the "Golden Age of Labrador", the breed is widespread in the United Kingdom. Labradors not only successfully compete in field trials with straight-haired retrievers, which at that time were very popular among hunters and athletes, but are also highly rated as show dogs or companion dogs. According to some experts, such as Helen Warwick, thanks to the breeding work of breeders, Labrador reaches a very high level of quality and compliance with the standard. The increase in the number of nurseries and, therefore, exhibitors has led, in particular, to the fact that if at first black labradors were quantitatively dominant, then in this period a fashion for yellow ones appeared. Individuals of brown color also appear, but they never managed to compare in popularity with yellow or black.
1916: first club.
They became the Labrador Retriever Club. Following him, other similar associations arose, in particular, the Club of Yellow Labrador Lovers, representing the interests of owners of dogs of this color, which then occupied the second largest number, since there were practically no "chocolate" individuals. In this situation, the Kennel Club made a wise decision to allow breeding of dogs of different colors, thanks to which the Labrador breeders avoided what happened to some other breeds. namely, the narrowing of the circle of breeding work due to isolation within one variety. The color is color, but you cannot neglect the three clearly more important elements of breeding work, such as the type, health and working ability of dogs.
Between the two world wars, the Kennel Club registered an average of more than 3,500 puppies, annually listed in his stud book. If at first the retriever was primarily a working dog, then in the 1970s, when the demand for labradors increased sharply, companion dogs and show dogs became the most popular, and in some classes of the exhibition gathered up to several hundred participants. As for breeders specializing in field dogs, in spite of these fashionable trends, they continued to breed their own lines with an emphasis on working qualities. In these years, English breeders are entering a new frontier - 15 thousand registered individuals. At many exhibitions, the most representative in terms of the number of participants regularly turned out to be one or another class of Labrador Retriever.
Labrador: the diversity of the breed.
Several populations coexist in the world number of labradors: field, exhibition, companions, as well as “dual-use” dogs, performing both in the show ring and in field trials. We should not forget that part of the breed that is used as guide dogs, search dogs, assistants for the disabled, etc. In a country like Denmark, for example, almost a third of Labradors are dogs of practical use (escort dogs, guide dogs, etc.). ) It is absolutely clear that the Labrador got his place on the podium of the most widespread dogs in the world along with the German shepherd and his “cousin” - a golden retriever, not in their original working qualities, but as a domestic dog, well adapted to live with humans and easily trained . One hundred years ago, pioneers of English dog breeding could not even imagine the likelihood of such a situation. The fact is that in those countries where Labradors appeared, at first they always belonged to a certain "elite" group of owners, who did not at all want to give "their dogs" to the service of anyone and everyone.
However, in the process of evolution, this tendency toward exceptionalism has outlived itself. In 1998 the growth of the number of labradors in England reaches a record figure of 35 thousand puppies. The breed’s popularity is especially characteristic for the USA, where the American Kennel Club annually records a five-fold increase in the number of registered puppies. This is the case in almost all the largest countries, leaders of world cynology, except Japan, where small dogs enjoy special preference: their privileged status is explained by the peculiarities of urban life in this country.
Significant dates in the history of Labradors.
- 1800-1810. bring the first dogs from St. John to England,
- 1814: The Labrador Retriever is officially mentioned for the first time in the Manual for Young Athletes.
- 1823: artist Edward Landzier for the first time depicts one of the ancestors of Labrador in a painting called "Bark, female Labrador."
- 1835: in Scotland, the first nursery specializing in breeding Labradors belonging to the fifth Duke of Bakleucch begins to operate,
- 1870: the name "Labrador" is no longer a rarity, as these black dogs, who searched for and served dead animals, began to actively use huntsmen.
- 1885, a mandatory six-month quarantine is introduced in the UK for all imported dogs.
- 1892: in the nursery of the Duke of Bakkleuchsky in one of the litters from black parents two yellow puppies are born,
- 1899: official registration in Britain of the first yellow puppy named Ben of Hyde from the nursery of Major K, J, Redcliffe.
