The catchment (Aquilegia) is a perennial representative of the Ranunculaceae family. He is known since Shakespeare, this author even immortalized a flower in his work "Hamlet". Thanks to the miniature, but attractive appearance, the culture is actively used to decorate the garden area.
General characteristics of the plant
The catchment in the people is also called the eagle, and in scientific circles, the plant bears a beautiful name - aquilegia. Official information indicates that the flower develops well only in the mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere, but in practice it has been proven that aquilegia is well accepted in all regions. There are more than 100 subspecies of plants, but in modern gardening only 36 varieties are cultivated.
Most often the catchment is found in blue, but there are other colors.
Externally, the catchment flower has the shape of an open bell in which rosette color plates with a peduncle are placed.
The flower plates are distinguished by long petioles, which are dissected into ternary sessile leaves. Single peduncles, which are formed from the center of the rosette plate, depending on the variety, have pink, raspberry, white, blue, purple and even mixed color, but yellow is most often found.
Under the bell-shaped plates spurs are placed - hollow outgrowths of sepals with nectar. Such "cameras" do not have only Chinese and Japanese plant varieties. Aquilegia bears fruit in small black seeds, which are located in a developing capsule - multifoliate. Seeds are poisonous, so you need to be careful with flowers when they bear fruit.
Varieties of Aquilegia
Among a wide variety of species, only a small part of this plant is cultivated in horticulture. The following types are most popular among gardeners:
- Alpine catchment (Aquilegia alpine) - a relatively short growth plant (up to 30 cm), but in some regions with the mineralization of the land, the bush can reach up to 80 cm in height. The chamomile head is painted in different shades of purple. The diameter of the leaf plate is 7-8 cm, the spur under them is a short, curved configuration. Flowering: end of June, July. Dark Aquilegia (Aquilegia atrata)
- Dark aquilegia (Aquilegia atrata) - a European plant species, reaching a height of more than 75 cm. The leaf plates are painted in a bluish hue, through which the flowers of dark purple color penetrate, 3-4 cm in diameter. Short bent spurs act as stamens. Although the flower is unpretentious to conditions, it reveals more colors when flowering in partial shade. The color head opens in late May or the first half of June. Golden-flowered catchment (Aquilegia chrysantha)
- Golden-flowered catchment (Aquilegia chrysantha)- a bright yellow flower, native to North America. At mid-latitude appeared relatively recently, but continues to gain popularity. Large flowers (95-110 cm in diameter) have long spurs. This species is characterized by high frost resistance and easily tolerates an arid climate. Skinner Aquilegia (Aquilegia skinneri)
- Skinner's Aquilegia (Aquilegia skinneri) is a native of North America. It has an unusually beautiful combined red-yellow color. Feature - high frost resistance, which contributes to reproduction in the most severe climatic conditions. The plant can withstand up to -13 ° C.
The perennial original flower collector, which has not undergone selection, is a low plant, reaching 30 cm during the growing season. But during flowering, under favorable weather conditions, it can grow up to 1 m up. Moreover, the stems can fall to the ground.
In most cases, the flower lives for 2 years. In the first year of its development, it forms a bud for a flowering shoot that is thrown away in early summer. By autumn, a small rosette of leaves forms, dying and overwintering. In the second year, last year's leaves are replaced with new ones.
Aquilegia on the flowerbed
Single flowering - one drooping flower is formed on a flexible stalk. The description of the plant will be incomplete if we do not mention that in an alpine flower the petals can have a variety of colors - white, red, yellow, raspberry, blue, as well as a combination of several flowers.
Corolla - these are 5 petals, separately located from each other. They form a kind of funnel, in which a wide hole is obliquely cut. It is noteworthy that in addition to the main petals, the flower has spurs. They are longer and narrower, bent to the stem.
Important! It is the length of these spurs, as well as the intensity of their twisting, that serves scientists to classify aquilegia.
Some varieties of aquilegia form panicles of flowers, in contrast to a single flowering plant growing in the wild.
After flowering, the fruit of aquilegia is formed. This is a many-leafed (siliculose fruit) with black shiny seeds.
Note! Plant seeds are poisonous and retain intensive germination for 1 year.
Fan-shaped (flabellata) or Akita
A species with a height of about 60 cm. The leaves are long-leaved, triple, form a basal rosette. Flowers with a diameter of 5-6 cm, on one peduncle 1-5 of them blooms. The hue of the flowers is blue-purple, along the edge there is a fuzzy white border. The species grows rapidly, resistant to cold.
The most frost-resistant species that can withstand temperatures up to –35 degrees. The plant is 0.4-0.8 m high. Flowers are 5 cm in diameter, with different variations of purple and blue. There are varieties with terry, simple flowers, with and without spurs.
Capacity and soil
The sowing capacity should be deep enough, since the root system can be prepared independently. Mix 1 part of turf, sand, leaf soil and humus. Before use, it should be disinfected with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. At the time of sowing, the soil should be moistened.