- 1903: On July 7, the Kennel Club officially recognizes the Labrador and on November 3 includes him in the group of gun dogs,
- 1905: in January, Labrador’s own show classes are finally approved, different from the corresponding classes of other retrievers.
- 1911: Opening of the Retriever Club in France,
- 1912: the number of Labrador puppies registered by the Kennel Club exceeded 200
- 1916: thanks to the efforts of two pioneer breeders - Countess Lorna Hove, who became famous for her black labradors from the Benchory kennel, and Lord Knutsford, who created a line of labradors in the Manden kennel, presented in the pedigrees of all modern labradors - the current “elder” is created Clubs - The Labrador Retriever Club.
- 1917: twenty years after the appearance of Labradors in the USA, the American Kennel Club registers the first “official” litter in its studbook.
- 1922: English breeders registered about 1000 puppies (exact number 916).
- 1923: The Honorable A. Holland Hibert (later Lord Knutsford) publishes an article clarifying the provisions of the standard adopted in 1916.
- 1925: Creation of the Yellow Labrador Retriever Club.
- 1931: The Labrador Retriever Club Incorporation established.
- 1932 and 1933: For two consecutive years, a black Labrador champion Bremshaw Bob becomes the winner of the Best in Show at the Kraft exhibition.
- 1959: Revival of interest in the Labrador in the United States in connection with the release of a postage stamp with his image (the black Labrador King Buck was imprinted on the stamp).
- 1988: English breeders are shocked by the murder of prominent breeder Joan Macken, who has devoted more than 50 years to breeding Labradors (Timspring Kennel),
- 1989: Labrador becomes the most popular breed in England - 26,392 registrations in the Kennel Club studbook,
- 1991: Labrador becomes a leader in the American breed ranking. He keeps this place to this day.
- 1998: England record: the number of labradors registered per year of birth reaches 36,000,
- 1999: Dog breeders all over the world learn about the death of Gwen Broadley, the founder of the modern selection of Labradors (Kennel Sendends). The line of this nursery continues to exist successfully, in particular, thanks to Erica Hayes, who raised several champions,
- 2003: Labrador Retriever Club Celebrates Centennial of Breed at Luxurious Estate
Belvoir Castle in Grentham, where a two-day anniversary exhibition was held, bringing together about 1000 dogs!
Right Labrador Retriever
Studying the main characteristics, it is easy to notice the general requirements, regardless of the principle by which the dog is evaluated. Both English and American standards, describing the breed, mainly speak about the same qualities, but in different words. Both suggest that the “right” Labrador, like a dog, should have:
- strong compact addition,
- wide and deep chest
- strong limbs
- a strong, muscular neck,
- long and slanting shoulders
- short, tight to the skin, hard coat with water-repellent properties,
- otter-like tail - thick at the base and thinning to the bottom,
- straight line of the back,
- the shape of the head without pronounced bulges and depressions,
- powerful jaws with a "soft" grip,
- the right proportions of the body
- thin scent
- calm nature.
The labrador should move easily, and its hind and front legs with short fingers should be on the same parallel line. Then when running there will be no emissions to the sides or back and forth.
The first breed Labrador Retriever recognized the British. They determined the first standard, which was repeatedly refined. To date, the description made in 1988 by the English Kennel Club is relevant. Six years after this, American dog breeders set their standards. Later descriptions of breed qualities partially incorporated earlier ones.
In fact, evolution is constantly happening with all the standards. Indeed, in the process of development, a dog of any kind acquires some new qualities or may lose those that become unnecessary. Accordingly, the previously recognized standards are changing.
Continuing the comparison, you can see that in all the descriptions the dog has a wide skull, powerful lower back and croup. However, Americans emphasize undesirable meatiness on the scalp, considering it a drawback.
Until 1993, by their standard, a Labrador was considered permissible to have a direct bite. This is currently unacceptable. The bite should only be scissor-shaped, that is, the upper incisors necessarily densely overlap the lower ones. It turns out that a conservative English look still prevailed.
Walk through the ears and eyes
Now let's talk about such an important part of the dog’s body as the ears. The fact that they should hear well does not even require discussion. But, taking care of the appearance of the animal, the British approved as their standard hanging, but not heavy ears. Moreover, they should be located somewhat behind. On this occasion, the American standard says clearly: "They have a low set." Well, and finally, both agreed that they fit tightly to the head.
Both standards agreed with the small size of the Labrador’s eyes and that they could not be convex or depressed. As for their color, the former recognize brown (for black and fawn) and nut (for chocolate). The second ones add black and yellow irises to them. There is an opinion that from such colors the dog’s look becomes as if angry. In general, the eyes are always evaluated strictly. Judges even pay attention to the color of the edges of the eyelids.
Pink nose and tail with a sickle - serious flaws
The opinion of the Old and New Worlds in coat color remains the same. Including even the International Cynological Organization, the colors recognized by professionals are black, fawn, and chocolate (liverh). A slight white spot is allowed.
In the description of the dog’s most important working tool, almost everywhere the attention is drawn to the fact that the nose is wide and “with well-developed nostrils”. But more attentive Americans specify that it should be black or dark brown.
If the nose is light, then this is already considered a minor flaw. The complete absence of dark pigment, that is, the pink nose becomes a serious defect.
Particular attention is paid to the tail. Unanimously, experts recognized that the ideal is a round tail that should not be bent on the back with a sickle. According to the British, he can be “funny,” that is, he is a little raised up in the good mood of the dog.
In character and temperament, it makes no sense to look for the difference between the standards. All of them emphasize the friendly and affectionate character of the Labrador, his quick wit and tireless energy, good learning ability and passion for swimming. The desire to help a person remains his main defining feature.
Serious flaws in the character recognized viciousness, nervousness and cowardice.
Geometry and harmony in numbers
Describing the standard Labrador Retriever can not do without some numbers. Again, they are somewhat different. For example, in American - the growth of a male at the withers is from 57 to 62 cm, females - from 55 to 59 cm. In English standards, these figures are slightly less. Male growth should not exceed 56-57 cm, and bitches - up to 55 cm. Deviations are not desirable, but still permissible up to 1 cm in one direction or another.
All retrievers are born hunters, so there can be no question of being overweight. A large amount of fat will not allow them to move actively, the dog will become heavy and slow. Excessive hotness is also not welcome. Excessive ribs usually indicate poor nutrition or illness. Perfect condition - for a male 29-36 kg, for a female - 25-31 kg.
A healthy Labrador Retriever has 42 teeth.
The number of caudal vertebrae ranges from 18 to 23.
There are five fingers on the paws, and four on the hind legs (if the puppy is born with fifth fingers, then they are removed at an early age).
The standards of the Labrador Retriever are so clear and calibrated that it could not do without geometry. However, British conservatives do not attach much importance to the angle between the shoulder blade and shoulder of the animal - usually this angle is not more than 105 degrees. But their overseas colleagues specifically indicate the ideal value - 90 degrees. Perhaps this is correct, because it is precisely such a joint that allows you to take wide steps, while a dumber angle restricts movement.
And finally, a few words about how many Labradors live. With good nutrition and care, these dogs can serve the owner 12-13 years. But, like all other representatives of the living world, this period can vary. It depends both on hereditary diseases and on natural factors, when a dog can die during the performance of its work or by pure chance. With a caring owner who closely monitors the health of his pet, the Labrador can live even up to 17 years.
We will be happy to help you understand the difference between the English and American Labrador Retriever standards. Was this article helpful to you? Or maybe you yourself, while studying the breed, noticed some other interesting details? Then write to us about it in your comment.