In spring, seeds should be removed from the refrigerator, washed from the ground. Pour the substrate into the container, level it, pour it over. Spread the seeds evenly on the surface. Sieve a thin layer of soil with a thickness of 3 mm on top with a strainer. Cover crops with newspaper or burlap and place in a shaded place. Shoots will appear in 1-2 weeks. When the first pair of true leaves appears, transplant the seedlings into fertilized loamy soil in separate pots.
In order for the seeds to sprout quickly, the sowing box must be placed in a room with a temperature of + 16-18 degrees. Water the soil as its top layer dries. After emergence and transplantation into individual seedling pots, it is recommended to provide a temperature of +18 degrees and diffused lighting.
Planting seedlings (terms)
On the street, seedlings can be planted when the heat is already established not lower than +15 degrees. This falls somewhere in late May - early June. But first, it is not planted in a permanent place, but for growing. Aquilegia can be transplanted to a permanent place in August or a year later, when the weather is warm.
To improve the composition of the soil on the site, you need to dig it up, add humus or compost. For 1 m³, 1 bucket of fertilizer is required.
Plant seedlings so that 10-12 flowers are placed on 1 square meter. It is better to plant low-growing types of aquilegia at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other, tall - about 40 cm. Different varieties of aquilegia in the open ground can easily become dusty from each other. To preserve the species characteristics of plants, it is recommended not to plant different varieties nearby. After planting, seedlings are best shaded from the sun so that it does not die.
Video about the rules and features of sowing aquilegia seedlings:
The best time for sowing in open ground is autumn, immediately after the collection of seeds. This enables them to undergo stratification in vivo. Due to this, in spring, seeds will sprout better. If it is not possible to carry out winter sowing, then sowing in the ground can be done in spring, as soon as the snow melts. In such cases, it is necessary to stratify the seeds at home.
Location selection and lighting
When choosing a site for sowing seeds, more attention should be paid to the quality of the soil. It should be light and nutritious. Before planting the aquilegia, you need to dig the site, add organic fertilizers. At the stage of sowing seeds, lighting does not play a big role. In subsequent shoots still have to transplant.
If sowing in open ground is carried out before winter, they do not need preliminary preparation. On a prepared bed they are carefully sown from above. Cover with a thin layer of well sifted soil, slightly watered. Then, with the help of compost or humus, the crops are mulched. In the spring, young shoots are transplanted to a permanent place.
During spring planting, seeds are recommended to be taken out with the substrate outside to allow them to cool. Sow them in the same way as for the winter. It is recommended to cover the crops on top of the film. Periodically, the film is removed and the soil is sprayed. After the appearance of these leaves, the seedlings are transplanted.
Weeding and loosening the soil
To ensure proper growth and good access of oxygen to the roots, you need to regularly loosen the soil around the bush, remove weeds. Loosening of the soil is carried out on average 2 times a month, deepening the shovel by 5-7 cm. After removing the weeds and loosening the soil, it is recommended to mulch with sawdust or conifer needles.
Fertilizer and fertilizer
In summer, basic aquilegia care must necessarily include top dressing. At the beginning of the growing season, it is useful to feed the plant with organics, for example, mullein solution (1 bucket per 1 m²), humus. After flowering is recommended to make mineral fertilizers. Based on 1 m², you need to take 50 g of superphosphate, 25 g of saltpeter, 15 g of potassium salt. In early spring and at the end of the growing season, it is recommended to sprinkle fertile soil under aquilegia bushes (for example, peat compost mixed with humus), as the roots of the plant become bare over time.
The watershed does not like transplants. Change location only in extreme cases. The older the plant, the larger and deeper its root; when digging up, there is a high risk of damaging it.
Young seedlings are transplanted to a new place after rooting. The procedure is carried out by the method of transshipment, without violating the earthen lump. When adapting to a new area, it is recommended to shade the plant from the sun and water it more often.
The easiest and most common way. The only negative is that it’s hard to get a flower from the seeds that will completely repeat the characteristics of the mother plant. Often aquilegia is mutually pollinated, the collected seed material may already be mutated. Sowing can be done directly into the soil or germinated through seedlings.
For planting take young basal rosettes. In spring or autumn, after flowering, they are separated from the mother bush, rooted. The outlet is carefully cut off directly near the soil surface. The cut site must be treated with a root stimulant. Plant the cuttings in a mixture of peat and sand to a depth of 1 cm, moisten it and condense. Before the roots appear, the substrate must be kept constantly moist. You can cover the cuttings with a film and periodically ventilate the greenhouse. They can be planted in a permanent place in August (during spring planting) or in spring (during autumn planting).
This method of reproduction is not the most popular, since aquilegia painfully responds to damage to the root system, which is possible during the procedure. When dividing the bush, the plant takes root for a very long time. The method is suitable for old, decaying bushes, which are more than 3 years old, if you need to propagate a rare variety. Dig out the bush carefully. Cut the roots with a sharp knife, leaving at least 2 buds on each dividend. Dig holes, drop off the delenki and water immediately. Until they take root, they do not need to be fed.
Landing and aquilegia care
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground immediately after harvesting or in March for seedlings after stratification of the seed, followed by planting seedlings in open ground in June.
- Bloom: June July.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: light, loose, moist, rich in humus.
- Watering: infrequent, but regular, in dry, hot weather - frequent.
- Feeding: 1-2 times per season with full mineral or organic fertilizer in liquid form.
- Reproduction: seeds, cuttings and division of the bush.
- Pests: aphids, spider mites, nematodes, scoop caterpillars.
- Disease rust, powdery mildew, gray rot.
Pest and disease protection
With excess moisture, the plant may be affected by powdery mildew and gray rot. Because of these fungal infections, the leaves and stems become whitish or grayish, twist and fall, the flower dies. Sick plants are best removed and destroyed. Spray the leaves with copper sulfate, a solution of colloidal sulfur.
Effectively deal with insects using insecticides:
Plants infected with a nematode are best destroyed. In the area where they grew, it is recommended to plant onions or garlic.
Autumn care and wintering plants, collecting seeds
After flowering, aquilegia loses its appeal. Therefore, it is recommended to cut dry, sluggish stems to the leaf outlet itself. At this time, seeds are collected for future sowing. For seed ripening, it is better to leave the lower peduncles. To prevent seeds from spilling out onto the ground, it is recommended to put gauze bags on the seed boxes. The collected seeds are dried indoors. If they are not sown immediately after collection, then they can be stored for no more than 5 years, preferably at a low temperature.
After flowering, aquilegia enters the dormant phase. She needs to ensure proper wintering. The bush is inspected and cut to a basal rosette. If a transplant is planned, divide the bush. If not, sprinkle it with mulch (peat and humus) and leave it to rest until spring. The privilege will thus be fed and be protected from winter cold.
Aquilegia flower - description
Aquilegia flowers have a two-year development cycle: in the first year, at the base of the shoot, a point of renewal arises, from which, by autumn, after flowering, a basal rosette is formed. In spring, the leaves of this rosette die off, the second generation of leaves appears, forming a rosette, from the center of which a peduncle will appear, and on it - stem leaves and flowers. Rosette leaves of aquilegia - on long petioles, twice or thrice triple-dissected, and stem - sessile, triple. The flowers of Aquilegia are single, drooping, varying in size and color depending on the species and variety: there are blue, yellow, white, raspberry, purple, two-tone flowers, as well as combining several shades.
Many species of flowers are equipped with spurs. - hollow outgrowths of petals or sepals, in which nectar accumulates. Spur species include European and American types of aquilegia - Alpine, ferruginous, Olympic and ordinary, as well as blue, Canadian, Skinner, golden and California aquilegia. In Japanese and Chinese species of aquilegia, flowers without spurs. The fruit of aquilegia is many-leafed, small shiny black poisonous seeds retain viability for about a year.
Growing aquilegia from seeds
How to grow aquilegia from seeds? It is best to sow aquilegia in the ground immediately after collecting seeds, and in the spring, when seedlings appear, transplant them to a permanent place. But if you have to postpone the sowing until spring, then the seed is stored at a low temperature.
So that during winter the seeds of aquilegia do not lose their germination, they are mixed with the ground and placed in the refrigerator.
In spring, in March, the seeds are washed from the ground, sown in boxes with a well-compacted and watered light substrate of humus, sand and sheet soil in equal proportions. On top of the spread seeds, through a fine sieve, pour a 3 mm layer of soil and cover the box with newspaper or burlap. Keep containers with crops in a shaded room at a temperature of 16-18 ºC, moistening the topsoil from the spray gun as necessary. Sprouts usually appear in a week or two from the day of sowing. When the first pair of true leaves appears - usually this happens in late April or early May - seedlings are transplanted into more nutritious loamy soil.
When to plant aquilegia
Aquilegia sprouts are planted in open ground in June, but not for a permanent place, but for growing. Be sure to shade the young plants from the scorching sun. Strengthened and grown young aquilegia are planted in the place where they will grow for several years in August or next spring. A place for planting matured aquilegia can be located in partial shade, and in the sun. In brightly lit areas, their flowering period is somewhat shorter, and the flowers are smaller and weaker than those instances that grow in partial shade. Aquilegia grown from seeds blooms in the second year, and reaches full growth in the third.
How to plant aquilegia
Aquilegia - a plant is undemanding to soils, but nevertheless it grows better on loose, light, moist humus soils. To improve the composition of the soil, dig it before planting the aquilegia with humus or compost at the rate of one bucket of fertilizer per 1 m³. Digging depth is approximately 20 cm. Aquilegia is planted in such a way that 10-12 plants are located on one square meter, depending on the variety or species. Tall forms of aquilegia planted at a distance of 40 cm from each other, undersized - at a distance of 25 cm.
Keep in mind that aquilegia has the ability to sprinkle seeds into the soil, so be prepared to fight self-seeding.
But some gardeners allow plants to grow self-seeding, because after 5-6 years, when the bushes you planted grow old and lose their decorativeness, they can be dug up, leaving independently grown young plants in the flower bed.