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The ancestors of modern Labrador originated on the island of Newfoundland, now part of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The base of the Labrador breed was St. John's Diver, a breed that arose through the highly specialized crosses of the island's first settlers in the 16th century. The ancestors of St. John the Dogs are not known, but most likely an occasional well-bred mixture of English, Irish and Portuguese working breeds. Newfoundland (then known as Greater Newfoundland) is probably the result of the breeding of St. John the Dog with mastiffs brought to the island by generations of Portuguese fishermen who have been fishing on the high seas since the 16th century. The smaller short, covered St. John Dog (also known as Mal Newfoundland) used to search and pull in the net from the water. These small dogs were the ancestors of Labrador. White breasts, legs, chin, and snouts - known as tuxedo markings - characteristics of St. John’s doggies often appear in modern Lab mixtures, and will occasionally appear in labradors as a small white spot on the chest (known as the locket) or stray white hair on the legs or face.
A few early descriptions of the St. Johns water dog exist. In 1822, explorer WE Cormack crossed the island of Newfoundland on foot. In his diary, he wrote: “Dogs are well trained, like a retriever in poultry farming, and otherwise useful. Smooth or short-haired dogs are preferred because in frosty weather the long-haired species has become burdened with ice coming out of the water. "
Colonel Hawker's early report described the dog as “the best by far for any type of shooting.” He is usually black and no more than a pointer, very good in legs, with short, smooth hair and does not wear his tail as much twisted as others, extremely fast, running, swimming and fighting. and their sense of smell is unlikely to be credited. "
The first St. Johns dog, they say, brought to England or in 1820, but the breed's reputation has already spread to England, there is a story that the second Earl of Malmesbury saw the dog of St. John on a fishing boat and immediately arranged with the merchants to make some these dogs imported to England. These ancestors of the first Labradors so impressed the Count with their skill and ability to get something in the water and on the shore that he devoted his entire kennel to the development and stabilization of the breed.
In his book Excursions to and about Newfoundland Over the years 1839 and 1840 , geologist Joseph Beete Jukes describes the water the dog of St. John. “A thin, short-haired, black dog came from the shore to us today. The animal from the breed is very different from what we mean by the term Newfoundland dogs in England. He had a thin, tapering muzzle, a long thin tail, and rather thin, but powerful legs, with a body - smooth hair short and smooth. " written by Jukes. “They are the most common dogs in the country. They do not mean beautiful, but tend to be more reasonable and helpful than others. I once noticed that he either put his foot in the water twice and swam about. This leg was white, and Harvey said that he did it to “toil” or seduce the fish. “The whole production struck me as wonderful, especially since they said that he had never been taught anything like this.”
The underlying breed that the Labrador Retriever is now known as is St. John's Water Dog, St. Johns Dog, or Lesser Newfoundland. When the dogs were later brought to England, they were named after the geographical area known as the “Labrador” (they were known as Labradors because they were “obtained” in the Labrador Sea) or simply Labrador to distinguish them from the larger Newfoundland breed, despite the fact that the breed was from the more southern Avalon Peninsula.
In the ancestors of this retriever, the Labrador was actually from Newfoundland and Labrador in exceptional cases, the breed known as Newfoundland was created around the same time in Labrador. The names and origin of the two breeds mixed once moved to England and North and South America. A dog from Labrador has become a large, long-laden dog we see and know today, and a dog from Newfoundland has become a Labrador.
The first written mention of the breed was in 1814 (“Instructions for Young Athletes” by Colonel Peter Hawker), the first painting in 1823 (“Bark. Labrador Bitch” by Edwin Landsir), and the first photograph in 1856 (The Earl of a Domestic Dog “s “Nell,” described both Labrador and St. John's dog). By 1870, the name Labrador Retriever was widespread in England. The first yellow Labrador to be recorded was born in 1899 (Ben Hyde, Kennels Major CJ Radcliffe), and the breed was recognized by the Kennel Club in 1903. The first American Kennel Club (AKC) registration was in 1917. Chocolate Labrador arose in the 1930s, although liver spotted rats are documented being born in Buccleuch kennels in 1892. The first dog to appear on the cover of Life magazine was a black Labrador Retriever called "Blind Ardena" in December 12, 1938, the St. Johns Dog survived until the early 1980s, in the last two person not a photographer iruetsya in old age around 1981.
Labradors are often classified in one of two ways: English Labs or American Labs. The differences are mostly behavioral, although there are differences in appearance as well. Behavioral, English Labs tend to be more easily trained, and are often considered better for lay owners to keep as pet or hunting companions. American laboratories tend to be more energetic and, being raised to compete in field trials, are better suited for professional owners with more experience and time to devote to training. In terms of appearance, English Labs tend to show more “blocky” heads for which Labradors are known, while American laboratories tend to be slimmer and longer than legs.
Yellow (and similar shades)
In the early years of breeds through to the middle of the 20th century, Labradors from the shadows we would now call “yellow”, in fact dark, almost butterscotch, color (visible at the beginning of the yellow photos of Labrador). The hue was known as “gold” until it was required to be modified by the UK Kennel Club, on the grounds that the “gold” was not really a color.In the 20th century, preferences for much lighter shades of yellow through to cream prevailed; to this day, most yellow labradors do not have this shadow. Also fawn was a common color in yellow under various laboratory conditions.
Interest in darker shades of gold and red fox was restored by English breeders in the 1980s, and three dogs played an important role in this change: (. Black, born since 1976) Balrion King Frost, who conceived "very dark yellow." offspring are credited as having “the greatest influence on the re-development of the red fox,” and his great-grandson, also known as Wynfaul Tabasco (b. 1986), is described as the “father of the modern red fox Red Labrador” and the only modern red fox Show Champion in the UK. Other dogs, such as the Red Alert and the Scrimshaw Placido Flamingo, are also credited with passing genes in more than one well-known pedigree.
The body should be strong and muscular with the upper level line.
Labradors are a relatively large breed.
Lab coats should be short and dense, but not sinewy. Yellow and Red Fox Labrador Retriever.
Golden retriever (left) is often confused with yellow labs (right). One obvious difference is much shorter Labrador hair.
Jack Vanderwyk traces the origins of all the chocolate labradors listed in the LabradorNet database (about 34,000 Labrador dogs of all shades) to eight original pedigrees. However, the shadow was not seen as a separate color until the 20th century, before that, according to Vanderwyk, such dogs can be traced, but have not been registered. The degree of crossbreeding with Flatcoat or Chesapeake Bay Retriever is also documented at the beginning of the 20th century, prior to recognition. Chocolate Labradors were also well established in the early 20th century in the nurseries of Earl Feversham, and Lady Ward Chiltonfoliat.
In the pedigrees, as Vanderwyk traced each conclusion back to three black Labradors in the 1880s-Buccleuch Avon (m), as well as his father and mother, Malmesbury Tramp (m) and Malmesbury June (e). Morningtown Tobla is also named as an important intermediary, and according to the Buckle Konur student book, candy in this nursery came through FTW to Petra Faskally (1908).
Labradors are medium and large, males, as a rule, weigh 65-80 pounds (29-36 kg) and females 55-70 pounds (25-32 kg). Most of the characteristics of this breed, with the exception of color, are the result of selection to obtain a working retriever.
Like some other breeds, the conformations (usually “Show”, “English” or “bench”) and the field (usually “Worker” or “American”) are different lines, although both lines are bred in both countries. In general, however, Conformational Labradors are usually bred in medium-sized dogs, shorter and stockier with fuller faces and slightly calmer in nature than their field counterparts, who often bred, as above, lighter dog frames, with slightly less wide edges and a little longer nose. However, field labradors still have to be proportionate and fit into the American Kennel Club standards. With a field labrador, overly long noses, thin heads, long legs, and lanky frames is not considered standard. These two types are unofficial and not codified or normalized, no differences are made by the AKC or other kennel clubs, but two types are from different breeding lines. The Australian stock also exists, although not seen in the West, they are widespread in Asia. These dogs are also very good with children.