Combination with other plants
Aquilegia is used in landscape design in a variety of ways. Looks good flower beds, decorated with different varieties of plants. Picturesque composition of the catchment with other colors.
Low-growing varieties are best planted with:
Low aquilegia are more suitable for the design of alpine slides, rabatok.
High views are best combined with:
Video from which you can find out more useful information about the nuances of cultivating aquilegia in the open ground:
How to care for aquilegia
As usual, the main care for aquilegia is watering, fertilizing, loosening and weeding the soil around the plant during the period of active growth. Aquilegia loves to drink, but since its root system goes deep into the earth, it rarely suffers from a lack of moisture, except in severe drought. Remove weeds on time, especially while the shoots are young and low, loosen the soil after irrigation or rain so that moisture does not evaporate from the surface layer of the soil quickly and feed aquilegia so that it takes its best shape. Fertilize areas with aquilegia twice a summer: mineral fertilizers at the beginning of active growth - 50 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium salt and 25 g of saltpeter per 1 m² and non-concentrated solution of mullein at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 m². Two top dressing in the summer is quite enough.
In addition to the seed method for propagation of aquilegia in floriculture, vegetative ones are also used - by the method of dividing the bush and cuttings.
Bush division use only in extreme cases when it is necessary to preserve some particularly valuable form or variety. The fact is that the root system of aquilegia lies very deep, and fragile roots do not tolerate the transplant and division procedure. If you still had to resort to this method, select a bush of 3-5 years of age in early spring or early autumn, dig it out very carefully so as not to damage the small roots, wash them off the ground, cut off all the shoots at a height of 5-7 cm and all leaves, except the two or three youngest, then cut the stem root in half so that on each half there are two or three buds of renewal and several small roots, sprinkle with crushed charcoal on the incision and plant the delenia in boxes with a light but nutritious soil mixture . Most likely, they will be sick for a long time.
Aquilegia propagation by cuttings to carry out much easier. In the spring, until the leaves have blossomed, a young shoot of aquilegia is cut “with a heel”, the lower end is treated with Kornevin and planted in a greenhouse or in the ground, but under a plastic bottle in loose soil, and preferably in river sand somewhere in a place shaded from the sun . It is necessary to water the stalk without removing the shelter, which for ventilation can only be removed in ten days. It takes about 3-4 weeks to root, after which the stem is dug up and transplanted to a permanent place.
Types and varieties of aquilegia
Natural types of aquilegia can be divided into three large groups:
- European - ring-shaped or hook-shaped spur. Representatives: aquilegia vulgaris, alpine, ferruginous, Siberian, darkweed, acrid, etc.
- American - a long, straight spur. Representatives: aquilegia blue, Canadian, elegant, beautiful, etc.
- Japanese and Chinese - no spur.
The total number of catchment species found in nature ranges from 75, according to some, and up to 100 according to others. Most often, on the personal plots you can find the following types of plants:
Aquilegia vulgaris (lat.Aquilegia vulgaris). It differs in blue, violet or white bell-shaped flowers on long petioles and bluish ternate leaves growing from the root. The average height of aquilegia vulgaris is about 60 cm. The most common varieties of the species can be called:
- "Nivea" (Nivea) - a tall plant with light green leaves and snow-white flowers, decorated with a short twisted spur.
- “Granny’s Bonnet” (Grandma’s bonnet) - original purple flowers with lots of petals.
- "William Guinness" (William Guinness) - unusual black and purple flowers with bright edges.
Fan-shaped Aquilegia (lat.Aquilegia flabellata). Along with the common is one of the most common decorative species. This is a medium-sized (from 15 to 50 cm) herbaceous plant with leaves collected in a compact rosette and abundantly flowering peduncles. The main varieties and series:
- "Cameo" (Cameo). A series represented by many different varieties of varieties - “Cameo Blue”, “Cameo White”, “Cameo Rose”, “Cameo Blush”. A short (about 15 cm) compact plant with a dense leaf rosette and large flowers on elongated peduncles, painted, depending on the variety, in white, pink, blue or purple. There are two-tone varieties: Cameo Pink and White, Cameo Blue and White, etc.
- Georgia (Georgia), Flor> A. Cameo Blue and White, A. Cameo Rose and White, A. Louisiana
Skinner Aquilegia or Mexican (lat. Aquilegia skinneri). High (up to 100 cm), ornamental plant with flowers painted in shades of red, yellow and orange. Hairy, gray-green leaves grow, mainly from the root, on long petioles.
Aquilegia glandular (lat.Aquilegia glandulosa). A species common in Western and Eastern Siberia and Altai. Blue or white flowers can be either single or collected in inflorescences. The maximum height of the plant is 60 cm.
Aquilegia Canadian (lat. Aquilegia canadensis). Medium-sized (up to 50 cm) grassy appearance with dark green leaves and erect flowers with yellow-scarlet petals.
Dark Aquilegia (lat.Aquilegia atrata). A species close to ordinary aquilegia, but with smaller flowers of a rich violet-burgundy hue on long peduncles. Reaches a height of 70 cm.
Aquilegia Olympic (lat.Aquilegia olympica). The flowers resembling a daffodil are painted in cream-purple or, less commonly, cream-pink hues.
A. glandular, A. Canadian, A. Olympic
Recently, hybrid forms of catchment, bred by crossing European and North American species, have become widespread among gardeners. Currently, a huge number of hybrids, forms and varieties of aquilegia are known. Many of them have been awarded the prestigious Royal Horticultural Society Award (Award of Garden Merit):
Starlight Aquilegia (Aquilegia vulgaris var. Stellata). It is a hybrid of ordinary aquilegia. This is an erect tall (70-90 cm) plant with ternary dissected leaves and double flowers, consisting of many narrow petals. Currently, several series of varieties of stellate watershed have been developed:
- “Barlow” (Barlow series) - “Black Barlow”, “White Barlow”, “Nora Barlow”. A star-like hybrid of aquilegia vulgaris, which is an upright tall (70-90 cm) plant with ternary dissected leaves and double flowers, consisting of many narrow petals. The shade of flowers, depending on the variety, varies from white and pale pink to deep dark purple.
- "Ruby Port" (Ruby Port). Another representative of the star hybrid, reaching 75 cm in height with spectacular, ruby-red, double flowers.
- "Green Apples" (Green Apple). Large double flowers with white petals, painted at the base in a greenish tint.
Aquilegia dwarf (Aquilegia flabellata var. Pumila). Hybrid fan-shaped catchment, characterized by compactness and low (up to 15 cm) growth. Bluish triple-divided leaves grow from the root, bright bell-shaped inflorescences are located on high pedicels. The following varieties of dwarf aquilegia can be noted:
- "Alba" (Alba) - compact undersized bush with snow-white flowers.
- "Atlantis" (Atlantis) - a low plant with flowers painted in two shades: purple-blue and cream in the center.
- “Ministar” (Little Star) is a variety similar to the previous one, but with larger flowers.
Aquilegia in landscape design
As noted above, not so long ago, aquilegia again entered fashion and became widespread. Designers began to widely use the beautifully flowering representative of the kingdom of Flora, including her in landscape compositions, both individually and in whole groups. This is not surprising, because the watershed looks great both as a bright accent and as filling a large area. Moreover, a wide selection of varieties and colors of the flower allows you to create a gentle, airy glades, and exotic, attracting attention, corners.
The universality of aquilegia allows you to land it in the most diverse ensembles in style: strict, romantic, natural.
! Aquilegia has the ability to grow throughout the free area. It is necessary to control its reproduction and remove wild-growing specimens in time.
Partners of aquilegia in landscape compositions can be a variety of plants. Their choice depends on the height of the catchment variety. For example, other large perennials are well suited to medium-tall and tall species: iris, hosta, fern, bell, dicenter. They can be planted in mixborders and rabatki, as well as draw up the shady banks of ponds. Low-growing species look good in rock gardens, and in addition, in this case, gentian and a stonebreaker should be used.
In addition, undersized aquilegia, such as the Cameo fan-shaped catchment, are often planted both in open ground and in dishes: drawers and pots. Such a landing has become widespread in Japan, where not only gardens and household plots, but also urban spaces are decorated with aquilegia.
Orlik is rarely used in cutting, as it is relatively briefly stored in water, but aquilegia is ideal for a panel of dried flowers: even when dried, the flowers retain the brightness of the color.
Aquilegia: outdoor planting and care
It must be borne in mind that ordinary aquilegia blooms for 2 years. Flowers are intensively thrown from the beginning of June to the beginning of August.
Aquilegia has become quite often used in the design of flower beds and lawns. If you choose the right height of the plant, you can arrange it with alpine landscape hills. It is most suitable for mixing with other plants. After all, its natural distribution area is mountainous regions. Therefore, you just need to pay attention to companion plants - and the result will surprise and please even the most demanding aesthetes.
As for tall plants, they look better when planted heaped in one place. It is not necessary to plant aquilegia in a row, since high representatives of this genus can simply fill up flower stalks from strong winds or heavy rainfall.
Tall aquilegia combined with other colors
The main thing is to choose the right variety and then the flowers of a certain color, shape and size will be able to decorate any flower bed. Including you need to pay attention to the height of the peduncle so that he does not drown out his neighbors and does not get lost among them.
The catchment, of course, stands out among the other inhabitants of the garden, for its unique biological properties:
- Aquilegia is considered a perennial, although, strictly speaking, it is more likely to be a perennial: the decorative qualities of the plant last no more than 5 years. Then the bush grows and splits into several small specimens. That is why, every 4-5 years, the old watersheds must be updated, replacing the young ones.
- The catchment has a two-year development cycle. In the first year after planting, only a basal rosette of leaves is formed. Individual peduncles appear in the second year of the plant's life, and mass flowering begins only in the third year.
- The flowering time of most varieties of aquilegia is about a month, and the flowering time is June – early July.