The breed tends to shed hair twice a year or regularly throughout the year in temperate climates. Some labradors shed significantly, however individual labradors vary. Golden hair is usually short and straight, and the tail is quite wide and strong. The webbed fingers of the Labrador make them excellent swimmers. The membranes between their fingers can also serve as snowshoes in cold climates and keep glands between their fingers from snow — a condition that can be painful for other breeds with fur between the fingers. Their interwoven coats are also relatively waterproof, providing great assistance for swimming.
Official breed standards
There is a great variety among labradors. The following characteristics are typical for the conformation of the show bred (poster raised) line of this breed in the United States and based on the American Kennel Club standard. Significant differences between UK and US standards are noted.
- The size : Labradors of medium large breed. They should be the length from the withers to the base of the tail, as they are from the floor to the withers. The AKC standard includes ideal weight for males 65-80 pounds (29-36 kg), as well as for women as 55-70 pounds (25-32 kg). Height recommendations range from AKC, giving 22.5 to 24.5 inches (57 by 62 cm) for men and 21.5 to 23.5 inches (55 to 60 cm) for women, the Kennel Club, which reports that males should be 56 to 57 centimeters (22 to 22 inches) with females between 55 to 56 centimeters (22 to 22 in), and PKU, which quotes a range of 56 to 57 centimeters (22 to 22 in) for men with women ideal in 54 to 56 centimeters (21 to 22 in).
- Coat : Labrador coats should be short and tight, but not sinewy. The coat is waterproof, so the dog does not freeze when taking water in the winter. This means that the dog naturally has a slightly dry, oily coat. Acceptable colors: black, yellow and chocolate.
- Supervisor : The head should be wide with slightly expressed eyebrows. Eyes should be kind and expressive. Matching eye colors are brown and hazel. The lining around the eyes should be black. Ears should hang close to the head and lightly set over the eyes.
- Jaws : Jaws must be strong and powerful. The muzzle should be of medium length and should not be too narrow. The jaws should hang a little and curve gracefully back.
- Body : The body must have a powerful and muscular structure.
The tail and coat are labeled "distinctive or distinctive features" by Labrador both from the Kennel Club and the AKC. The AKC adds that “a true Labrador retriever temperament is the same breed sign as a tail otter.”
Labradors are registered in three colors: black (solid black), yellow (counted from cream to fox-red), and chocolate (medium to dark brown). Some dogs are sold as silver purebred Labradors, but the purity of these pedigrees is currently being challenged by breed experts, including breed clubs and breed tips. Some major kennel clubs around the world give silver labradors to be registered, but not like silver. Kennel Club (England) requires that they be registered as “Unregistered.” Sometimes, Labradors will exhibit a small amount of white fur on their chest, paws, or tail, and rarely a thoroughbred Lab will exhibit tiger stripes or brown dots similar to a rottweiler . These marks are disqualification for dog shows, but have nothing to do with the temperament of the dog or the ability to be a good worker or dog.
Puppies of all colors can potentially occur in one litter. Color is primarily determined by three genes. The first gene (B-locus) determines the density of eumelanin pigment granules in the wool, if this pigment is allowed: dense granules lead in a black coat, a rare one gives a chocolate coating. The second (E) determines whether the locus is produced on all eumelanin. A dog with a recessive allele e will produce only pheomelanin pigment and will be yellow, regardless of its genotype at locus B. Genes are known to have had their number increased due to the introduction of a black “K” allele at locus K, It is now known live. Therefore, black or chocolate labradors must have a K B allele. Yellow labradors are detected at the E locus, so the K locus does not matter when determining their color. Variations in numerous other genes control finer details on the color of the coat, which in yellow labradors ranges from white to light golden to red foxes. Chocolate and noses of black Labradors will match the color of the coat.