- Almost all types of catchment have high frost resistance and do not need shelter. The exception is species whose natural environment is subtropics (aquilegia Mexican, Olympic). However, such types of catchment are not common in our country.
In order to create the best conditions for aquilegia, it is worth following a few simple recommendations.
The catchment is able to grow in almost any area - both in the shade and in the sun, however, the partial location for the plant is partial shade. In bright sunshine, flowers can lose their brightness, and a lack of light will provoke a decrease in the number of peduncles.
The soil for the catchment is also not very important, but it would be better to use a loose, water- and breathable, organic-rich substrate. To enrich poor soils before planting aquilegia, you can make a small amount of compost, digging the soil well to a depth of at least 30 cm.
Aquilegia seeds can be planted in autumn or spring, and planting in autumn is preferable - the seeds undergo natural stratification. In the case of spring sowing, before planting, they must be stratified in the refrigerator for at least a month.
! For planting, you need to take only fresh seeds that have good germination, whose age is no more than a year.
There are several ways to plant a catchment seed:
- In the fall, in the open ground. Seeds are sown in late September - early October directly to the flower bed, and germinate the next year in May – June. It is important not to forget where the aquilegia is sown and not to weed it together with weeds.
- In the fall, in containers. Sowing is carried out in early October in seedlings that are dug in the open ground flush with the ground. In mid-June, shoots should appear, which later can be transplanted to a permanent place.
- In the spring in the open ground. In this case, the seeds are planted at a time when the weather is already quite warm (mid-May).
- In spring in containers. After stratification in mid-March, the seeds are placed in a container with soil and germinated in a warm room. After 2-3 weeks, the first seedlings will appear, and after 2-3 leaves grow seedlings must be carefully peaked.
Whatever method you choose, you must adhere to some general rules. Depth of landing should be not more than 0.5-1 cm, and air temperature - not less than not less than 18 ° С. If the seeds are sown in boxes or pots, they should be high: aquilegia has a long rod root. In addition, immediately before sowing, the substrate must be carefully spilled with water, and then slightly moistened in the future.
! Excess moisture should be avoided, as young shoots of aquilegia are susceptible to decay and may become ill with a “black leg”.
Aquilegia landing, watering, top dressing
Aquilegia seedlings grown from seeds are planted in open ground not earlier than mid-May, after stable warm weather is established. The area of the flower bed, in this case, is calculated based on the size of the plant. Low-growing species are planted at a distance of 20 cm from each other, higher - up to 35 cm. In general, there should be no more than 12 plants per square meter. Planted young aquilegia should be abundantly watered.
Further watering the catchment depends only on the weather. If the summer is cool and rainy, you do not need to water the plant additionally. In the case of hot sunny summers, you can water aquileg every two weeks.
! Thanks to the long root, aquilegia is able to get all the necessary moisture from the soil.
Aquilegia does not need special feeding. Only at the beginning of spring, before laying buds and flowering, can the plant be fed with nitrogen or complex fertilizers.
Subsequent care consists in periodically weeding the plant and loosening the soil after irrigation or rain.
Aquilegia care after flowering, seed picking, wintering
After the catchment has faded, the peduncles should be removed. This is done not only for aesthetic purposes, but also to limit self-seeding. The fact is that aquilegia willingly propagates by seeds, while pollinating and forming new hybrids. For gardens in a natural, romantic style, this effect will look good, but in strict landscape compositions this is inappropriate. Peduncles are cut to a leafy rosette, while the leaves themselves do not need to be touched: their elegant openwork will adorn the site until the frosts.
If desired, the seeds can be collected for further propagation, leaving peduncles for ripening fruits. At the same time, for the purity of the variety, pollination can be carried out independently with a soft brush.
Special shelter for winter aquilegia is not required: most flower species and varieties are frost-resistant. The exception is only adult (4-5-year-old) specimens whose roots begin to protrude from the ground and may freeze in the cold season. In this case, they can be covered with a small amount of peat or dry foliage.
Aquilegia Diseases and Pests
Diseases that most often affect aquilegia are associated with low temperature in combination with high humidity and, as a result, the occurrence of various rot. This is mainly gray rot and powdery mildew. Fungicidal drugs will help to overcome the infection at an early stage. If the disease has spread, you will have to remove the affected plants.
Of the pests, the most dangerous for the catchment are aphids, spider mites, moth caterpillars and gall nematodes. Small insect colonies can be destroyed with the help of folk remedies: decoctions of onions, garlic, tobacco, etc. If there are too many pests, modern chemicals - insecticides (Actellik, Karbofos, Rogor) will come to the rescue.
Of course, aquilegia looks great in the garden. Add to this its unpretentiousness, frost resistance and ability to grow without transplantation for several years - and here is one of the best decorative crops, suitable for growing in a temperate climate. Plant a catchment on your personal plot and admire the unusual bright colors of the mysterious beauty.
Aquilegia pests and diseases
Of the diseases affecting aquilegia, powdery mildew, gray rot and rust should be called. Parts of the plant affected by gray rot must be removed and burned, just like leaves covered with rust stains. But if gray preparations cannot be cured with any preparations, then rust can be controlled by spraying with sulfur-containing preparations or a soap solution with copper sulfate.
But most often, aquilegia is sick powdery mildew - a white fungal coating appears on the leaves and stems, under which the leaves curl, turn brown and die. To get rid of the fungus, it is necessary to spray the plants with a solution of colloidal sulfur with green soap.
Of the insects, the enemies of aquilegia are aphids, spider mites, scoops and nematodes. Against aphids and spider mites, Actellik preparations, yarrow paste and Karbofos have proven themselves well.
But with nematodes it is very difficult to fight and often in the end you just have to change the site, and plant those plants that are not afraid of nematodes - onions, cereals, garlic - on the affected flower bed. Sick plants burn.
Aquilegia after flowering
When the aquilegia fades, decorative stems are cut to the very rosette of leaves. Parts of healthy plants can be used for compost, and diseased specimens need to be burned to prevent contamination of soil and other plants. If you want to try the seed propagation method, leave the peduncles with the flowers of the varieties you need to ripen the seeds, wearing gauze bags on the fruit to avoid self-seeding. After flowering, you can do dividing the bush and at the same time planting plants. At the same time, in September-October, they sow seeds in the winter.
Aquilegia in winter
There is another type of work that needs to be done after flowering aquilegia. The fact is that in four to five-year-old plants roots begin to bulge out of the ground, which causes young leaves and shoots to suffer, therefore, after removing the peduncle, add peat compost with humus under the bush to cover these roots. Thus, aquilegia will be fed during the winter and at the same time will be protected from mulch frost.
Plant a lupine in the garden - a beautiful flower and siderat
Fan-shaped aquilegia (Aquilegia flabellata)
Or aquilegia akita, a plant up to 60 cm tall with ternary long-leaved leaves of a basal rosette, with flowers 5-6 cm in diameter with long, strongly bent spurs. Flowers on a peduncle from one to five, they are blue-lilac in color with a white fuzzy border on the edge. This type of aquilegia is winter-hardy, grows well, because it gives self-seeding,
The European species is 40-80 cm tall with flowers 5 cm in diameter in different shades of blue and purple, but in culture usually cultivate numerous varieties of this species of aquilegia with flowers of various colors, simple, double, with spurs or spurless. This is the most frost-resistant type of aquilegia - can withstand up to -35 ºC,
Hybrid Aquilegia (Aquilegia hybrida)
Which combines the various forms obtained most often from the crossing of American species with ordinary aquilegia. In height, depending on the variety, it grows from 50 cm to 1 m. Spurs for hybrids of different lengths, there are also non-spurs varieties, flowers are large, up to 9 cm in diameter, both simple and double,
Dark Aquilegia (Aquilegia atrata)
European appearance 30-80 cm high with bluish leaves and dark lilac drooping flowers 3-4 cm in diameter, short bent spurs and protruding stamens. It blooms in late May and early June. Loves partial shade. It is the basic species for breeding varieties with dark flowers. Looks good in flower arrangements and in cut,
How long does the aquilegia bloom
Under favorable conditions, a suitable amount of sunlight, the proper level of humidity - this plant is able to delight the eye with its delicate and sophisticated flowers almost throughout the summer.
Note! But it is worth remembering that the hotter and more sunlight, the flowers become smaller, and the flowering period is significantly reduced.
If you want aquilegia to give intense flowering, then you should take care of planting and care in the open ground according to the following rules:
- better to choose partial shade. Otherwise, in heavily lit areas, the flowers will be smaller in size, and the flowering period may be reduced to 1 month,
- the soil should be moderately moist. To do this, water the plants as the topsoil dries. It is also worth taking care of timely loosening - this will ensure the necessary flow of oxygen into the soil. In order for the soil to become light, as aquilegia likes, it is necessary to add humus to it. Top dressing is carried out with standard mineral supplements suitable for flowering plants.
Terry aquilegia is an unusual plant variety, which is distinguished by the largest flowers, reaching a diameter of 10 cm. It was bred artificially in order to diversify the flowers and achieve a certain effect.
A distinctive feature is multi-petalism. The flower itself is formed from narrow petals arranged in several rows. If we talk about coloring, the color intensity decreases as you approach the center. Shades can range from white to lilac.
On the leaves of a plant of this variety there is a specific bluish plaque.
Note! With the deduction of the terry aquilegia, breeders managed to achieve higher frost resistance. This makes it possible to grow a plant of this variety in more northern regions than its natural distribution area.
This is what ensured the great popularity of the variety among gardeners.
The name itself indicates that breeders have worked to improve both the shape and size of the flower, and the versatility of its color. Breeders managed to achieve such results thanks to the crossing of the watershed of the Alpine and American plant varieties.
The aquilegia hybrid is tall - shoots can reach 1 m in height. And the flowers themselves are quite large - up to 10 cm in diameter. If we talk about the number of flower petals of this variety, they can be standard - 5 main and 5 spurs. In other varieties of the variety, the number of petals can be significantly larger and form a double or fan-shaped flower.