According to a 2011 study, 13 of 245 labradors were studied heterozygous for the M264V mutation responsible for melanistic masks, and one was homozygous. In the breed, this trait is not visible.
Nose and skin pigmentation
Labrador coloration is controlled by several genes. It is possible that recessive genes reappear in subsequent generations. In addition, pigmentation effects on various parts of the body can sometimes be unexpected. Pigment effects are manifested in relation to yellow labradors, and sometimes chocolate, and, therefore, most of this section covers pigmentation within the yellow Labrador. The most common places where pigmentation is visible to the nose, lips, gums, legs, tail, and rims of the eyes, which can be black, brown, light tan (“liver”, caused by the two genes for chocolate), or several other colors. A labrador can carry genes of a different color, for example a black Labrador can carry recessive chocolates and yellow genes, and a yellow Labrador can carry recessive genes for two other colors. DNA testing may reveal some aspects of this. Less common pigmentations (other than pink) are wine, not disqualification, and therefore, such dogs are still allowed to be shown.
The intensity of black pigment on yellow labradors is controlled by a separate gene independent of fur color. Yellow labradors usually have black noses, which can gradually turn pink with age (the so-called “snow nose” or “winter nose”). This is due to a decrease in the tyrosinase enzyme, which indirectly regulates the production of melanin, and a dark color. Tyrosinase depends on temperature, so the light color can be seasonal, due to cold weather, and less is produced with increasing age of two years on. As a result, the nose color of most yellow Labradors becomes a little pink in color as they get older.
Coloring known as "Dudley" is also possible. Dudleys are defined differently as yellow labradors that have unpigmented (pink) noses (LRC), yellow with liver / chocolate pigmentation (AKC), or “flesh-colored” in addition to the same color around the rims of the eye, instead black or dark brown pigmentation. A yellow Labrador with brown or chocolate pigmentation, for example, brown or chocolate nose, is not necessarily Dudley, although in accordance with the current AKSA standard, this would be if he had a border around the eyes (more precisely, the eebb genotype). The breed standards for Labradors are considered true by Dudley to be a feature Disqualifying in the conformation of a laboratory show, for example, one with a carefully pink nose or one flaw in any pigment along with meat with colored rims around the eyes. True Dudleys are extremely rare. Breeding to eliminate pigmentation often lacks reliability. Because color is determined by many genes, some of which are recessive, cross-pigmenting a non-standard yellow Labrador into a black Labrador cannot fix this issue or prevent future generations carrying the same recessive genes. For the same reasons, crossbreeding chocolate yellow labradors is also often avoided.
Show and Power Lines
As a result of specialized breeding, there are significant differences between the peripheral and the educated sampling method and show-bred labrador lines. In the United States, the former are sometimes mistakenly called “American,” and the latter as “English,” although both fields and type shows are bred in both countries. In the United Kingdom, they are called Field and Show. Dogs bred for hunting and field trials of work were selected first for working capacity, where dogs were bred to compete in the conformation of the show;
While individual dogs may vary depending on general shows, Labradors are bred harder to build, slightly shorter saturated, and have a thicker layer and tail. Field labradors are generally longer than the legs, lighter and more flexible in assembly, making them flexible. In the head, show Labradors tend to have wider heads, better defined stops, and more powerful necks, while Labradors have lighter and slightly narrower heads with long snouts. Field-bred Labradors are usually higher in energy and more excitable than the Labrador bred for conformation of the show, and the conformation of the breed is calmer than energy, and, as a result, may be more suitable for a working relationship than to be a "pet". Some breeders, especially those specializing in field type, feel that breed shows do not adequately recognize their type of dog, leading to an occasional discussion about the official division of the breed into subtypes.
In the United States, the American Kennel Club (AKC) and the Labrador Breed Club have set the breed standard to accommodate several field-bred Labrador Retriever. For example, AKC withers height standards allow the dog's conformation to be slightly higher than equivalent to the British standard. However, double champions, or dogs that excel in both places and rings, are becoming more and more unusual.