The most common color options are a combination of white with blue or red. Plain stain of a peduncle is also common.
Important! If you want to get a plentiful flowering hat on your flowerbed or lawn, then you should choose hybrid aquilegia, since they are distinguished by abundant simultaneous flowering, which lasts quite a long time.
Also, this variety is suitable for growing it in more northern regions than it usually grows - it is quite frost-resistant and unpretentious in care.
The habitual distribution area of this flower falls on the European part of the Eurasian continent.
It differs in height, ranging from 30 to 70 cm - depending on the conditions that exist in a particular region or season.
The main part of the leaves of the variety are located at the base of the petiole and much less often the leaves are found along the length of the stem. They are twice triple, with a slight bluish bloom.
Note! Flowers of this variety are distinguished by the fact that they have a small variety of color petals. Most often these are blue, purple and pink shades.
If we talk about the size of the peduncle - then it is quite average in size. Only 4, maximum 5 cm in diameter. As for the number of petals, they can be standard and include 5 main and 5 spurs. In other variations there are terry flowers.
Important! This variety can tolerate frosts quite long in time and with temperatures up to -35 ° C. Therefore, it can be planted even in those regions where winter temperatures are quite extreme or in areas that are high above sea level.
It is all of the above characteristics of this variety of aquilegia that make growing and caring for it quite easy.
It is most often used to decorate the garden when decorating landscaping, for interiors (as balcony flowers) or as a potted flower.
A distinctive feature of Winky's aquilegia is a fairly compact bush, reaching a height of no more than 20-30 cm.
At the end of the stem, 20 cm long, there is one flower, which most often represents terry combinations of petals, complemented by spurs. Coloring varies from solid petal options to a combination of several shades.
Such aquilegia at the cottage allows you to quite effectively design not only flower beds, but also the facade of the building, as designers suggest planting it in hanging pots.
Another perennial hybrid of the plant is the Aquilegia variety Yellow. Its distinctive feature is the golden flowers of a monochromatic color, which have a fairly standard form inherent in the wild catchment.
This species is popular in North America, but, recently, it is becoming more and more popular among domestic gardeners. This is due to the fact that bright flowers of a saturated yellow hue begin to bloom quite early and continue to thrive abundantly peduncles throughout the summer.
As for the growing regions, it feels best in regions with a temperate continental climate.
Skinner Aquilegia (Aquilegia skinneri)
Originally from North America, winter-hardy (up to -12 ºC). Flowers drooping, red-yellow, spurs straight.
In addition to the listed types of aquilegia, which are of interest among flower growers, such varieties are cultivated in culture as ostrochemilica aquilegia, small-flowered aquilegia, two-color aquilegia, Bertoloni aquilegia, ferruginous aquilegia, some Siberian aquilegia, and other Siberian aquilegia.
Aquilegia of Columbine
It is a perennial with a compact, but rather tall bush - up to about 70 cm. The variety is cold-resistant, which makes it, as well as the Aquilegia Normal, suitable for cultivation in Siberian regions.
A distinctive feature of Columbine's aquilegia is a more elongated flower shape, resembling a bell-shaped bowl. Shades of petals can vary from the lightest (white) to deep dark purple.
White watersheds look quite spectacular. They can become a real decoration of the garden, especially in combination with other flowers of a brighter color.
There are several varieties of Belaya aquilegia, such as Snow Queen, Tower white, White Star.
Note! Each of the varieties has a fairly long flowering period. Some of them can be planted in Siberia or in the Urals due to their rather efficient growth and frost resistance.
If we talk in general about how to care for this kind of aquilegia, then it is as unpretentious as everyone else. The main thing is to choose the right time in order to sow seeds or plant seedlings. And also provide suitable conditions for moisture and soil quality
Variety aquilegia Alpine - a small plant. In height, it rarely reaches more than 40 cm. True, if it is artificially created to create the most comfortable conditions for growth and regular fertilizing, then flower stalks up to 80 cm high can be driven out. True, most often the plant is quite stunted.
The peak flowering in this variety occurs in early June, late July. The flower is ordinary in shape. Unpretentious to the conditions.
But all the same, aquilegia will require specific care after flowering. In order to rejuvenate the bush, it must be transplanted until it is 2 years old. Otherwise, you can damage the root system of the flower. It is also important to maintain an attractive appearance, to rejuvenate the plant. This can be done if you cut down a faded peduncle.
Important! After seven years, the plant fades. It ceases to give color, the leaves become small and inconspicuous. Therefore, a cardinal rejuvenation of old bushes is required by planting new flowers.
Varieties that are annuals need to be planted annually.
Summarizing all of the above, it is worth noting that in landscape design the aquilegia of Colombian, Biedermeier, Hybrid, Clementine and Terry are most popular. These are ideal plants for mixborders, alpine lawns. Due to their unpretentiousness, they easily take root, do not require intensive care and frequent feeding. But, nevertheless, it is desirable that the plant be provided with partial shade - so the flowers achieve the most attractive appearance and large size. In this case, it is also possible to achieve longer flowering.